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REGIONAL GEOGRAPHIES OF 
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



ILLINOIS 




DOUGLAS C RIDGLEY 



MitWWWUWOHUMiW 1 




Sauk Valley College 

in Memory of 

Oscar Lindquist 
1975 



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PniNTCO IN V.SJk. 



Regional Geographies of the United States 
of America 

EDITED BY J. PAUL GOODE 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



THE BAKER AND TAYLOR COMPANY 



THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA 

TOKYO, OSAKA, KYOTO, KUKUOKA, SENDAI 

THE MISSION BOOK COMPANY 



HE GEOGRAPHY OF 
ILLINOIS 



¥i 



By 

DOUGLAS C. RIDGLEY 




THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

SAUK VALLEY COLLEGE 
LRC 43584 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

The geography of lUinois as a state has received treatment 
in the past only in the state supplements of the geography text- 
books. A large amount of material bearing directly on the 
geography of the state has been published, however, in 
numerous bulletins and reports of the various state depart- 
ments as indicated in the bibliography given in this volume. 
The geography of selected areas has been presented in full 
detail in the educational bulletins of the State Geological 
Survey. The reader will find among the references listed in 
the bibliography a wealth of material with which to continue 
a study of the state and its resources as fully as may be desired. 

This volume attempts to present the geography of Illinois 
as a whole so that the reader may appreciate the resources of 
the state and understand how man has used them. The 
natural features and natural resources of the state are treated 
in some detail. The great occupations of mankind — agri- 
culture, mining, manufacturing, transportation, and trade- 
are discussed with sufficient fulness to give an adequate idea 
of their development and present importance within the state. 
The population census of 1920 for Illinois is treated in a final 
chapter. The book is designed to be of interest to the busy 
citizen who wishes to know his state as a unit in its present- 
day activities; to teachers and pupils who would know Illinois 
well enough to interpret other regions in comparison with the 
home state; to all who wish to learn the reasons for the high 
rank of Illinois in many lines of human endeavor. 

Copy for the maps and graphs was prepared and the 
pictures selected by Miss Eunice R. Blackburn under the 
direction of Dr. Goode, the editor. The Index is the work of 
Miss Mabel Crompton. 

The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to the 
various departments of the state government, the local United 
States Weather Bureau office at Springfield, the Agricultural 
College of the University of Illinois, and the Bureau of the 



viii AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

United States Census for recent data furnished for use in the 
various chapters. Numerous maps, graphs, and recent facts 
of the volume are due to their cordial interest and co-operation. 

Acknowledgment is also due to Mr. Robert Ridgway for 
the use of photographs of southern Illinois which he has 
accumulated through a long series of years; to Dr. Wellington 
D. Jones for the use of photographs gathered in his field studies 
of northeastern Illinois; to the Keystone View Co. for photo- 
graphs taken throughout the state; and to numerous friends 
who have contributed through photograph, or letter, or 
personal conference to the preparation of the volume. 

The work has been prepared under the guidance and 
direction of Dr. J. Paul Goode, editor of the series of "Regional 
Geographies of the United States of America," of which this is 
the first volume to appear. His kindly assistance and helpful 
advice in the preparation of the manuscript are gratefully 
acknowledged. 

Douglas C. Ridgley 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 

List of Illustrations 



I. The Illinois Country 
II. Geology 

III. The Glacial Period 

IV. Surface and Drainage 
V. Weather and Climate 

VI. Native Vegetation 

VII. Native Animals . 

VIII, Native People 

IX. The Coming of the White Man 

X. The Soil and Its Conservation 

XI. Agriculture 

XII. Animal Industries 

XIII. Mineral Resources 

XIV. Manufacturing . 
XV. Transportation . 

XVI. Location and Growth of Cities 

XVII. Chicago and Other Cities of the 
XVIII. Cities of the Illinois Basin 

XIX. Other Cities of Illinois 
XX. Government. 

XXI. Education . 
XXII. Illinois in 1920 
Appendix . 
Index 



Lake 



Basin 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAOE 

Map of Illinois Territory ...... 2 

Kaskaskia Island ........ 2 

Map Showing the Boundary Line in Lake Michic-^n . 3 
Relief Map of the United States, Illinois in the Great 

Plain ......... 5 

Map Showing the Illinois Area in Four Places in the 

United States ........ 7 

Equivalent Areas of the Smaller Countries of Europe 

Shown on Map of Illinois ..... 8 
Base Lines and Principal Meridians for Illinois and 

Indiana ......... 9 

Congressional Township with Sections .... 10 

M.'VP OF Illinois with Counties Numbered ... 12 

La Salle Anticline at Utica, La Salle County . 18 

Columnar Section from Geologic Map of Illinois, 1917 18 

Geologic Map of Illinois .... facing 18 

La Salle Anticline at Lawrenceville, Lawrence County 19 

Map of Hardin and Pope Counties, Showing Faults . 19 

Deer Park Canyon, Deer Park, La Salle County . . 20 

Limestone Quarry, Thornton, Cook County ... 21 

French Canyon, Starved Rock State Park ... 22 

Drainage Canal at Romeo, Will County .... 23 

Continental Glaciation in North America as Related 

to Illinois ........ 26 

Glacial Drift in Valparaiso Moraine .... 27 

MoRAiNAL System of Wisconsin Gl.\ciation in Illinois . 28 
Driftless Area, Terminal Mor.a.ine, Ground Moraine 

facing 28 

South over Des Plaines Outlet ..... 33 

Lake Stages ......... 34 

Clay Pit in Side of Blue Island, Cook County . . 36 

View near Tunnel Hill, Johnson County ... 38 

Typical Flat Plain, Bluffs, and Bold Relief . facing 38 
"Big Four" Railroad Tunnel, Tunnel Hill, Johnson 

County . . . . . . . . .39 

Photograph of Relief Model of Illinois ... 40 

Drainage Basins of Illinois ...... 41 

Drainage Map of Lake Michigan Basin in Illinois . . 43 

Calumet River, South of Lake Calumet, Cook County . 44 
Sag Outlet and Slope of Mount Forest Island, Cook 

County ......... 45 

Rock River near Oregon, Ogle County .... 47 



xu 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

Illinois River from Summit of Starved Rock ... 50 
Illinois River \'allky, Looking East from Star\ed Rock 

State Park . . . . .51 

Vermilion River .at Deer Park, La Salle County . .51 
Dredge Boat Used in Building Levees in Illinois River 

Swamps ......... 54 

Mississippi Flood Pl.a.in and Rocky Bluffs, Jackson County 57 

Physical Map of the Ozarks ...... 61 

Typical View of the Ozark Hills, about Three Miles 

West of Eddy^ville, Pope County . . .62 

The Ozark Region ...... facing 62 

Country Home among the Ozarks near Tunnel Hill, 

Johnson County ....... 63 

Paths of Highs and Lows in the United States . . 67 

Changes IN Temperature. ...... 68 

Average Monthly Precipitation of State as a Whole . 69 

Ice in Ohio River .at Cairo, December, 1917 ... 70 

Temperature Departure from Normal .... 71 

D.aily Vari.ation in Temperature for One Year . 72, 73 

We.\ther Bure.au Stations of Illinois .... 74 

Instrument Shelter and Rain G.^uge, Ponti.\c, Livingston 

County ......... 75 

Weather Conditions in Northern Division ... 76 

We.\ther Conditions in Centr.al Division ... 76 

Weather Conditions in Southern Division ... 77 

Frost Seasons for Selected Stations .... 79 

Average Annual Snowfall ...... 81 

Vegetation Weighed Down with Winter Snow at Cor- 
nell, Livingston County ...... 81 

Normal Precipitation ....... 82 

Rainfall for Selected Stations ..... 83 

R.\iNFALL OF State for 1915 ...... 84 

Paths of Torn.\does ....... 86 

Ice Weighing Down Trees at W.werly, Morgan County 88 

Ruins after Tornado at Melrose P.ark, Cook County 90 

Rook's Creek, Livingston County ..... 91 

Vegetation M.ap of Illinos ...... 92 

Luxuriant Vine and Tree Growth in Former Virgin 

Forest of the Lower Wabash near Mount Carmel 93 
Rocks Covered with Ferns and Lichens, Johnson 

County near Tunnel Hill ..... 94 

Squared White-Oak Timber Being Shipped from Mount 

Carmel to England for Construction of British 

N.AVY 94 

Isolated Rock in Woods near Tunnel Hill, Johnson 

County ......... 95 

Native Illinois Forest near Mount Carmel, Wabash 

County ......... 96 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xiii 



Steel Bridge on Cairo Division of "Big Four" Railroad at 

Glen Fern, Johnson County .... 
View Showing Recent Natural Reforestation in South 

ern Illinois ....... 

View Looking up Flood Plain of Wabash River from 

Top of Bluff at Mount Carmel 
Landscape View among the Ozarks near Tunnel Hill 

Johnson County .... 

View in Virgin Forest of Lower Wabash, Showing 

Luxuriant Vine Growth ..... 
Rocks at Glen Fern, Johnson County 
The Eagle's Nest near Oregon, Ogle County 
"Bird Haven," a Tree and Bird Preserve near Olney 

Richland County ..... 
Buffalo in Lincoln Park, Chicago . 
American Red Deer, State Museum, Springfield 
Illinois River and Valley from Starved Rock State 

Park, Looking West .... 
Starved Rock as Seen from Illinois River 
LoRADo Taft's Famous Statue "Black Hawk" at Oregon 

Ogle County ...... 

Population Density in Successive Years 

Map Showing Counties with Soil Reports, 1918 

Pot Culture Laboratory for Investigations in Soil 

Fertility, University of Illinois, Urbana 
Soil Map of Illinois ..... facing 

Soil Treatment in Four Counties . 
Map of Illinos, Showing Experiment Fields 
Counties Having Farm Advisers, 1918 
Diagram of Urbana Experiment Field 
Crop Values, Bloomington Experiment Field 
Crop Yields on Illinois Soils as Influenced by Scientific 

Agriculture ...... 

Wheatfield on Poorland Farm, Marion County 
Average Production per Square Mile of Cereals, Forage, 

AND Animals ...... 

Farmer's Wife Plowing with a Tr,\ctor . 

Corn Crop of the United States and of Illinois 

Tall Corn and Sunflower, Richland County . 

Oat Crop of the United States and of Illinois 

Spring Plowing on Farm, Dupage County 

Oat Field, Showing the Prairie 

Wheat Crop of the United States and of Illinois 

Harvest Scene on Rock River near Oregon, Ogle 

County . . . . . . 

H.\y and Forage of Illinois .... 

A Primitive Molasses Factory, Richland County 
Primitive Cane-grinding Mill for Making Sorghum 

Molasses, Richland County 177 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Potato Crop of the United States and of Illinois . 

Map Showing Varieties of Vegetables . 

A Southern Illinois Rhubarb Field, Massac County 

Market Gardens, Cook County .... 

Gathering Kiefer Pears, Olney, Richland County 

Map Showing Principal Fruit Crops 

Strawberry Field in Southern Illinois, Showing Pickers 

at Work, Massac County ..... 
Distribution Map of Principal Animals in Illinois 
Animal Husbandry Class Judging Percheron Horses 

University of Illinois ..... 
Plowing with Percheron Horses, Normal University 

Farm, Normal, McLean County 
Map Showing Distribution of Cattle in Illinois and in 

the United States ...... 

Dairy Cattle, Hogs, and Dairy Barns on Illinois St.ate 

Normal University Farm, McLean County 
Jersey Cow and Calf near Alfa, Henry County 
Hereford Calves, Department of Animal Husbandry 

University of Illinois ..... 
Yorkshire Hogs, University of Illinois . 
Prize Holsteins, Showing Ideal Watering Pl.ace, Barns 

AND Silos near Quincy ..... 
Sheep near Toulon, Stark County .... 
Shearing Sheep with Power-dri\-en Shears, Kirkland 

DeKalb County ...... 

Hundreds of Tons of Coal Ready for Shipment, Harris 

burg, Saline County ..... 

Coal Fields of Illinois ...... 

Coal Transportation Underground by Electric IMotor 

Marion, Williamson County . 
Stripping Coal, Surface Mining West of Danville 

Vermilion Coltnty ...... 

Coal Mine, Mount Olive, Macoupin County . 
Petroleum Fields and Pipe Lines of Illinois . 
Production of Petroleum in Illinois 
Iron-Ore Dock .\nd Storage, Calumet Harbor, Chicago 
Gl.azing-Room of Western Stonew.a.re Company, M.-xcomb 

McDoNOUGH County ...... 

Refining Room, M.'^comb, McDonough County 

Quarry and Mill for Crushing Limestone, Thornton 

Cook County ....... 

Fluor-Spar Mines, Rosiclare, Hardin County. 

Artesian Well, Potomac, Vermilion County . 

Power Dam, Marseilles, La Salle County 

Grist Mill Operated by Wind Power, Golden, Ad.ams 

County ........ 

Pouring Zinc Spelter, Matthiesen & Hegeler Zinc 

Company, La Salle ...... 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Chart Showing Values of Leading Manufacturing 

Industries for Illinois ...... 220 

Cooling-Room, Armour Packing House, Chicago . . 221 

Home of Avery Tractors, Peoria ..... 226 

Aluminum Ore Company, East St. Louis .... 226 

Drilling Holes in Watch Plates, Elgin Watch Company, 

Elgin ......... 227 

Stove-manufacturing Plant, Quincy .... 227 

River Steamboat at Rock Island ..... 231 

United States River Steamer Leaving Dock at La Salle 232 

Bridge over Ohio River at Metropolis, Massac County 233 

Lock and Dam, Henry, Marshall County . . . 234 

Chicago River, Showing Barges Towed by Tugboat . 234 
Locks on Illinois and Michigan Canal, Marseilles, 

La Salle County ....... 235 

Chicago Drainage Canal, Looking Upstream from Wil- 
low Springs, Cook County ..... 236 

Map and Dlagram Showing Illinois Waterway, Lockport 

to La Salle ........ 237 

Lake Front, Showing Tr.'vcks of Illinois Centr.a.l Rail- 
road, Chicago ........ 239 

Network of Main-Line Tracks and Relay Depot, East 

St. Louis ......... 239 

Typical Railroad Depot of a Small City, Carrollton, 

Greene County ....... 240 

The Town Elevator ....... 241 

T\t>ical Country Road near Geneseo, Henry County . 242 
Map Showing Federal- and State-Aid Road System of 

Illinois ......... 245 

View of Split Rock near La Salle, Showing Three 

Methods of Transportation ..... 246 

Chicago and Vicinity ..... facing 254 

Tall Buildings on Michigan Avenue from the Break- 
water, Chicago ...... 256, 257 

Bascule Bridge, Chicago River ..... 258 

Elevator on South Branch of Chicago River . . . 258 

Lighthouse, Chicago ....... 260 

Gr.ain Elevator on Chicago River, Chicago . . . 260 
A Busy Day in the South Water Street Produce Market, 

Chicago 263 

Haymarket Square, Chicago ...... 264 

Chicago Harbor and Warehouses ..... 264 

Scene in Douglas Park Playground, Chicago . . . 266 

North Shore B.athing Beach, Chicago .... 267 

Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Looking North . . . 267 

Tennis Courts in Douglas Park, Chicago . . . 268 

State Street, Chicago ....... 269 

Looking North from Corner of Jackson Boulevard and 

Dearborn Street, Chicago ..... 270 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



State Street, Lookinc. North from Van Buren Street, 

Chicago 271 

Shiloh Tabernacle, Zion City, Lake County . . . 273 
Reserve Officers' Training School at Fort Sheridan, 

Lake County ........ 274 

Oliver Wendell Holmes School, Oak Park, Cook County 275 

Oak Park High School, Oak Park, Cook County . . 276 

Illinois Steel Company's Works, Joliet .... 279 

"Big Ben" Timing-Room, Western Clock Company, 

Peru, La Salle County ...... 282 

Map of Illinois River Valley, Ottawa to Peru facing 282 
Map Showing Peoria, Bloomington, Decatur, and Spring- 
field 283 

Upper Entrance to Glen Oak Park, Peoria . . . 284 
Courthouse and Principal Business Street of Peoria . 285 
Railroad Station, Toulon, Stark County . . . 286 
Christian Church, Minier, Tazewell County . . . 287 
Courthouse, Bloomington, McLean County . . . 288 
Courthouse, Former State Capitol, Springfield, Sanga- 
mon County ........ 289 

Lincoln's Home, Eighth and Jackson Streets, Spring- 
field ......... 290 

Lincoln Monument, Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield . 290 

Business Square, Winchester, Scott County . . . 291 

Giant's Table, Mount Carroll, Carroll County . . 293 
Tenth Avenue from Fifth Street, Fulton, Whiteside 

County 294 

Bridge over Mississippi River at Fulton, Whiteside 

County 294 

Scene in Park, Geneseo, Henry County .... 295 

Rock River near Oregon, Ogle County .... 296 

Map of Rock Island District ...... 297 

Bird's-Eye View of Rock Island 298 

View across Mississippi River from Rock Island Plow 

Works 298 

Fort Armstrong Blockhouse, on Lower End of Island in 
Mississippi River between Rock Island and Daven- 
port .......... 299 

A Well-shaded Street, Pittsfield, Pike County . . 300 

View along Painter Creek, Pittsfield, Pike County . 301 

Working on the Dikes, E.a.st St. Louis .... 302 

St. Louis, East St. Louis, and Vicinity . facing 302 

Main Street, Elizabethtown, Hardin County . . 306 
Fort Massac and Monument to George Rogers Clark, 

Metropolis, Massac County ..... 307 

State Capitol, Springfield ...... 314 

Supreme Court Building, Springfield .... 315 

Governor's Mansion, Springfield . . . . .315 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xvii 



PAGE 

316 
316 



Centennial Building, Springfield ..... 

French Mission at Lincoln's Tomb, Springfield 
Lincoln Centennial Monument, East Entrance to Capi- 
tol Grounds, Springfield . . . . . .317 

State Arsenal at Springfield . . . . . .318 

Map Showing Senatorial Districts of Illinois . . 319 

General Assembly in Joint Session .... 320 

Map Showing Judicial Circuits of Illinois . . . 321 

Map of the Supreme Court Districts of Illinois . . 322 

Map of Appellate Court Districts of Illinois . . 322 

Map Showing Congressional Districts of Illinois . . 323 

Southern Illinois State Penitentiary, Chester . . 324 

State Reformatory, Pontiac, Livingston County . . 324 

Map of State Institutions and National Soldiers' Home 325 
The Falls, Head of Horseshoe Canyon, Starved Rock 

State Park 328 

Waterfall in Wild Cat Canyon, Starved Rock State 

Park 329 

White-Pine Forest, Ogle County . . . . .331 

Americanization Evening School, Springfield . . 333 

Typical Country School, McLean County . . . 334 

High School, Princeton, Bureau County . . . 334 

State Soldiers' Orphans' Home, Normal, McLean County 335 

View at Millikin University, Decatur .... 335 

Southern Illinois State Normal University, Carbon- 
dale, Jackson County ...... 336 

Northern Illinois State Normal School, DeKalb, 

DeKalb County 336 

Lincoln Memorial Hall, University of Illinois, Urbana 337 
Western Illinois State Normal School, Macomb, McDon- 

ouGH County ........ 337 

Fell Gate and Buildings of the Illinois State Normal 

University, Normal, McLean County . . . 338 
Harper Library and Women's Halls, The University of 

Chicago ......... 338 

Blackburn College, Carlinville, Macoupin County . 339 

Bradley Institute, Peoria ...... 339 

M.^iN Building of Eastern Illinois St.\te Normal School, 

Charleston, Coles County ..... 342 

Map Showing Increase and Decrease in Popul.\tion by 

Counties in 1920 346 

General Map of Illinois .... following 385 



CHAPTER I 
THE ILLINOIS COUNTRY 

The name and its meaning. — The Indians who lived in the 
Illinois country called themselves the "lUini," meaning "men." 
The name Illinois, derived from this Indian name, was first 
applied to the tribe, then to the region in which the Illini lived. 
The region first known as the Illinois country was of indefinite 
boundaries but included, in general, the present state of Illinois 
and portions of Indiana and Wisconsin. 

When, in 1809, Illinois Territory was organized as a separate 
political unit, the name Illinois became applicable to a definite 
geographic region, including the present states of Illinois and 
Wisconsin and portions of Minnesota and Michigan. 

In 1818, when Illinois State was carved out of IlHnois Ter- 
ritory, the northern boundary of the Illinois country was shifted 
from the Canadian line to the parallel of 42° 30' N. lat., 
although the EnabHng Act gave the constitutional convention 
specific permission to include all of Illinois Territory within the 
limits of the state. Thus, with the admission of Illinois, 
the twenty-first state, into the Union on December 3, 1818, 
the name Illinois acquired definite and final meaning. 

It is interesting to note that Congress fixed the name Illinois 
in the act establishing Illinois Territory in 1809, while in the 
Enabling Act of 1818 "the inhabitants of the territory of Illi- 
nois are authorized to form for themselves a Constitution and 
State government, and to assume such name as they shall deem 
proper." The name Illinois, which had been so closely asso- 
ciated with the region for 145 years, was, of course, selected as 
the name of the new state. 

Illinois Territory. — The boundaries of Illinois Territory were 
those estabUshed by the Ordinance of 1787, in which provision 
was made for three states within the Northwest Territory. The 
westernmost of these three states was to be bounded on the 
north by Canada; on the east by the Wabash River and a line 
running due north from Vincennes, Indiana, to Canada; on 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



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the south by the Ohio River; and on the west by the Mississippi 
River and a Hne running from the Mississippi to the Lake of the 
Woods. These boundaries became those 
of Illinois Territory in 1809. The area of 
this region is two and a half times the 
area of the state of Illinois, and the popu- 
lation in 1910 was about one and a half 
times that of Illinois. 

Legal state boundaries. — The Ena- 
bHng Act passed by Congress, April 18, 
1818, marks out the boundary lines of the 
proposed new state of Illinois as follows: 
The eastern boundary is the middle of 
the Wabash River and the Indiana state 
line to the northwest corner of Indiana. 
Here the line turns east along the north- 
MAP oFiLLiNois TERRITORY ^^^ bouudary of Indiana to the middle of 
isted TrL "its" or^aniS: Lake Michigan ; it then turns north along 
tion in 1809 to the admis- the middle of the lake to 42° 30' N. lat. 

sion of Illinois as a state 
in 1818. Its area was 2? 
times that of the present 
state of Illinois 

The northern boundary ex- 
tends westward from the 
middle of Lake Michigan 
along 42° 30' N. lat. to the 
middle of the Mississippi 
River. The western bound- 
ary is the middle of the Mis- 
sissippi River to the junction 
of the Ohio. The southern 
boundary is along the north- 
west shore of the Ohio River, 
for the Kentucky boundary 
along the Ohio had already 
been established on the north 
side of the river. It thus 

happens that the Ohio River and its islands are in Kentucky, 
not in Illinois, Indiana, or Ohio. 




KASKASKIA ISLAND 

The former course of the Mississippi 
River was along the great curve to the 
west of Kaskaskia Island. The cut-off 
which was formed in 1881 has trans- 
ferred part of Illinois to the west of the 
Mississippi. The site of the original 
Kaskaskia settlement is now beneath the 
waters of the Mississippi. 



THE ILLINOIS COUNTRY 



An interesting provision of the Enabling Act follows the 
description of the state boundaries. It states that the Con- 
stitutional Convention "shall ratify the boundaries aforesaid; 
otherwise they shall be and remain as now prescribed." Had 
the Convention taken advantage of this provision, Illinois 
would have had an area of about 150,000 square miles and a 
population in 1910 of approximately 8,800,000. Milwaukee, 
St. Paul, Duluth, Superior, Madison, and other well-known 
cities of other states would be listed among the cities of Illinois. 
Its north-south extent would have been 850 miles, a greater 
length than that of any present state. The state would have 
ranked first in the Union in many items in which it now takes 
lower rank. 

Actual state boundaries. — After state boundaries have been 
described they must be surveyed and marked. Where the 




MAP SHOWING THE BOUNDARY LINE IN LAKE MICHIGAN 

The southern portion of Lake Michigan is divided among three states — Indiana, 
Illinois, and Michigan. The entrance to Calumet Harbor is in Indiana instead of 
Illinois. 



boundary line follows a parallel or a meridian the survey may 
not be so exact as to follow the proposed line with absolute 
accuracy. The Illinois-Wisconsin boundary line is legally 
42° 30' N. lat. The survey of this line varies somewhat from 
the true parallel. The state line at the shore of Lake Michigan 
is about one-half mile south, and at the Mississippi River about 
one-half mile north, of the parallel. 

Where the middle of a river forms the boundary line between 
two states, the center of the main current continues to be the 
boundary if the channel shifts imperceptibly; but if the river 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



suddenly changes its course or deserts its original channel the 
boundary remains in the middle of the deserted channel. This 
is strikingly illustrated in Randolph County at the junction 
of the Mississippi and Kaskaskia rivers. 

In April, 1881, the Mississippi River broke across the narrow 
peninsula between the Mississippi and Kaskaskia rivers and 
established a new channel. The site of Old Kaskaskia was 
destroyed, and Kaskaskia Island was established between the 
new main channel and the old deserted channel, as shown on 
the map on page 2. It thus happens that about twenty-five 
square miles of Randolph County, Illinois, lie on the west side 
of the Mississippi River and the Mississippi flows across 
Illinois for a distance of eight miles. The inhabitants of Illinois 
living on Kaskaskia Island are served by rural mail delivery 
from St. Marys, Missouri. 

Smaller cut-offs have been formed by the Wabash River 
along the border of White County, Illinois, whereby the main 
channel of the Wabash crosses Indiana for short distances and 
small areas of Indiana now lie west of the Wabash River. 

Latitude and longitude. — The southernmost point of Illinois 
is at the junction of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers in 36° 59' 
N. lat. The northern boundary of the state is in 42° 30' N. lat. 
The north-south extent of the state is therefore 5^ degrees of 
latitude, or 385 miles. 

The parallel of 40° N. lat. crosses the widest portion of the 
state and divides Illinois into two approximately equal areas. 
This central parallel passes just north of Quincy, about twelve 
miles north of Springfield, ten miles north of Decatur, and ten 
miles south of Champaign, Urbana, and Danville. Other, but 
smaller, cities lying near the same parallel are: Mount Sterling, 
Beardstown, Petersburg, Lincoln, Clinton, Monticello, and 
Georgetown. The fortieth parallel crosses ten counties: 
Adams, Brown, Schuyler, Cass, Menard, Logan, Macon, Piatt, 
Champaign, and Vermilion. 

The latitude of Illinois is favorable to the development of a 
strong, vigorous, and progressive people. Its location, some- 
what south of the middle line of the north temperate zone, 
insures a moderate climate in which farm crops and domestic 
animals thrive. Its climatic changes are sufticient to stimulate 



THE ILLINOIS COUNTRY 



healthful human activity and to encourage productiveness in 
the various occupations. 

The lUinois-Indiana boundary line is in 87° 31' W. long., 
but the easternmost boundary of the state Hes in the middle 
of Lake Michigan in approximately 87° 5' W. long. The west- 
ernmost bend of the Mississippi along Illinois is in 91° 31' W. 
long., in Adams and Hancock counties. The extreme width 
of the state from Indiana to the Mississippi River is 4 degrees 
of longitude, or 216 miles. 

1 




RELIEF MAP OF THE UNITED STATES; ILLINOIS IN THE GREAT PLAIN 

The position of Illinois in the Great Central Plain gives it a comparatively 
level surface, fertile soil, good drainage, and a favorable climate. 

The meridian of 89° west longitude crosses the state almost 
centrally. The Third Principal Meridian, from which most of 
the state is surveyed, lies about eight miles west of the eighty- 
ninth meridian. The automobile route known as the Meridian 
Road extends across the state from north to south and closely 
parallels the eighty-ninth meridian and the Third Principal 
Meridian, from Beloit, Wisconsin, and Rockford, Illinois, on 
the north, to Cairo, Illinois, on the south. 

The eighty-ninth meridian passes through or within ten 
miles of Rockford, La Salle, Peru, Ottawa, Streator, Blooming- 
ton, Decatur, Centralia, and Cairo. Other, but smaller, cities 



6 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

lying near the same meridian are: Belvidere, Rochelle, Men- 
dota, Springvalley, IMinonk, Normal, Clinton, Vandalia, 
Salem, Mount Vernon, Benton, Herrin, Carterville, Johnston 
City, Marion, Vienna, and Mound City. The eighty-ninth 
meridian crosses sixteen counties: Winnebago, Ogle, Lee, 
La Salle, Woodford, McLean, Dewitt, Macon, Shelby, Fayette, 
Marion, Jefferson, Franklin, Williamson, Johnson, and Pulaski. 

The location of Illinois with reference to longitude throws 
the state within the Great Central Plain of the United States 
with its fertile glacial soils, its abundant coal resources, and its 
continental climate, which gives cold winters, warm summers, 
and abundant rainfall. 

Length of boundaries. — The following table gives approxi- 
mate lengths of the various sections of Illinois boundaries: 



BOUNDARIES 



MILES 
LENGTH IN 



Northern boundary 180 

Mississippi River to shore of Lake ^Michigan . . . 150 
Shore to middle of Lake Michigan 30 

Eastern boundary 460 

Along middle of Lake Michigan to Indiana state line . 50 

Along northern boundary of Indiana 20 

Northwest corner of Indiana to Wabash River . . . 190 
Wabash River, including meanders 200 

Southern boundary, Ohio River, including meanders . . 125 

Western boundary, Mississippi River, including meanders . 615 

Total length of boundaries 1,.380 

Total land boundaries (25 per cent) 340 

Total water boundaries (75 per cent) 1,040 

Lake Michigan shore in Illinois 60 

Area. — Illinois contains 56,665 square miles, divided be- 
tween land and water as follows: land area, 56,043 square 
miles (99 per cent); water area, 622 square miles (1 per cent). 
These figures are from the United States Census. The water 
area is composed of the small lakes of the state and the larger 
rivers. It does not include that part of Lake Michigan within 
the state boundaries. County areas are always given in terms 
of land area. 

Illinois ranks twenty-third in area among the states of the 
Union; 22 states are larger and 25 are smaller. The average 



THE ILLINOIS COUNTRY 



size of the 48 states is 62,000 square miles. Continental United 
States would make 53 states as large as Illinois. Although 
Illinois ranks twenty-third in area, it stands first among the 
states in total value of farms and of farm crops, second in 
mineral wealth, and third in population. These comparisons 
indicate that Illinois has exceptional natural advantages and 
that her people have been diligent in the development of the 
natural resources of the state. 




MAP SHOWING ILLINOIS IN THE UNITED STATES IN FOUR PLACES 

About one-third of the United States has the same latitude as liHnois. Illinois 
has an area of less than one-fourth that of Texas. 

Texas is four and three-fourths times as large as Illinois. 
Illinois is forty-five times as large as Rhode Island. McLean, 
the largest county of Illinois, has an area about the size of the 
state of Rhode Island. The reach of Illinois in latitude, if 
placed on the coasts of the United States, is shown on the 
accompanying map. 

Europe, at the outbreak of the Great War, held 26 inde- 
pendent countries in an area only one-fourth larger than 
Continental United States. Only one of these countries, 
Russia, is larger than Texas; 9 are larger and 17 are smaller 
than Illinois. Eight of the smaller European countries 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



could find room within the confines of IlHnois with 201 square 
miles to spare, but their population is three and a half times 

that of Illinois. These rela- 
tionships are graphically pre- 
sented on the accompanying 
map. 

Land surveys. — It is 
necessary to have land sur- 
veyed so that small tracts 
may be located with absolute 
accuracy. In no other way 
can the landowner establish 
his right to his farm or the 
tax assessor and tax collector 
make proper record of their 
work. 

The method of survey 
whereby Illinois lands are 
marked of? was provided by 
Congress in 1785. The plan 
involves the establishment 
of ''principal meridians" 
running north-south and 
"base lines" running east- 
west. The first principal me- 
ridian is the boundary line 
between Ohio and Indiana; 
the second is west of. the 
center of Indiana, extending 
the entire length of the state; the third is in the center of 
Illinois, extending the entire length of the state; the fourth is in 
western Illinois and Wisconsin, extending from Beardstown 
north to the Mississippi River near Rock Island, and from the 
Mississippi River near Galena northward through Wisconsin. 
Illinois is surveyed from the second, third, and fourth principal 
meridians; much the larger part of the state from the third. 

Base lines extend east-west along geographic parallels. The 
second and third principal meridians have the same base line 
extending across southern Indiana and southern Illinois in 




EQUIVALENT AREAS OF THE SMALLER 

COUNTRIES OF EUROPE SHOWN 

ON MAP OF ILLINOIS 

The smallest eight countries of Europe 
occupy a combined area slightly less than 
that of Illinois. Their combined popula- 
tion is i\ times that of Illinois. 



THE ILLINOIS COUNTRY 




BASE LINES AND PRINCIPAL MERIDIANS FOR ILLINOIS AND INDIANA 

Each small square represents a congressional township 6 miles square or 36 
square miles. Fractional townships result where surveys from different base lines or 
different principal meridians come together. 



10 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



38° 27' N. lat. from the Ohio River to the Mississippi. The 
fourth principal meridian has two base lines, one extending 
westward from its southern extremity at Beardstown to the 
Mississippi River, and the other forming the Illinois- Wisconsin 
boundary line. Only the southern base line is used in the 
Illinois surveys. 



6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


7 


8 


9 


10 


II 


12 


18 


17 








15 


14 


13 




♦ 






19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


30 


29 


28 


27 


26 


25 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 



CONGRESSIONAL TOWNSHIP WITH SECTIONS 

The 36 sections of a township are indicated by numbers. Section 
16 of the diagram is divided to show its quarter-sections and the quarters 
of a quarter-section. 

From the principal meridian and the base line the region is 
laid off into townships six miles square, and the townships are 
numbered. The townships thus determined by survey are 
known as congressional toivnships. Each township is divided 
into thirty-six square miles, or sections, and numbered. Each 
section is divided into four equal squares, or quarter-sections. 
Tiers of townships are numbered north and south from the base 
line, and ranges of townships are numbered east and west from 



THE ILLINOIS COUNTRY 11 

the principal meridian. Thus, Township 16 North, Range 5 
West of the Third Principal Meridian, is the township in which 
Springfield, the state capital, is located. 

The thirty-six sections of a township are numbered in regu- 
lar order beginning at the northeast corner and proceeding as 
indicated in the foregoing diagram. Portions of a section 
are designated by descriptive terms. Thus, the location of a 
40-acre tract of land may be described as the SE. quarter of 
the NW. quarter of Section 16, Township 35 North, Range 10 
East of the Third Principal Meridian. This area is found in 
Will County near Joliet. 

Surveys are made independently from each principal me- 
ridian. Where surveys from two principal meridians come 
together, there are many irregularities in a narrow strip extend- 
ing north-south. These somewhat troublesome irregularities 
are found in eastern Illinois, where the surveys from the second 
and third principal meridians meet. 

Thus the indefinite boundary lines of Indian hunting 
grounds gave way to the precise limits set by the white man's 
skilled surveyor. Only so could a sparsely populated hunting 
region become transformed in the course of many decades into 
a highly prosperous, well-populated agricultural land. 

Counties. — The congressional townships are too small to 
serve as divisions of the state for purposes of local government. 
The state was at first divided into a few counties. As popu- 
lation increased, the large counties were subdivided by acts of 
the General Assembly until, in 1859, the present number, 102, 
were organized. 

County lines may or may not foUow the boundaries of con- 
gressional townships. For purposes of local government the 
county is divided into ciril townships. The civil township is a 
governmental unit. It may or may not coincide with the con- 
gressional township. The civil township is named, while the 
congressional township is numbered. The boundaries of civil 
townships do not extend across county lines, while the bound- 
aries of congressional townships are not governed by the bound- 
ary lines of state or county. 

The map on page 12 shows the 102 counties of the state. 
The numbers are placed in a convenient geographical order to 




MAP OF ILLINOIS WITH COUNTIES NUMBERED 

The names of counties may be readily determined by reference to the 
table at the end of the chapter. A study of this map for ready identification 
of counties will prove profitable. 



THE ILLINOIS COUNTRY 13 

aid in learning the names of the counties and their proper 
location in the state. Table I gives the name and some impor- 
tant facts concerning each county. A study of the map and 
the table will add much to the pleasure of reading about 
Illinois whether in the remaining chapters of this book, in the 
numerous state publications, in Illinois history, or in the daily 
newspaper. 

Illinois of today. — lUinois today has a population of at least 
6,000,000. This is 150 times as many people as lived in Illinois 
when it was admitted to the Union in 1818. Its railway mile- 
age of 12,000 miles is greater than that of any other state except 
Texas. Among the forty-eight states of the United States, 
Illinois, according to the census of 1910, ranked: 

First in value of farm property; value of farm crops; pro- 
duction of corn and oats; and number of horses; 

Second in value of mineral products and number of hogs; 

r/«>(f in population; school attendance; number of foreign- 
born; rural population; amount of improved farm land; and 
value of manufactures; 

Seventh in production of wheat and number of cattle; 

Eighth in production of hay and forage ; 

Tenth in density of population and total number of farms; 

Twenty-third in area. 

Thus Illinois, though not among the largest states of the 
Union, has come to rank high in many lines of production. If 
her resources are properly used and carefully conserved, Illinois 
will continue to add to her population and productive power. 
The general map of lUinois is placed in the back 
of the book so that it may be unfolded and used for reference 
as the text is being read. A thorough knowledge of the legend 
of the map will enable the reader to determine instantly the 
approximate elevation of any region and the approximate 
population of all the towns named on the map. The State 
Geological Survey, Urbana, lUinois, publishes a large base map 
of IlUnois, scale i inch to 8 miles. It may be secured at small 
cost. It will be of exceeding value to the reader if kept for 
constant reference while reading the Geography of Illinois. 



TABLE I 

Area, Population, and County Seats of Illinois 



Number 
on Map 


County 


Area in 
Sq. Miles 


Population 
1910 


County Seat 


Population 
1910 


1 


Jo Daviess 


623 


22,657 


Galena 


4,835 


o 


Stephenson 


559 


36,821 


Freeport 


17,567 


3 


Winnebago 


529 


63,153 


Rockford 


45,401 


4 


Boone 


293 


15,481 


Belvidere 


7,253 


5 


McHenry 


620 


32,509 


Woodstock 


4,331 


6 


Lake 


455 


55,058 


Waukegan 


16,069 


7 


Cook 


933 


2,405,233 


Chicago 


2,185,283 


8 


Dupage 


345 


33,432 


Wheaton 


3,423 


9 


Kane 


527 


91,862 


Geneva 


2,451 


10 


DeKalb 


638 


33,457 


Sycamore 


3,926 


11 


Ogle 


756 


27,864 


Oregon 


2,180 


12 


Lee 


742 


27,750 


Dixon 


7,216 


13 


Carroll 


453 


18,035 


Mount Carroll 


1,759 


14 


Whiteside 


679 


.34,507 


Morrison 


2,410 


15 


Rock Island 


424 


70,404 


Rock Island 


24,335 


16 


Mercer 


540 


19,723 


Aledo 


2,144 


17 


Henry 


824 


41,736 


Cambridge 


1,272 


18 


Bureau 


881 


43,975 


Princeton 


4,131 


19 


Putnam 


173 


7,561 


Hennepin 


451 


20 


La Salle 


1,146 


90,132 


Ottawa 


9,535 


21 


Kendall 


324 


10,777 


Yorkville 


431 


22 


Grundy 


433 


24,162 


Morris 


4,563 


23 


Will 


844 


84,371 


Joliet 


34,670 


24 


Kankakee 


668 


40,752 


Kankakee 


13,986 


25 


Iroquois 


1,121 


35,543 


Watseka 


2,476 


26 


Ford 


500 


17,096 


Paxton 


2,912 


27 


Livingston 


1,043 


40,465 


Pontiac 


6,090 


28 


Marshall 


396 


15,679 


Lacon 


1,495 


29 


Woodford 


528 


20,506 


Eureka 


1,525 


3D 


Stark 


290 


10,098 


Toulon 


1,208 


31 


Peoria 


636 


100,255 


Peoria 


66,950 


32 


Knox 


711 


46,159 


Galesburg 


22,089 


33 


Warren 


546 


23,313 


Monmouth 


9,128 


34 


Henderson 


376 


9,724 


Oquawka 


907 


35 


Hancock 


780 


30,638 


Carthage 


2,373 


36 


McDonough 


588 


26,887 


Macomb 


5,774 


37 


Fulton 


884 


49,549 


Lewiston 


2,312 


38 


Mason 


555 


17,377 


Havana 


3,525 


39 


Tazewell 


647 


34,027 


Pekin 


9,897 


40 


McLean 


1,191 


68,008 


Bloomington 


25,768 


41 


Vermilion 


921 


77,996 


Danville 


27,871 


42 


Champaign 


1,043 


51,829 


Urbana 


8,245 


43 


Piatt 


451 


16,376 


Monticello 


1,981 


44 


Dewitt 


415 


18,906 


Clinton 


5,165 


45 


Logan 


617 


30,216 


Lincoln 


10,892 


46 


Menard 


317 


12,796 


Petersburg 


2,587 


47 


Cass 


371 


17,372 


Virginia 


1,501 


48 


Schuyler 


432 


14,852 


Rushville 


2,422 


49 


Brown 


297 


10,397 


Mount Sterhng 


1,986 


50 


Adams 


842 


64,588 


Quincy 


36,587 


51 


Pike 


786 


28,622 


Pittsfield 


2,095 


52 


Scott 


249 


10,067 


Winchester 


1,639 



TABLE 1— Continued 



Number 
on Map 


County 


Area in 
Sq. Miles 


Population 
1910 


County Seat 


Population 
1910 


53 


Morgan 


576 


34,420 


Jacksonville 


15,326 


54 


Sangamon 


876 


91,024 


Springfield 


51,678 


55 


Christian 


700 


34,594 


Tavlorville 


5,446 


56 


Macon 


585 


54,186 


Decatur 


31,140 


57 


Moultrie 


338 


14,630 


Sullivan 


2,621 


58 


Douglas 


417 


19,591 


Tuscola 


2.453 


59 


Edgar 


621 


27,336 


Paris 


7,664 


60 


Clark 


493 


23,517 


Marshall 


2,569 


61 


Coles 


525 


34,517 


Charleston 


5,884 


62 


Cumberland 


353 


14,281 


Toledo 


900 


63 


Shelby 


772 


31,693 


Shelbyville 


3,590 


64 


Montgomery 


689 


35,311 


Hillsboro 


3,424 


65 


Macoupin 


860 


50,685 


Carhnville 


3,616 


66 


Greene 


515 


22,363 


Carrollton 


2,323 


67 


Calhoun 


256 


8,610 


Hardin 


654 


68 


Jersey 


367 


13,954 


Jerseyville 


4,113 


69 


Madison 


737 


89,847 


Edwardsville 


5,014 


70 


Bond 


388 


17,075 


Greenville 


3,178 


71 


Fayette 


729 


28,075 


Vandalia 


2,974 


72 


Effingham 


511 


20,055 


Effingham 


3,898 


73 


Jasper 


508 


18,157 


Newton 


2,108 


74 


Crawford 


453 


26,281 


Robinson 


3,863 


75 


Lawrence 


358 


22,661 


Lawrenceville 


3,235 


76 


Richland 


357 


15,970 


Olney 


5,011 


77 


Clay 


462 


18,661 


Louisville 


670 


78 


Marion 


569 


35,094 


Salem 


2,669 


79 


Clinton 


483 


22,832 


Carlyle 


1,982 


80 


St. Clair 


663 


119,870 


Belleville 


21,122 


81 


Monroe 


389 


13,508 


Waterloo 


2,091 


82 


Randolph 


587 


29,120 


Chester 


2,747 


83 


Washington 


561 


18,759 


Nashville 


2,135 


84 


Perry 


451 


22,088 


Pinckneyville 


2,722 


85 


Jefierson 


603 


29,111 


Mount Vernon 


8,007 


86 


Wavne 


733 


25,697 


Fairfield 


2,479 


87 


Edwards 


238 


10,049 


Albion 


1,281 


88 


Wabash 


220 


14,913 


Mount Carmel 


6,934 


89 


White 


507 


23,052 


Carmi 


2,833 


90 


Hamilton 


455 


18,227 


McLeansboro 


1,796 


91 


Franklin 


445 


25,943 


Benton 


2,675 


92 


Jackson 


588 


35,143 


Murphysboro 


7,485 


93 


Williamson 


449 


45,098 


Marion 


7,093 


94 


Saline 


399 


30,204 


Harrisburg 


5,309 


95 


Gallatm 


338 


14,628 


Shawneetown 


1,863 


96 


Hardin 


185 


9,724 


Elizabethtown 


633 


97 


Pope 


385 


11,215 


Golconda 


1,088 


98 


Johnson 


348 


14,331 


Vienna 


1,124 


99 


Union 


403 


21,856 


Jonesboro 


1,169 


100 


Alexander 


226 


22,741 


Cairo 


14,548 


101 


Pulaski 


190 


15,650 


Mound City 


2,837 


102 


Massac 


240 


14,200 


Metropolis 


4,655 


Total . . 




56,043 


5,638,591 













CHAPTER II 
GEOLOGY 

Illinois rocks valuable. — The succession of the geologic 
processes of the past are extremely significant in the formation 
of the natural resources now available for the use of the people 
of lUinois. Soil, which is formed from decayed rock, is the 
most valuable mineral resource of the world, and Illinois has 
been well favored by the kinds of rock which, when broken into 
fine particles, produce fertile and lasting soils. Soil, however, 
is not usually included among the mineral resources, as its 
importance and its widespread presence over the earth's 
surface require separate discussion. The mineral products of 
Illinois consist of those useful materials obtained from the soUd 
rock beneath the covering of loose earth known as mantle 
rock, or from the mantle rock itself, if these products are used 
for purposes other than the growing of crops. Among the 
mineral resources of Illinois are coal, petroleum, lead, zinc, 
fluor spar, and building stone which come from the solid rock, 
or bedrock; clay, sand, and gravel which come from the mantle 
rock; and road-building materials which are secured from both 
solid rock and mantle rock. 

The annual output of Illinois minerals ranks next in impor- 
tance to farm crops among the products of the state. In 1910 
the value of the farm crops of Illinois was $370,000,000, and 
the mineral output was valued at $125,000,000. Because of 
increased production in some lines, and greatly increased prices 
for nearly all products, the value of the farm crops of 1917 
was estimated at $750,000,000, and the mineral output was 
valued at $238,000,000. Illinois is surpassed only by Pennsyl- 
vania in the value of mineral production. 

Studies in Illinois geology. — The Illinois State Geological 
Survey is organized as a part of the state government. Trained 
geologists, in the employ of the state, make extensive investiga- 
tions and report concerning the rocks of the state and their use. 
The Geological Survey, through many years of research, has 

16 



GEOLOGY 17 



learned the story of the geologic processes which have gone on 
throughout the ages in lUinois. These studies reveal where 
in the state the mineral resources are of sufficient value to offer 
profitable development. Experimental work carried on by the 
state discovers better methods of obtaining and using the 
mineral resources. This information is made freely available 
to all. Geology thus serves the practical needs of man, and its 
wide and systematic study can best be carried on by the state 
and national governments. 

Kinds of rocks. — Nearly all the rocks of Illinois are sedi- 
mentary, that is, they were formed in the sea, which for many 
ages covered Illinois. Sediments washed into the sea from 
surrounding lands were deposited in the water, and, when solidi- 
fied, formed sedimentary rocks. These sedimentary rocks of 
the state are so thick that the deepest well-borings, in many 
instances more than a thousand feet in depth, have not pene- 
trated to the bottom of the sedimentary rocks. 

Igneous rocks have been found in Illinois only at a few 
places where lava has been thrust as dikes into the fissures of 
the sedimentary rocks. Dikes are common in Pope and 
Hardin counties. 

Metamorphic rocks are practically unknown in Illinois, 
although, in a coal mine in Saline County, a case of meta- 
morphism has been found where coal has been changed to coke 
by geologic processes. 

All sedimentary rocks rest upon igneous or metamorphic 
rocks. Therefore, at great depths, the whole of Illinois is 
underlain by rocks of other kinds than sedimentary, probably 
igneous rocks. 

Divisions of geologic time. — Nearly all known rocks of 
Illinois belong to the Paleozoic era. Eras are divided into 
periods of geologic time. The rocks formed during an era make 
a group of rocks, those formed during a period make a system. 
The Paleozoic era which is so important in Illinois geology is 
divided into seven periods: Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, 
Devonian, Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, Permian. 

The Cambrian system of rocks is at the base of the Paleo- 
zoic group of rocks in Illinois. Cambrian rocks are not found 
at the surface in the state, but they have been entered by 



18 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



numerous deep wells, none of which has 
penetrated through the system. 

Small areas of southcn Illinois con- 
tain rock materials formed in the 
Mesozoic era, a later era than the Paleo- 
zoic, and all the extensive glacial de- 
posits of the state were formed during 
the Cenozoic era, which is later than 
Mesozoic and includes the present. 

Folds and faults. — The rock layers 
in Illinois approach the horizontal in 
general position, but at places they form 
definite folds, show slight dips from the 
horizontal, or present faults of con- 
siderable magnitude. The best-known 



m\ 



SOOI^et 


Vermilion 
Doize// Piven. tjtica 


— ■ — — ^^ V ] I 1 ) T — T*-*T — 


Sea 


— ■ — ' — " — ^nt ' \\ \ ] I 1 1 ' 1 ' 


Level 
SOOreef 


-T^^f^'x^V'^^^yy- 'i ' 1 ' i' 1 ' 1 ' 1 ' 1 


-I — 1 — rrcpi^V''-'''---- -- 






I500reet 


'-r^-r^-r^^yJiyi^l^'S'-'i- ttr^^^rr^^- 



LA SALLE ANTICLINE AT UTICA, LA SALLE COUNTY 

This diagram stiows the unsymmetrical form of 
the anticline at Utica. The dip on one side is 
almost imperceptible and on the other very steep. 



rock fold in Illinois is the La Salle anti- 
cline which enters the state from Wis- 
consin into Stephenson County and 
extends in a southeasterly direction 
across the state. It crosses Rock River 
at Grand Detour in Lee County, and 
the Illinois River at Split Rock between 
La Salle and Utica. Farther south the 
La Salle anticline disappears at the 
surface, but it seems to continue as an 
underground structure, and in the main 
oil fields of southeastern Illinois it forms 
the rock structure necessary for accu- 



McL£ANSBORO 

ami CoaUJ 



Sanj^jizine, !hm. Coal and 2hal< 



CHESTEB GROUP 

lof-SaruU-. 



ShifU a/ut Zt/n&itor^ 



lALEXANDRIAN SERIES 

fRICHMOND 

^S/ia7e ^ttth s?2l2^ Zi^nestont; 
upper OTui Toiler part 



PRAIRIE DU CHIEN GROUP 



doltTrni&c ZuTi&st:?rte 
krunvK aniy in nWl- bonr^j 



UPPER CAMBRIAN 
(Potsdsm-I 



' borin^j 



COLUMNAR SECTION FROM 

GEOLOGIC MAP OF 

ILLINOIS, 1917 




GEOLOGIC MAP OF ILLINOIS 

For numbers explaining coloring, see columnar section on opposite page 



GEOLOGY 



19 



A/fain Oi/ Cmbarras 
nelds Q/ver 




LA SALLE ANTICLINE AT LAWRENCEVILLE, 
LAWRENCE COUNTY 

Here the anticline is far below the 
surface of the earth, and its form is favor- 
able for the accumulation of oil beneath. 



mulations of oil, at a depth of several hundred feet below the 
surface. 

The eastern interior coal field, occupying about three-fifths 
of Illinois and portions of Indiana and Kentucky, is a broad, 
shallow, synclinal fold dipping 
imperceptibly from all sides 
toward the center. 

Faults, formed by the 
breaking and slipping of rock 
layers, are found in western 
and southern parts of the 
state. A fault crosses the 
Mississippi and Illinois rivers 
in Calhoun and Jersey coun- 
ties. The slipping of the 
rocks along this fault amounts 

to a vertical displacement of 720 feet. Some faults occur in 
Pope County, and they are extremely numerous in Hardin 

County where the fluor- 
spar mines are closely 
associated with the 
faults. Other folds and 
faults than those men- 
tioned are found in the 
state. 

Cambrian rocks. — 
During the Cambrian 
period, the sea covered 
Illinois, and great quan- 
tities of sand were 
washed from the sur- 
rounding lands into the 
sea. The rock formed 
from this thick layer of sand is known as the Potsdam sand- 
stone. It underlies the entire state. It is not found at the 
surface in Illinois, but outcrops in Wisconsin. It forms a 
reservoir for water, and the deep wells of the northern part 
of the state which penetrate it have an abundant supply of 
water. 




MAP OF HARDIN AND POPE COUNTIES SHOWING 
FAULTS 

The rich fluor-spar mines of Hardin County 
are in the region of most numerous faults. 



20 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

Ordovician rocks. — During the early part of the Ordovician 
period, the seas which covered Illinois furnished conditions 
favorable for the growth of animals having shells of lime. 
The shells were so abundant that they formed thick beds of 
limestone known as the Prairie du Chien group or the "Lower 




DEER P\RK CANYON, DEER PARK, LA SALLE COUNTY 

In this scene we are looking down Deer Park Canyon from a point above the 
falls. This canyon, like the numerous smaller canyons of Starved Rock State Park, 
is cut in the St. Peter sandstone which forms the surface rock in this part of the 
Illinois Valley. Deer Park Canyon leads into the valley of Vermilion River a few 
miles from its junction with the Illinois River at La Salle. (Copyright by Keystone 
View Company.) 

Magnesian limestone." These are the oldest rocks exposed in 
Illinois. They are brought to the surface along the La Salle 
anticline in the vicinity of Rock and Illinois rivers. These 
rocks have long been used at Utica, La Salle County, for making 
cement. 



GEOLOGY 



21 




After the deposition of the Prairie du Chien group of rocks, 
the Illinois region was upHfted and became dry land. Later, 
the sea again occupied the region, and great quantities of sand, 
washed in from surrounding lands, formed the St. Peter sand- 
stone. St. Peter sandstone forms the bluffs of the Illinois 
and Fox rivers in La Salle and Kendall counties, the bluffs of 
Rock River in Lee and Ogle counties, and it is found on the 
north side of the fault line in Calhoun County. It furnishes 
sand for glass-making, molding, and building. The Federal 
Plate Glass Works at Ottawa are located on St. Peter sand- 
stone which may be used 
as the chief raw mate- 
rial for the factory. The 
St. Peter sandstone is a 
great reservoir of water 
for artesian wells. 

After the St. Peter 
sands were deposited, 
conditions became favor- 
able again for the growth 
of shell-forming animals. 
The Galena and Platte- 
ville limestones, formed 
at this time, are the 
surface rocks of north- 
central and northwestern Illinois, extending into Wisconsin. 
Veins of lead and zinc ores occur in these rocks in Jo Daviess 
and Stephenson counties in Illinois, and in southwestern Wis- 
consin. The lead and zinc mines of this formation were of 
great importance prior to the opening of richer deposits in the 
Joplin, Missouri, district. 

Silurian rocks. — During the Silurian period the sea of the 
Illinois region was an arm of the Gulf of Mexico, which shifted 
back and forth across the state. The most extensive outcrops 
of Silurian rocks are two broad belts in the eastern and western 
parts of northern Illinois separated by a broad area of Ordo- 
vician rocks in the north-central part of the state. The 
Niagara limestone is the principal rock formation of the 
Silurian system in Illinois. The Chicago Drainage Canal 



LIMESTONE QUARRY, THORNTON, COOK COUNTY 

Limestone quarries are common in areas 
where the glacial drift is thin enoutch to be 
readily removed. Crushed limestone is used 
for road metal, fertilizer, or the making of 
lime. 



22 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



which extends from Chicago to Lockport, a distance of 28 
miles, is cut in the Niagara Hmestone in much of its lower 
course. The traveler on the railroad running parallel with the 
canal may see a long ridge of rock fragments which have been 
excavated from the canal. The Niagara formation furnishes 




FRENCH CANYON, STARVED ROCK STATE PARK 

This canyon, one of the most picturesque of the park, is easy of access from 
the park entrance, and is visited by more persons each year than any other canyon. 
Forms of vegetation not found elsewhere in Illinois are found on the cliffs and in the 
recesses of the canyons of Starved Rock State Park. (Copyright by Keystone View 
Company.) 

limestone for building, furnace flux, concrete, and road-making. 
Many quarries are found in Chicago and in the vicinity of Joliet. 
Devonian rocks. — During much of the Devonian period, the 
Illinois region was largely dry land. The chief regions of 
Devonian rocks are in detached areas in several counties along 



GEOLOGY 



23 




the Mississippi River, including Rock Island, Calhoun, Jersey, 
Jackson, Union, and Alexander counties. 

Mississippian rocks. — The Mississippian rocks are exposed 
in Illinois in a very long and relatively narrow belt extending 
from Mercer County southward along the Mississippi Valley 
to the Ozarks, then eastward to the Ohio River along the crest 
of the Ozark Ridge of Illinois. These rocks include sandstones, 
shales, and limestones. They furnish materials for building, 
lime, concrete, riprap, and Portland cement. A large Portland- 
cement plant has been recently erected at Golconda, Pope 
County, where raw materials are furnished in abundance from 
the high bluffs of Missis- 
sippian rocks overlooking 
the Ohio River. Veins 
of fiuor spar, lead, and 
zinc occur in Mississip- 
pian rocks of Hardin and 
Pope counties. 

Pennsylvanian rocks. 
— The soil alone is the 
only resource of greater 
value to Illinois than the 
240,000,000,000 tons of 
coal locked in the Penn- 
sylvanian rocks or "Coal 
Measures" of the state. 
This is a larger coal re- 
serve than that held by any other state east of the Mississippi 
River. In addition to the coal, this system of rocks is rich in 
petroleum, building stone, and materials for Portland cement, 
building and paving brick, sewer pipe, pottery, and tile. 

Pennsylvanian rocks consist of sandstones, limestones, 
shales, and thick layers of coal. They form the surface rocks 
of about three-fifths of the state, lying south of a line drawn 
from Rock Island to Joliet. After the close of the Pennsyl- 
vanian period, only the extreme southern counties were ever 
again beneath the sea. 

The State Geological Survey has recognized sixteen differ- 
ent coal seams, varying in thickness from one to nineteen 



DRAINAGE CANAL AT ROMEO, WILL COUNTY 

In this part of its course the Drainage Canal 
is cut through solid rock. In rock the canal is 
narrower than in earth and the sides are verti- 
cal while in the wider earth channels the sides 
are gently sloping. (Photograph by W. D. 
Jones.) 



24 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

feet, separated by layers of shale, sandstone, and limestone. 
The total thickness of the rocks of the Pennsylvanian system 
in Ilhnois is not less than 1,200 feet. Only a small fraction of 
the entire mass of the system consists of coal. 

The Permian period. — The Permian period in the United 
States was accompanied by great land movements. The 
Appalachian Mountains to the east and the Ozark Plateau to 
the west were uplifted. The La Salle anticline in Illinois was 
further elevated, and the Ozark Ridge of southern lUinois, 
extending eastward from Union County to the Ohio River, 
was raised as a spur to the Ozark Dome of Missouri. 

Molten rock moved upward through fissures in Pope, 
Hardin, and adjoining counties, and, if it did not overflow, it 
reached an elevation so high that subsequent erosion has 
exposed it in dikes. The numerous faults and small folds of 
southern Illinois were probably formed at this time. Beneath 
some of these low arches and domes, in the porous strata that are 
overlain by dense, impervious layers, the oil and gas deposits 
of Illinois have accumulated. While these folds were made 
during Permian time, the rocks that were folded belong to 
an earlier period, Pennsylvanian or Mississippian. 

Cretaceous and Tertiary time. — The lUinois region has been 
dry land since the close of the Pennsylvanian period. During 
the Cretaceous period, in the latter part of the Mesozoic era, 
and during Tertiary time, in the early part of the Cenozoic era, 
a narrow strip of southern Illinois along the Ohio River in 
Pulaski, Massac, and Pope counties was submerged and 
received sediments of clay, sand, and gravel. 

The Glacial period. — The latest event that greatly changed 
the surface of Illinois was the slow movement of enormous ice 
sheets over portions of the state at different times during the 
Glacial period, the last period of the Cenozoic era. The glacial 
drift covers the solid rock with a thick layer of mantle rock. 
The work of glaciation is discussed in some detail in the next 
chapter. 

The geology of Illinois is strikingly presented in the Geologic 
Map of lUinois, published by the State Geological Survey, 
Urbana, Illinois. 



CHAPTER III 
THE GLACLAi PERIOD 

Preglacial Illinois. — During the long ages from the close of 
the Pennsylvanian period of the Paleozoic era to the opening 
of the Glacial period in the late Cenozoic era, Illinois was 
exposed to the constant activities of the ordinary processes of 
erosion in operation today. The surface rocks of the Penn- 
sylvanian and earlier periods were weathered into fragments. 
Then, as now, a network of streams carried the rock waste 
along their courses across the state. Master-streams like 
the Mississippi, Ohio, Illinois, and Wabash received the debris 
and carried it on to the sea. Valleys were deeply carved, and 
they were widened to the stage of maturity. Much of the 
state possessed a rugged, mature topography similar to that 
now found in the Driftless Area of northwestern Illinois and 
southwestern Wisconsin. The smaller stream systems were 
wholly different in their details from those of today; even 
the vigorous Mississippi occupied, at places, a very different 
course from the one along which it now flows. 

A mantle of soil, weathered from the underlying rocks, 
overspread the state; plants appropriate to the soil and the 
climate had become established; and animal life, adapted to 
the environment of the time, wandered over the region. We 
cannot know the exact conditions of the state in preglacial 
time, but by comparison with the adjoining unglaciated dis- 
tricts we know that the topography, developed by long- 
continued stream erosion, was more rugged than now, the 
soil thinner and not so fertile, and the conditions for the 
development of plant and animal life, especially with refer- 
ence to human needs, not so favorable as at present. 

The Glacial period. — Glaciation has been an important 
factor in shaping the present relief of Illinois. A change of 
climate produced conditions over Northern North America 
and Northwestern Europe such that more snow fell during the 
winters than could be melted during the succeeding summers. 

SAUKVALLEYCOLLEGE43584 

I nn 



26 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



These accumulations of snow resulted, after centuries of time, 
in great snow fields, which, under their own weight, became 
slowly moving continental glaciers. The North American 
ice sheet, with centers of accumulation in Labrador, in Kee- 
watin in Central Canada, and in the Canadian Cordillera, 
covered nearly all of Canada and much of Northern United 
States. It reached its farthest extension southward in Illinois, 




CONTINENTAL GLACIATION IN NORTH AMERICA AS RELATED TO ILLINOIS 

The North American ice sheet extended farther south in Illinois than elsewhere. 
The Driftless Area was most extensive in southwestern Wisconsin, as shown on the 
map. It occupies small areas also in Illinois, Iowa, and Minnesota. 



where its southern edge rested on the northern flank of the 
Ozark Ridge in Jackson, Williamson, Saline, and Gallatin 
counties, 1,600 miles from the center of accumulation in the 
peninsula of Labrador. 

During the Glacial period the ice sheet advanced into the 
LTnited States five times. At least three of these invasions — 



THE GLACIAL PERIOD 



27 



the Illinoisan, lowan, and Wisconsin — reached far into lUinois, 
and each produced profound changes in the surface and the 
soils of the state. Extensive studies have been made by glacial 
geologists to determine the duration of the Glacial period. The 
estimates place the beginning of the period at more than 
300,000 years, possibly as much as 1,000,000 years ago; the 
climax of the Illinoisan invasion at more than 140,000 years; 
the lowan at more than 60,000 years; and the Wisconsin at 
more than 20,000 years ago. The Glacial period is only a 
small fraction of the total of geologic time. 

Evidences of glaciation. — It is fully demonstrated that at 
least nine-tenths of Illinois has been glaciated. The character 
of the mantle rock, the 
glacial "drift" or "till," 
and the appearance of 
the surface of the bed- 
rock of the glaciated 
regions can be explained 
only by glacial action. 
The glacial drift varies 
in thickness from a 
thin veneer to more 
than 300 feet; its depth 
for the entire glaciated 
region averages about 
75 feet. This drift is 
made up of materials varying from fine particles of clay to large 
bowlders, the whole so thoroughly mixed together that the 
result could be accomplished only by glacial action. Among 
the drift are numerous pebbles and bowlders, subangular in 
form and strongly striated in the manner characteristic of 
glacial action. 

Ridges of unassorted drift are found in many places in 
Illinois, in some cases forming long, broad, continuous ridges 
extending for hundreds of miles across Illinois and adjoining 
states. These are the "terminal moraines" of the North 
American ice sheet. The Shelbyville, Bloomington, and 
Valparaiso moraines are the most conspicuous ridges of this 
character in Illinois. Each is named from a city located on its 




GLACIAL DRIrT IN VALPARAISO MORAINE 

Glacial drift, as in this scene, may consist 
of materials of various sizes from large bowl- 
ders to fine clay, heterogeneously mixed to- 
gether. (Photograph by W. D. Jones.) 



28 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



crest. No agent except glaciers is known to produce such ridges 

as these moraines. 

Numerous bowlders in the drift, and the "bowlder belts" or 

"bowlder trains" many miles in length in Kankakee, Will, 

Grundy, Kendall, and 
Cook counties, tell that 
these great rocks have 
been plucked from the 
granite areas of the 
Lake Superior region 
and carried for more 
than 500 miles from the 
rock formations of which 
they were once a part. 

The thickness of the 
mantle rock of the gla- 
ciated region is much 
greater on the average 
than that of the ungla- 
ciated districts. The 
bedrock beneath the 
drift is smoothed and 
polished by the grinding 
power of glacial action, 
while the mantle rock 
of the unglaciated areas 
grades gradually and 




MORAINAL SYSTEM OF WISCONSIN GLACIATION 
IN ILLINOIS 



with increasing coarse- 
ness of form into the 
bedrock beneath. The 
bedrock exposed at 
Stony Island in South 
Chicago shows numer- 
ous "chatter marks" 
characteristic of glacial 
action. At the Hawthorne Stone Quarry, just west of Chicago, 
the mantle rock has been removed for quarrying purposes, and 
the exposed surface of the bedrock is shown smoothed, striated, 
and polished, exhibiting the work of powerful tools in the grip 



The terminal moraines of the Wisconsin 
jilaciation are usually the most conspicuous 
irrcKularities found in the toposraphy of north- 
eastern Illinois. The line of separation be- 
tween the terminal moraine and the more 
level Kround moraine is often sharp and well 
defined. Elsewhere the terminal moraine may 
fade imperceptibly into tlie giound moraine. 




•2 -"A 1 Kilometer 

In the (Inaiess irea Strongly dissected Rojds on dmdes 




TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS OF DRIFTLESS AREA, TERMINAl, UORAINE, GROUND MORAINE 

The most rugged land of the state is in the unglaciated areas. The terminal 
moraines consist of ridges, having a relief up to 200 feet or more. The ground 
moraines, more extensive in area than the terminal moraines, are the more level lands 
of the state. 



THE GLACIAL PERIOD 29 

of the massive ice sheet. The St. Peter sandstone at the 
Federal Plate Glass Factory at Ottawa presents a rock surface 
deeply grooved by glacial action. 

Karnes, short ridges of sand and gravel formed near the 
edge of the ice, are found in the Kaskaskia Basin and elsewhere 
among the terminal moraines of the state. Eskers, ridges 
of sand and gravel accumulated by the wash of streams in 
tunnels under the ice, are well developed in the pre-Iowan 
drift of Ogle and Stephenson counties. 

Outwash plains, belts of debris deposited along the outer 
margin of the larger terminal moraines, and valley trains, long 
lines of debris deposited in valleys leading from terminal 
moraines, are numerous and well developed especially in the 
Wisconsin glaciation of the state. 

Unglaciated areas. — Three regions of limited area within 
Illinois were untouched by the ice sheet. The largest of these 
includes the seven southernmost counties of the state and the 
southern edge of the next four counties. The ice sheet pushed 
southward to the Ozark Ridge and up its northern slope, 
depositing drift 20 to 25 feet thick, but the ice did not override 
the crest of the ridge. This is the most southern latitude 
reached by the North American ice sheet. A second unglaci- 
ated region within the state lies between the Mississippi and 
IlHnois rivers in Calhoun and Pike counties. The Kansan ice 
sheet approached this region from the west and the Illinoisan ice 
sheet from the east, but neither crossed the narrow rugged area. 

The third unglaciated area of Illinois occupies nearly all 
of Jo Daviess County and small portions of Stephenson and 
Carroll counties. It is only a part of a much larger unglaciated 
district known as the "Driftless Area" which occupies portions 
of the four states, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa. 
The Driftless Area includes 8,000 to 10,000 square miles, about 
600 square miles of which is in Illinois. 

This unglaciated region is entirely surrounded by thick 
deposits of glacial drift. Why it escaped glaciation is not 
well understood. The value per acre of its farm lands is very 
much less than that of the adjoining glaciated regions. The 
three unglaciated districts of Illinois have a total area of 
approximately 4,000 square miles. 



30 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

For the unglaciated areas of the state see the soil map 
facing page 152, the red areas marked No. 1, in Joe Daviess, 
Calhoun, and the southernmost group of counties. 

Early ice invasions. — The oldest drift sheet, the sub- 
Aftonian of the first ice invasion, did not, so far as known, 
reach Illinois. It lies buried beneath the later drift in Iowa, 
where it has been exposed by erosion. The Kansan, or second 
ice invasion, produced a drift sheet which lies at the surface 
over a large area in Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, and Nebraska. 
The Kansan glacial lobe, which radiated from the Keewatin 
center of glaciation, seems to have crossed into Illinois, and 
it probably forced the Mississippi River, for the time being, 
into a channel farther east than its present course. Any 
Kansan drift laid down in Illinois has been deeply covered by 
the deposits of later invasions, and it is not found at the 
surface within the state. 

Illinoisan glaciation. — The third ice invasion radiated from 
the Labrador center of the North American ice sheet and over- 
spread so much of lUinois that the glacial lobe and the glacial 
drift of this ice advance is known as the Illinoisan. The move- 
ment of the Illinois glacial lobe was southwestward. The ice 
at this stage reached a lower latitude, 37° 40', than elsewhere 
in North America, and a point 1,600 miles from the center of 
accumulation, a distance somewhat greater than the movement 
of any other ice invasion from its center. 

The ice sheet of the Illinoisan glaciation crossed the Mis- 
sissippi River between Rock Island, Illinois, and Fort Madison, 
Iowa, and forced the Mississippi about twenty miles farther 
west than its present course. The Mississippi River thus suf- 
fered important changes of position in portions of its course by 
both the Kansan and the lUinoisan glacial invasions. The 
INIississippi channel which had been estabhshed by the Kansan 
lobe was completely obliterated and deeply covered by the 
drift of the Illinoisan glaciation. 

The Illinoisan drift sheet extends northeastward under the 
later glacial deposits far back from the southern margin. The 
surface exposures of the Illinoisan glaciation forms a great 
crescent-shaped area extending southward beyond the more 
recent drift sheets through Wisconsin, Ilhnois, Indiana, and 



THE GLACIAL PERIOD 31 

Ohio. This drift area is widest and best developed in western 
and southern lUinois, hence the name. 

Terminal moraines were formed in the lUinoisan glaciation 
as ridges or mounds which now form low but conspicuous 
irregularities in the landscape. One group of these morainal 
elevations is readily traced on the soil map from Jackson 
County northward and northeastward along the Kaskaskia 
River, thence northwestward to Logan and Mason counties. 
Another group is found extending from Pike County north- 
ward along the Mississippi and Illinois rivers. On the map 
No. 2 stands for the terminal moraines of the Illinoisan glaci- 
ation. 

Divisions of the Illinoisan glaciation. — An examination of 
the map shows that the Illinoisan drift sheet is divided 
into three parts: the Lower Illinoisan glaciation (No. 3), 
mainly between the Wabash and Kaskaskia rivers; the 
Middle Illinoisan glaciation (No. 4), between the Kaskaskia 
and Illinois rivers; and the Upper Illinoisan glaciation (No. 5), 
between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. This division 
is based on differences in the agricultural values and in the 
properties of the soils in these regions. 

The pre-Iowan glaciation, No. 6 of the map, in the north- 
western part of the state is sometimes classified with the 
Illinoisan, but it may be a drift sheet intermediate between the 
Illinoisan and lowan glaciations. 

lowan glaciation. — In the Rock River Basin of northern 
Illinois is a portion of a drift sheet known as lowan. It is 
represented by No. 7 on the map. 

The loess. — Loess is a variety of silt, intermediate in the size 
of its particles, between clay and sand. The loess of Illinois 
is associated with the lowan stage of glaciation. The loess 
covers the areas of Illinoisan drift, and it is covered by the 
Wisconsin drift. It seems to be a wind-blown product, and 
has a very wide distribution in the state. Over the uplands it 
commonly has a depth of 3 to 10 feet. lAlong the valleys, 
especially the Mississippi, Illinois, and Wabash, the deposits 
of loess are much thicker, a depth of 30 to 40 feet being com- 
mon, with a maximum of nearly 100 feet. These are known as 
deep loess areas, and are represented on the map by No. 8. 



32 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Wisconsin glaciation. — The fifth and last ice invasion of 
the United States covered the northeast quarter of Ilhnois, 
extending southward as far as Clark and Cumberland counties. 
The Early Wisconsin glaciation is represented by Nos. 9 and 11 
of the map and the Late Wisconsin glaciation by Nos. 10 
and 12. Wherever the Wisconsin drift sheet is found in 
the state, it lies at the surface, covering the older drift sheets 
of northeastern Illinois. The Wisconsin drift covers a large 
area in Wisconsin and swings in a broad curve across north- 
western Indiana and far into Michigan. 

While the terminal moraines of the Illinoisan drift are of 
very moderate elevation and length, and those of the lowan 
but slightly developed, the moraines of the Wisconsin are 
among the largest and longest of the world. There are three 
conspicuous and very e.xtensive moraines of the Wisconsin 
drift. 

1. The Shelby ville moraine marks the outer edge of the 
Wisconsin drift, and extends from Indiana across Illinois to 
Peoria County. 

2. The Bloomington moraine consists at places of a single 
ridge, at other places of a group of ridges extending from 
Indiana across Illinois to Peoria County, where it overlaps the 
Shelbyville moraine and continues at the outer margin of the 
Early Wisconsin glaciation to Kane County, where it, in turn, 
is overlapped by the Late Wisconsin. 

3. The Valparaiso moraine belongs to the Late Wisconsin 
glaciation. It is a broad belt of massive ridges extending 
from Grand River in Michigan across northwestern Indiana, 
northeastern Ilhnois, and along eastern Wisconsin to Green 
Bay. 

Other minor moraines are conspicuous features of the land- 
scape, and a number have been named from cities located on 
them. Thus we have: (1) the Champaign moraine with its 
offshoot, the Cerro Gordo moraine; (2) the Chatsworth 
ridge and the Cropsey ridge branching from the Bloomington 
moraine; (3) the IVIarseilles moraine crossing the Ilhnois 
River at Marseilles; (4) the Minooka ridge extending from 
the \'alparaiso moraine along the county line of Kendall and 
Will counties. 



THE GLACIAL PERIOD 



33 



On the map, all moraines of the Early Wisconsin are repre- 
sented by No. 9 and those of the Late Wisconsin by No. 10. 

While the terminal moraines of the Wisconsin drift stand out 
conspicuously in the landscape, the larger area of the Wisconsin 
glaciation belongs to the level "ground moraines" occupying 
the broad stretches between the ridges of the terminal moraines. 
They form extensive areas of fertile farm land of sufficient 
slope to be easily drained, and sufhciently level to reduce loss 
of fertility by erosion to a minimum and to make the operation 
of modern farm machinery easy and highly profitable. The 
ground moraines of the Early Wisconsin, No. 11 on the map, 
are much more extensive in Illinois than those of the Late 
Wisconsin (No. 12). 

Sand, swamp, and bottom lands. — During and after the 
retreat of the ice sheets from Illinois, great streams of water 
flowed across the state, the water supply coming from the 
rainfall and from the melting glacier. While the massive ice 
sheet blocked the outlets to the east and northeast, glacial 
lakes formed along the 
front of the ice barrier, 
the ice forming their 
northern shores and 
the terminal moraines 
their southern margins. 
Large areas of north- 
eastern Illinois in the 
Wisconsin glaciation 
were thus regions of shal- 
low lakes. Much of the 
land of this region today 
consists of the basins of 
these lakes drained by 
the withdrawal of the 
glacial barrier, or by 
down-cutting of their 
outlets, or by great open ditches constructed by man. 

The most noted of these glacial lakes in Illinois is known 
as Lake Chicago, the ancestor of Lake Michigan. As the 
glacial barrier prevented the flow of water along its present 




SOUTH OVER DES PLAINES OUTLET 

This broad valley, now occupied by a small 
stream, was once filled with the overflow from 
the ancient Lake Chicago. (Photograph by 
W. D. Jones.) 



34 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



outlet, the waters of Lake Chicago, bordered by the ice on the 
north and by the massive Valparaiso moraine on the south, 




GLENWOOD 

'V/y / TOLLESTON 
^ PRESENT 



LAKE STAGES 



The ancient Lake Chicago stood highest at the Glenwood stage, at which time 
the site of the city of Chicago and vicinity was lake bottom. The Calumet stage and 
the ToUeston stage represent successively lower levels of Lake Chicago, while a 
further recession of waters established the shore line of the present Lake Michigan. 

rose until they found an outlet across the Valparaiso moraine 
along the present drainage line of the Des Plaines River. The 



THE GLACIAL PERIOD 35 

broad, deep valley, eroded by the escaping waters of Lake 
Chicago, is known as the "Chicago Outlet." The valley 
bluffs of the Chicago Outlet are conspicuous and interesting 
features of the landscape to the traveler between Chicago 
and Joliet. The Chicago Outlet furnished easy portage to 
Joliet and Marquette in 1673, and later to La Salle and other 
explorers. It became the route, successively, of the Illinois 
and Michigan Canal; the Santa Fe and the Chicago and Alton 
railroads; the Chicago Drainage Canal; and the Chicago 
and Joliet electric railroad. 

The "Chicago Plain," the bottom of Lake Chicago which 
has been made dry land by the withdrawal of glacial waters, 
covers much of Cook County and extends into Indiana. 

Sediment in great quantities was carried by the streams 
flowing across Illinois from the retreating Wisconsin glacial 
lobe. This sediment was deposited in the shallow glacial 
lakes and on the flood plains of the streams. The valleys were 
so well filled by the excessive water supply, and the sediment 
was so abundant, that the bottom lands developed along these 
streams during earlier stages of glaciation were widely and 
deeply covered by the sediments of the drainage waters of 
the Wisconsin stage. Where sand was abundant, the winds 
carried it beyond the immediate limits of the valley, thus 
forming considerable areas of sand deposits especially in Mason, 
Tazewell, and other river counties. These sand areas are 
mainly east of the Illinois River, due to the strength of the 
prevailing westerly winds. 

A study of the map reveals the relation of the old bottom 
lands and the late bottom lands to each other, to the stream 
valleys, and to the shallow glacial lakes. No. 13 represents 
the "old river bottom and swamp areas." It is found outside 
the Wisconsin glaciation along the streams in the lUinoisan 
glaciation, often separated from the stream by No. 14 repre- 
senting "sand, late swamp, and bottom lands." Before the 
Wisconsin stage, these flood plains were wholly occupied by 
No. 13, the "old river bottom and swamp areas." The flood 
of waters from the Wisconsin glacier with its load of sediment 
very largely buried these "old river bottom and swamp areas" 
beneath the materials represented by No. 14 as the "sand, late 



36 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



swamp, and bottom lands." Interesting relationships between 
these old and late river bottoms appear from a study of the 
map along the Illinois River, along the Mississippi and its 
tributaries in southern Illinois, and especially along the Wabash 
and its Illinois tributaries, the Embarras, Little Wabash and 
its Skillet Fork, and along the Saline River and its tributaries. 
Results of glaciation. — No event of geologic history means 
as much to IlUnois as the activities of the North American 
ice sheet. The fertile soils formed during the Glacial period 
are of greater value to the citizens of lUinois than the great 

wealth of the coal de- 
posits of the Pennsyl- 
vanian period. Illinois 
was so fortunately situ- 
ated that the rock ma- 
terial entering into her 
glacial soils was such as 
to furnish necessary plant 
food in abundance, thus 
producing a soil which, 
with scientific treatment, 
will maintain its fertility 
through an indefinite fu- 
ture. In the glacial drift 
are found deposits of 
sand, gravel, and clay, 
valuable for building 
purposes, for drainage 
tile, pottery, and road-making materials. The level surface 
of the glaciated regions of the state have invited railroad 
building which gives all parts of Illinois splendid transpor- 
tation facihties. Although Illinois stands twenty-third in area, 
the fact that she stands first in value of farm lands and farm 
crops, second in railroad mileage and wealth, and third in 
population and manufactures, is due very largely to the 
extensive and thorough work of the ancient ice sheet within 
the state. 




CLA\ PIT IN SIDE OF BLUE ISLAND, 
COOK COUNTY 

Clay deposits, suitable for brick and tile, are 
widely distributed through the glacial drift of 
Illinois. Clay for pottery is found in more 
limited areas. (Photograph by W. D. Jones.) 



CHAPTER IV 
SURFACE AND DRAINAGE 

General surface features. — Illinois is a part of the Great 
Central Plain of North America. The relief of the state is not 
sufficient to form distinct physiographic areas nor to exert 
marked influence upon the climate. Illinois is but a portion 
of an extensive fertile plain. 

Although flatness is characteristic of Illinois as a whole, 
local relief is sufficient in many parts of the state to interfere 
decidedly with the construction of highways and railroads. 
The general uniformity of surface is strikingly broken and 
varied by the valley trenches of the master-streams and their 
principal tributaries; by the extensive terminal moraines; by 
the Ozark Ridge; and by the long-continued erosive power of 
running water in the unglaciated areas of the state. 

The highest point in the state, l,24rfeet above sea-level, 
is Charles Mound in Jo Daviess County, less than a mile from 
the lUinois-Wisconsin boundary line. The lowest point, 
268 feet above the sea, is low-water mark at the junction of the 
Mississippi and Ohio rivers. The total rehef of the state is 
thus 973 feet. The distance between these two places is 400 
miles; the gradient, therefore, averages about 2^ feet to the 
mile, or 1 foot to 2,000 feet, a slope so gentle as to be imper- 
ceptible to the eye and difficult of detection by instruments. 

If, however, the traveler should motor from Charles Mound 
in Jo Daviess County to the river front at Cairo, he would 
find many miles of his route presenting other than the average 
gradient. Jo Daviess County alone has a maximum relief of 
666 feet, and the traveler finds that the direction of the roads 
in the first section of his journey is controlled by the mature 
topography of the unglaciated area, where the relief of every 
square mile usually exceeds 100 feet. The roads are laid out 
to follow the gentler slopes and to cross the ridges at their 
lowest notches. Beyond the unglaciated area the roads begin 
to follow the section lines on the level prairie lands of the 

37 



38 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

ground moraine of the great ice sheet. As the traveler 
approaches the broad, stccp-sidcd valley of the Illinois River, 
he may find it necessary to make a detour of 20 miles or more 
to find a bridge. The bluffs on each side of the valley now 
determine the location of the highway until the journey has 
carried the traveler well beyond the immediate edge of the 
Illinois Valley. The long stretches of level country are some- 
what broken by the shallow valleys of numerous small streams, 
while the larger valleys are deep enough to add variety to the 
landscape and to present steep gradients in the highway. In 




->/•>. 



VIEW NEAR TUNNEL HILL, JOHNSON COUNTY 

Pasture fields are common on the level uplands and forested areas in the 
valleys of the Illinois Ozarks. (Copyright by Robert Ridgway.) 

southern Ilhnois the traveler sees a long, even-topped ridge 
rising abruptly above the level plain, stretching to the east and 
west as far as the eye can see. The Ozark Plateau now controls 
the direction and the gradient of the highways, and for the 
remaining 40 or 50 miles of the journey the picturesque scenery, 
the steep and winding roadways, and the difficult fords at small 
streams lead the traveler to question whether Illinois is the 
level state so frequently mentioned in books. The route 
leads across the Ilhnois Ozarks, down the bluffs of the Ohio to 
Cairo, situated on the narrow strip of level land between the 
Ohio and Mississippi rivers. From the levee between the 
city and the Ohio, the traveler sees the river flowing 50 feet 




''" IKiloTThet^r 

Bold relief in the Ozark hill country. Equality quadrangle 



TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS OF FUiX PLAIN, RIVER BLUFFS, OZARK COUNTRY 

Large areas of Illinois consist of flat plains with slight relief. The Illinois 
River bluffs are conspicuous topographic features within a plain of slight relief. 
The rocky uplift of the Ozark Ridge produces an area of rugged lands of considerable 
extent. 



SURFACE AND DRAINAGE 



39 



below the levee crest, if in the season of low water; if at flood 
time, he sees the widened stream stretching away to the 
Kentucky hills at a level well above the streets of the city, 
which are securely protected by huge levees built at great 
expense of labor and money. 

If we examine the surface of the state, county by county, 
we shall find that each county has a relief exceeding 100 feet. 
Among the larger counties, Iroquois has the least maximum 




"big four" railroad tunnel, tunnel hill, JOHNSON COUNTY 

The difficulty of crossing the rugged Ozark Ridge by railroad is here met by 
driving a tunnel 900 feet in length through the solid rock. (Photograph by W. H. 
Simmons.) 



relief, 130 feet, while Richland, a smaller county, has a maxi- 
mum relief below that of any other county, 105 feet. Pope 
County has the greatest relief to be found within any county 
of the state. The descent from Williams Hill, 1,065 feet 
above sea-level, the highest point in the Illinois Ozarks, to 
the Ohio River, is 775 feet, with an average fall of 70 feet per 
mile, or an average of 1 foot to 75 feet. Among the Ozarks and 
along the highest river bluffs of the state the rehef is frequently 



^^^^^^ 


-'/__' 








■;-' '! 






. ■; -: - ^ . j 









PHOTOGRAPH OF RELIEF MODEL OF ILLINOIS 

The Strongest relief of the state is found in the unplaciated regions 
and along the larger stream valleys. (Model by M. Lorenz.) 



SURFACE AND DRAINAGE 



41 




DRAINAGE BASINS OF ILLINOIS 

I. Lake Michigan Basin 
II. Rock River Basin 

III. Illinois River Basin 

IV, Kaskaskia River Basin 
V. Big Muddy River Basin 

VI. Minor Basins 
VII. Wabash River Basin 
VIII. Ohio River Basin 



42 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



200 to 300 feet or even more within the distance of a single 
mile. AUhough irregularities of surface are extensive and 
very effective in local control of highways, railroads, and 
industries, yet the state as a whole is noted for its gentle 
slopes, having a surface remarkably well adapted to the develop- 
ment of the world's greatest industry, agriculture, and to 
the building of highways and railroads for easy and rapid 
transportation to every part of the state. 

Drainage basins. — The physical features of Illinois con- 
sist of a plain whose surface is varied somewhat by glacial 
moraines and stream valleys. Differences in altitude are not 
sufficiently marked to divide the state into distinct physical 
regions on the basis of elevation. It is possible, however, to 
divide the state into definite drainage areas. While divides 
between these basins may not be conspicuous, detailed maps 
make it possible to mark out their limits with accuracy. 
The entire state belongs to two large drainage regions: the 
Lake Michigan Basin and the Mississippi River Basin. The 
Mississippi Basin in Illinois may be further divided into a 
number of subordinate basins. The state m.ay be divided as 
indicated in the accompanying table into eight regions. 

Drainage Basins of Illinois 



Number on Draix- 
age Map 


Basin 


Area 


Square Miles 


Percentage of 
State 


I 


Lake Michigan 
Rock River 
Illinois River 
Kaskaskia River 
Big Muddy River 
Minor Basins 
Wabash River 
Ohio River 


722 
5.310 
24.040 
5,710 
2.230 
6,488 
8,770 
2,7.30 


1.3 


II 


9.5 


Ill 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 


43.0 
10.2 

4.0 
11.5 
15.5 

5.0 


Total . 




56,000 


100.0 









Lake Michigan Basin. — The Lake Michigan Basin has 
the smallest area and the largest population of the eight 
drainage regions into which the state has been divided. It is 



SURFACE AND DRAINAGE 



43 



narrowest in Lake 
County where the 
divide between Lake 
Michigan and the 
Des Plaines River is 
within 4 to 6 miles 
of the lake shore. 
It widens southward 
to a width of 8 to 
12 miles in the Chi- 
cago region, increas- 
ing in southern Cook 
County and north- 
eastern Will County 
to a width of about 
20 miles. The divide 
lies on the Valpa- 
raiso moraine near 
its inner margin, thus 
leaving the greater 
part of this moraine 
in the Illinois River 
Basin. The length 
of the divide from 
the Wisconsin bound- 
ary to the Indiana 
boundary is about 
100 miles. 

The area assigned 
to the Lake Michigan 
Basin, 722 square 
miles, is equal to a 
square whose sides 
are 27 miles in 
length, or to a circle 
whose diameter is 30 
miles. The city of 
Chicago with an area 
of nearly 200 square 




DRAINAGE MAP OF LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN IN ILLINOIS 



44 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

miles occupies 27 per cent of that part of the Lake Michigan 
Basin in Illinois. jNIorc than 40 per cent of the population 
of Illinois live on the 1.3 per cent of the area of the state 
included in the Lake Michigan Basin. 

The chief topographic features of this drainage basin are 
the Chicago Plain and the inner portion of the Valparaiso 
moraine. 

The Chicago Plain extends from Winnetka southward to 
the Indiana boundary and eastward into Indiana around the 
head of Lake Michigan. It is the bottom of the ancient 
glacial lake, Lake Chicago, the ancestor of Lake Michigan, 
which formed to the southward of the great ice sheet and 
discharged its waters across the Valparaiso moraine through 

the Chicago Outlet, 
the present valley of the 
Des Plaines River. The 
Chicago Plain is flat 
with occasional low sand 
dunes and a few rem- 
nants of the Valparaiso 
moraine. 

The natural drainage 
of the Chicago Plain is 
through the Chicago 

CALUMET RIVER, SOUTH OF LAKE CALUMET, nnA r"aliiTnof i-i'iroi-c 

COOK COUNTY ^^^ uaiumct rivers 

The streams of the Chicago Plain are sr,.all, ^nd their tributaries. 

shallow, and sluggish. Only at great expendi- The North Branch of 

ture of money and labor have their lower courses , r^u* t? ■ A 

been made into deep and commodious harbors tne t^niCagO i\.iver and 

w'd'joms')'"*^^ ''"*^'' (Photograph by the South Branch of the 

Chicago River unite 
near Market and South Water streets in the city of Chicago, 
forming the Chicago River which extends eastward \\ miles 
to Lake Michigan. Under natural conditions the waters of 
these streams tlowed with sluggish current into the lake. 
With the opening of the Chicago Drainage Canal in 1900 the 
currents of the Chicago River and of the South Branch were 
reversed, and sufficient water from Lake Michigan has since 
been flowing westward and southwestward across the natural 
divide at Summit into the Des Plaines River at Lockport to 




SURFACE AND DRAINAGE 



45 



give the city of Chicago proper drainage, and to insure a 
supply of good water from the lake. 

The Grand Calumet Hows with sluggish current from the 
sand dunes of Indiana through Gary and Hammond, Indiana, 
and through South Chicago to Lake Michigan. The Little 
Calumet enters Illinois from Indiana flowing northwestward; 
it makes a sharp bend to the east and joins the Grand Calumet 
at the southern edge of Chicago. Lake Calumiet, Hyde Lake, 
and Wolf Lake are shallow lakes connected with the Grand 
Calumet River. 





SAG OUTLET AND SLOPE OF MOUNT FOREST ISLAND 

The level land in this scene was the bed of a stream of flowing water while 
Lake Chicago was pouring its waters across the present divide to the Illinois Valley. 
The higher land at the left of the scene is the margin of Mount Forest Island which 
was not covered by the waters of Lake Chicago. (Photograph by W. D. Jones.) 



The indefiniteness of the divide between the Lake Michigan 
and Illinois River basins is strikingly shown in various ways. 
In pioneer days a continuous passage for boats was found at 
times of high water along the Chicago portage between the 
Des Plaines River and the South Branch of the Chicago 
River. No great difificulty was experienced in digging the 
Illinois and Michigan Canal across the divide at Summit ; nor in 
furnishing the canal with a water supply through the "Canal 
Feeder" constructed across the low divide in the "Sag." The 
Sag is a broad valley once occupied by water flowing from Lake 
Chicago and separated from the Chicago Outlet, or Des 



46 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

Plaines Valley, by Mount Forest Island. The observant 
traveler can see and appreciate these topographic relationships 
today as he is carried swiftly on the railroad along the tedious 
water route followed by Joliet and Marquette in 1073. 

That portion of the Valparaiso moraine which Hes in the 
Lake Michigan Basin is divided into two parts by the Chicago 
Outlet. The narrow belt to the north, between the divide 
and the lake, consists of a series of morainic ridges drained by 
short, wet-weather streams which have cut deep V-shaped 
gullies into the lake bluff north of Winnetka, and by the upper 
course of the North Branch of the Chicago River. The lake 
shore from the Wisconsin boundary line to the city limits of 
Chicago, a distance of 36 miles, is occupied by cities and 
villages at intervals of about two miles. Excellent railroad 
service makes possible this remarkable series of residential 
suburbs along the lake. Here many thousands of people 
have homes situated on beautiful sites, with healthful sur- 
roundings, and with easy access to the great city. 

The Valparaiso moraine to the south of the Chicago Outlet 
is drained on its inner border by short streams tributary to the 
Little Calumet River. Valparaiso and Laporte, Indiana, are 
in the Kankakee Basin, while Chicago Heights, lUinois, Ham- 
mond, Gary, and Michigan City, Indiana, are in the Lake 
Michigan Basin. 

Rock River Basin. — Rock River rises in Fond du Lac County, 
about 20 miles south of Oshkosh, Wisconsin. It flows south- 
westward and empties into the Mississippi 6 miles below Rock 
Island, lUinois. The length of the river is 285 miles, and the 
length of the basin 175 miles. The total area of the basin, 
10,800 square miles, is almost equally divided between Wiscon- 
sin and IlHnois. The stream has an elevation of 1,000 feet at 
its source and 540 feet at its mouth. The width of the basin on 
the state Une is 75 miles, about one-half the width of the state 
along the northern boundary. The basin lies mainly in the 
low'an and pre-Iowan glacial deposits. 

The Pecatonica River flows through Freeport and joins the 
Rock River at the village of Rockton, near the state line. 
Kishwaukee Creek, on which Belvidere is located, is an eastern 
tributary which joins the Rock a few miles below Rockford. 



SURFACE AND DRAINAGE 



47 



Green River, the most important Iriljutary of the Rock, Hows 
from DcKalb County to Rock Iskmd County, and drains the 
southern portion of the Rock River Basin in lUinois. 

The course of Rock River has determined the location of 
several important cities. On its banks are found Janesville 
and Beloit in Wisconsin; Rockford, the fifth city of IlUnois in 
population; and the smaller but important cities of Oregon, 




- M. 

ROCK RIVER NEAR OREGON, OGLE COUNTY 



Dixon, Sterhng, and Rock Falls. Rock Island and Moline 
are large cities on the Mississippi just above the mouth of 
Rock River. 

Glaciation produced profound changes in preglacial drain- 
age. Rock River Basin furnishes evidence of great changes 
in drainage lines. From Janesville, Wisconsin, to the mouth 
of Kishwaukee Creek, Rock River flows in a broad preglacial 
valley which continues southward, joining the Illinois Valley 
at Great Bend near Hennepin. Rock River, however, turns 



48 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



southwestward at the junction of Kishwauk.ee Creek and 
flows through a narrow post-glacial valley to Sterling, where 
it, enters the broad plains occupied also by Green River. In 
its course from Kishwaukee Creek to Sterling the river has cut 
across stretches of solid rock and thereby produced much 
picturesque scenery. 

Between Rock River and the Driftless Area of Jo Daviess 
County, the glacial drift is so thin that many small streams 
have deepened their valleys into the underlying bedrock, 
carving out numerous rock gorges. The greater part of the 
basin consists of undulating prairie lands wdth woodlands 
along the streams. Few of the hilltops are more than 100 
feet above the intervening valleys. 

The moraines of the lowan glaciation are low and incon- 
spicuous in the general surface, but a more rugged morainic 
topography occurs where the Rock River Basin occupies the 
outer margins of the \'alparaiso and Bloomington moraines 
of the Wisconsin glaciation. A number of eskers are found 
in the Rock River Basin. The largest and best-defined is 
the Leaf River or Adeline esker in northern Ogle County. It 
is found in the valley of Leaf River, a western tributary of the 
Rock, and the village of Adeline is located on the esker near 
its eastern end. This esker is 12 miles in length; from 100 to 
1,000 feet wide; and it rises from 20 feet to 100 feet above the 
level land on either side. The Hazelhurst esker is on the 
border between Ogle and Carroll counties. The Garden 
Plain esker is in Whiteside County, and numerous esker-like 
ridges are found in Stephenson County. 

The flat land of the basin is found along the lower course 
of Rock River and in most of the Green River Basin. These 
flat lands were originally extensive sw-amps which have been 
largely reclaimed by expensive drainage systems. 

Illinois River system. — The Illinois River is the most impor- 
tant tributary of the Mississippi above the Missouri, and the 
Ohio is the only eastern tributary of greater importance. The 
ininois River lies wholly within the state, but the Des Plaines 
and Kankakee rivers which unite at the eastern edge of Grundy 
County to form the Illinois have their sources in Wisconsin 
and Indiana respectively. 



SURFACE AND DRAINAGE 49 

From its source the Illinois River flows almost due westward 
for 63 miles across Grundy and La Salle counties to the Great 
Bend at Hennepin in Putnam County. Here the stream 
bends sharply to the southward. After crossing Putnam 
County its course is southwestward to the northern edge of 
Pike County. The stream then flows almost due south to the 
southern part of Calhoun County, where another sharp bend 
gives the last few miles of its source an easterly direction to 
its confluence with the Mississippi River. The Illinois River 
joins the Mississippi at Grafton, 24 miles above the mouth of 
the Missouri, 215 miles from the Great Bend, and 278 miles 
from the confluence of the Des Plaines and Kankakee rivers. 

The Des Plaines River rises in Racine County, Wisconsin. 
Its length is about 110 miles, 20 of which are in Wisconsin. 
Joliet is the largest city on the Des Plaines. The Kankakee 
River rises near South Bend, Indiana. It has a length of 135 
miles, more than half of which is in Indiana. Momence and 
Kankakee are located on this stream. 

The total stream length along which water may flow 
within the Illinois River Basin is more than 400 miles. 

The Illinois River has a fall of 50 feet in the 63 miles of its 
course to the Great Bend, or an average of 10 inches per mile. 
At Marseilles, however, the fall amounts to 18 feet in 1^ miles, 
and this makes possible the large water-power development 
at Marseilles. The fall in the 215 miles from the Great Bend 
to the Mississippi is only 25 feet, or but little more than 1 
inch per mile. The lower course of the Illinois River thus 
furnishes conditions favorable for navigation but not for 
power, while the upper course has favorable conditions for 
power development, but not for navigation except by addi- 
tional canal construction. 

The width of the Illinois Valley in its upper course is from 
1 to 1| miles, while the width below the Great Bend varies 
from little more than 1 mile at Peoria to more than 7 miles 
at Chillicothe and to 15 miles near the mouth of the Sangamon. 

The valley sides also vary in height and steepness, depend- 
ing on the nature of the land through which the stream flows. 
They are low and inconspicuous in the flat swamp lands of 
Grundy County; high and precipitous where the stream has 



50 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

cut through sohd rock as at Starved Rock; terraced or steeply 
sloping where the material of the upland is mainly glacial 
drift. The sandstone bluffs of the Starved Rock region are 
about ll2() feet above the river in ordinary stages of water. In 
the Peoria region and below, the bluffs in places rise 150 
to 250 feet or more above the valley floor. 




ILLINOIS RIVER FROM SUilillT OF STARVED ROCK 

The Illinois River \'alley was a favorite route of travel for the Indians, the 
early explorers, and the early settlers. Joliet, Marquette, La Salle, and Tontl all 
traversed the region shown in this scene. 

The Illinois River and \'alley have determined the location 
of numerous cities, some of which are IMorris, Marseilles, 
Ottawa, La Salle, Peru, Spring Valley, Hennepin, Chillicothe, 
Peoria, Pekin, Havana, and Beardstown. 

The Illinois River receives important tributaries from 
both sides. The Fox River rises in Waukesha County, Wis- 
consin, flows south and southwest and joins the Illinois at 
Ottawa. The principal lake region of Illinois is in Lake 



SURFACE AND DRAINAGE 



51 



^ 




ILLINOIS RIV'ER VALLEY, LOOKING EAST FROM STARVED ROCK STATE PARK 

The precipitous sides and comparatively barren crests of the cliffs of St. Peter 
sandstone maintain a moderate erowth of forest trees along the sides of the valley. 
(Photograph by Helen M. Strong.) 



cm-<-^''^' 





VERMILION RIVER .AT DEER PARK, LA SALLE COUNTY 

The natural vegetation in this scene is tj'pical of the wooded areas along stream 
valleys in the Illinois prairies. (Copyright by Keystone View Company.) 



52 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLIXOIS 

County along Fox River and its tributaries. Elgin, St. 
Charles, Geneva, Batavia, and Aurora are located on Fox 
River within a distance of 25 miles. The Vermilion River 
joins the Illinois from the south at La Salle. It flows through 
Pontiac and Strcator. It sometimes is called the Illinois- 
Vermilion to distinguish it from the Wabash- Vermilion which 
flows through Danville and is tributary to the Wabash. 

The Mackinaw River is an eastern tributary joining the 
IlHnois just below Pekin. Spoon River is a western tributary 
entering the IlKnois near Havana. The Sangamon in its lower 
course is the boundary between ]\Iason and Cass counties; 
Decatur is located on the Sangamon, and Springfield a few 
miles from it. Bloomington and Lincoln are in the basin of 
the Sangamon. Crooked Creek flows between Schuyler and 
Brown counties; and Macoupin Creek joins the Illinois 
between Greene and Jersey counties. 

Illinois River Basin. — The Illinois River Basin is the 
state's largest and most important physiographic region. It lies 
athwart the state in a northeast-southwest direction, forming 
a huge, roughly rectangular area 250 miles long and 100 miles 
wide. At the northeast the rectangle is not closed, but two 
armhke extensions project into the neighboring states of 
Wisconsin and Indiana. 

The Kankakee takes its course somewhat to the north of 
the center of the Indiana arm, and receives from the south its 
principal tributary, the Iroquois, which joins the Kankakee at 
its southernmost bend. The Kankakee Basin is one of the 
largest areas of exceedingly flat land in lUinois. Its original 
swamps have been drained for the most part, and level areas of 
fertile farm lands stretch away in the distance as far as the eye 
can see. Extensive and expensive drainage systems have made 
the soil available for agriculture, and the application of the 
principles of scientific agriculture has given phenomenal 
increase to crop yields on a soil pecuUarly rich in all but one 
of the plant-food elements. 

The basins of the Iroquois and Kankakee proper are 
separated by an arm of the Valparaiso moraine. The Kan- 
kakee is separated from the Lake Michigan and Des Plaines 
basins by the broad, bulky, and rugged ridges of the main 



SURFACE AND DRAINAGE 53 

body of the Valparaiso moraine which rises to a height of 200 
feet or more above the flat lands to the south and west. 

The Des Plaines River flows along the eastern edge, and 
Fox River flows along the western edge, of the Wisconsin arm 
of the Illinois River Basin, within the broad belt of the Val- 
paraiso moraine. The Des Plaines breaks across the moraine 
along the Chicago Outlet, and the Fox works its way to the 
western edge of the moraine near Aurora. The surface forma- 
tions of this region are in striking contrast to those of the main 
part of the Kankakee Basin. The chief topographic feature 
is the Valparaiso moraine whose broad north-south ridges, 
separated by stream valleys or by more level areas of glacial 
till, occupy a width of more than 20 miles, and rise to a height 
of 300 feet above Lake Michigan. 

The only important lake district of Illinois lies in the 
Valparaiso moraine of Lake County where the typical irregulari- 
ties of morainal topography furnish numerous small basins 
which contain bodies of water varying in size from mere ponds 
to several square miles in extent. Good railroad service and 
excellent automobile routes between Chicago and this region 
are leading to development of summer resorts and summer 
homes on the shores of many of the lakes. 

For a distance of 278 miles from the confluence of the Des 
Plaines and the Kankakee, the Illinois River trenches its 
basin somewhat to the north and west of a middle line. The 
most conspicuous topographic feature of the basin is the 
valley itself, having a width varying from 1 to L5 miles, bordered 
by valley sides varying in height from low ridges to precipitous 
or sloping bluffs rising 100, 200, or even 300 feet above the 
valley floor. The long stretches of the Ilhnois VaUey not 
spanned by wagon bridge or railroad bridge indicate the 
strong control of this important valley on transportation 
routes. Wagon bridges have been built only where they 
give direct approach to a city of some importance. The 
only wagon bridges across the 215 miles of the valley below 
the Great Bend are at Chfllicothe, Peoria, Pekin, Havana, 
and Beardstown. Ferryboats still operate at many inter- 
vening points. Railroad bridges are more numerous than 
wagon bridges. 



54 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



The flood plain of the Illinois Valley contains large areas 
of swamp lands, some of which have been reclaimed by levees 
built at great expense. As land values increase, additional 
portions will doubtless be drained. Numerous lakes, portions 
of former river courses, arc found on the flood plain, and in 
many instances they yield a fish product as valuable as the 
farm products from an equal area of good agricultural land. 

The tributary valleys of the Illinois and their numerous 
subdivisions form a network of valleys throughout the entire 
basin, and everywhere they are important topographic features 

of the landscape. They 
furnish necessary drain- 
age lines; contain in most 
cases a fertile soil; suffer 
occasionally from high 
water; and require large 
expenditures for highway 
and railroad crossings. 
The traveler who under- 
stands the development 
and significance of stream 
valleys will find much to 
interest and to instruct 
him as he journeys across 
Illinois whether by rail- 
road or motor car. 
Next to the stream valleys, the most conspicuous topo- 
graphic features within the Iflinois Basin are the various glacial 
moraines. These ridges of glacial drift lend variety to an other- 
wise flat landscape. The Illinois Basin contains large portions 
of all the important systems of glacial moraines in the state — ■ 
lUinoisan, Early Wisconsin, and Late Wisconsin — Nos. 2, 9, and 
10 of the soil map (facing p. 152). These terminal moraines 
rise in ridges of gentle or even rugged topography above the 
more level ground moraines on either side. They are usually 
distinct and easily traced by the observer. They may appear 
as low mounds; as short narrow ridges either single or branch- 
ing; or they may be hundreds of miles in length, 10 to 20 
miles in width, and 200 feet or more above the level ground 




DREDGE BOAT USED IN' BUILDIXG LEVEES IN 
ILLINOIS RIVER SWAMPS 

Large areas of swamp lands in the flood 
plains of Illinois streams are capable of recla- 
mation by extensive systems of levees, the 
buildins of which is made possible by the 
dredge boat. 



SURFACE AND DRAINAGE 55 

moraine. With the soil map for reference, the traveler may see 
and understand these ridges and their significance even when 
traveling rapidly through the state. The lUinois Basin as a 
whole is a region of rather flat land, but the slope is everywhere 
sufficient to insure good drainage except in the flood plains of 
the main valley and some of its tributaries. Its area of 28,000 
square miles is divided among three states as follows: lUinois 
contains 24,000 square miles; Indiana 3,000 square miles; 
and Wisconsin 1,000 square miles. The basin forms an 
extensive area of extremely fertile agricultural land which, 
under the Illinois system of scientific agriculture, is destined 
to remain one of the great food-producing regions of the 
world. 

Kaskaskia River Basin. — The Kaskaskia River is also 
known as the Okaw. It rises in Champaign County where 
the watersheds of the Wabash, Kaskaskia, and Illinois basins 
meet. The river flows southwestward and joins the Mississippi 
in Randolph County. 

Shelbyville and Vandalia are located on the Kaskaskia 
River; Hillsboro is on Shoal Creek, the most important western 
tributary; and Centralia on Crooked Creek, the principal 
eastern tributary. Belleville and Waterloo are on the divide 
between the Kaskaskia and Mississippi. 

The basin of the Kaskaskia is about 190 miles in length, 
but the river, which is very crooked, has a length of nearly 400 
miles. The average width of the basin is 30 miles and its 
extreme width about 60 miles. Its area is 5,710 square miles. 
The basin lies in the Lower lUinoisan, Middle Illinoisan, and 
Early Wisconsin glaciations. Swamp and overflow lands 
are common in the valley of the river. The surface of the basin 
is decidedly level, varied somewhat by the stream valleys, 
kames, and moraines. A group of glacial ridges known as 
kames extends from Jackson and Randolph counties through 
St. Clair County and on to Tower Hill in Shelby County. 
They are long, narrow ridges or smaller knolls rising abruptly 
from the level plain to heights of 75 to 130 feet. Their distribu- 
tion is well shown on the soil map. 

The Shelbyville moraine is the outer margin of the Wis- 
consin glaciation. It extends from Indiana westward across 



56 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

Illinois to Shclbyvillc, the city which has given its name to the 
moraine. Here the moraine turns abruptly northward. In 
Peoria County it is overridden by the Bloomington moraine 
formed at a later stage of the Early Wisconsin glaciation. 
The Shelbyville moraine rises 60 to 100 feet above the level 
lands of the Illinoisan glaciation. It forms a striking feature 
in the landscape when seen from the south, but it passes more 
gradually into the level ground moraine to the north. The 
moraine is cut by the Kaskaskia at Shelbyville. Southward 
from the Shelbyville bridge the valley presents the character- 
istics of a broad, well-matured valley, while northward it 
appears much younger. The two drift sheets in which the 
valley lies differ widely in age and topography, thus giving a 
sudden change to the appearance of the stream valley. 

The Kaskaskia \'alley is of historic note as it contains the 
site of the earliest permanent Illinois settlement and is the 
seat of the first two capital cities of the state. 

Big Muddy River Basin. — The Big Muddy River flows 
along the eastern and southern parts of its basin; the Little 
Muddy along the center; and Beaucoup Creek along the 
western part. The basin is somewhat elliptical in shape with 
its axes about 70 miles and 50 miles in length. The area is 
2,230 square miles. Most of the surface is level except for 
the numerous shallow trenches cut by the streams. In the 
southern part of the basin, however, the topography changes 
rapidly from the level plains of the Illinois glaciation to the 
rugged lands of the Illinois Ozarks. The traveler whose 
impressions of Illinois topography have been gained from 
journeys in the central part of the state will find unexpected 
variety in a journey of only a few miles southward from 
Carbondale among the narrow defiles and precipitous cliffs of 
Bosky Dell and Makanda. 

Rich coal deposits underlie the basin of the Big Muddy, 
and the mines of this region are among the most productive 
of the state. A number of important cities are found within 
the basin. In the eastern part are Mount Vernon, Benton, 
Johnston City, and Marion; in the southern portion Herrin, 
Carterville, Carbondale, and Murphysboro; in the northwest 
Duquoin and Pinckneyville. 



SURFACE AND DRAINAGE 



57 



Minor basins of the Mississippi. — Areas of considerable 
extent are a part of the Mississippi Basin, but are not included 
in the basins already described. These lie along the western 
edge of the state, including nearly all the Illinois bluffs of the 




MISSISSIPPI FLOOD PLAIN AND ROCKY BLUFFS, JACKSON COUNTY 

The abrupt change from level flood plain to precipitous bluff frequently deter- 
mines, as here, the location of roadways and homes near the foot of the bluff on that 
part of the plain least likely to be flooded. (Copyright by Keystone View Company.) 



Mississippi with triangular-shaped areas extending eastward 
from 10 to 50 miles. They include much of the most rugged 
and most picturesque scenery of the state. The immediate 
bluffs rise to heights of 100, 200, and 300 feet, or more, above 
the flood plain of the Mississippi. 



58 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

The Drift less Area of northwestern Illinois, which includes 
nearly all of Jo Daviess County and small areas of Stephenson 
and Carroll counties, is equaled in ruggedness of topography 
only by the Ozarks of the southern part of the state. The 
land surface presents a mature topography. Slopes of con- 
siderable steepness occur throughout the unglaciated region. 
Galena, Apple, and Plum rivers are the principal streams of 
Jo Daviess and Carroll counties. Galena is the principal city. 
Lead and zinc mining is carried on in the Driftless Area. 

In Whiteside County, and in Rock Island County to the 
mouth of Rock River, the Rock River Basin approaches very 
near to the Mississippi bluffs. Fulton, East Moline, Moline, 
and Rock Island are located on small upland areas with lower 
lands on all sides. Edwards River, Pope Creek, and Hender- 
son River, which enter the Mississippi in Mercer and Henderson 
counties, are the longest streams of the minor basins of the 
IVIississippi. Edwards River drains land more than 50 miles 
from the Mississippi. 

Hamilton, in Hancock County, is at the Illinois end of the 
great Keokuk dam. Warsaw is located on the Mississippi a 
few miles below Hamilton. Quincy, for many years the 
largest city of Illinois on the Mississippi, has recently been 
outstripped by East St. Louis. 

The unglaciated region of Pike and Calhoun counties forms 
a narrow, rugged, elevated ridge which separates the Missis- 
sippi and Illinois rivers. This line of upheaval extends east 
of the Illinois through southern Jersey County into Madison 
County. 

A narrow limestone ridge extends from St. Clair County 
through IMonroe and Randolph counties to Jackson County, 
where it joins the main ridge of the Illinois Ozarks. This 
ridge is from 5 to 10 miles wide and stands 100 to 200 feet 
above the level plains of the Kaskaskia and Big Muddy basins. 
The region has numerous caves. The surface is thickly dotted 
with sink holes characteristic of limestone regions with under- 
ground drainage. This long, narrow ridge is broken only at 
two places where the Kaskaskia and Big Muddy flow across 
it in water gaps less than 2 miles in width. As the traveler 
journeys southward from East St. Louis on the St. Louis, 



SURFACE AND DRAINAGE 59 

Iron Mountain, and Southern Railroad, he may observe this 
precipitous ridge which rises to the east as an object of beauty 
and grandeur. The river gaps are also clearly noticeable. 

The term "American Bottoms" is applied to that part of 
the Mississippi flood plain in Illinois extending southward from 
the bluffs at Alton. It is commonly applied to the exception- 
ally wide portion extending from Alton to Prairie du Pont 
Creek in St. Clair County. In this region the average width 
is about 7 miles. The name is also applied to all the Mississippi 
flood plain in Illinois from Alton to Cairo at the mouth of the 
Ohio. On this broad valley floor in Madison and St. Clair 
counties are Granite City, Madison, Venice, and East St. 
Louis. This populous district is protected by an elaborate 
system of levees. 

The flood plain of the Mississippi is noted in the pioneer 
history of Illinois. Cahokia, one of the first permanent 
settlements, now a small village, is located about 4 miles south 
of East St. Louis. Old Fort Chartres, now a state park, is in 
northwestern Randolph County near Prairie du Rochcr. 
Old Kaskaskia, the first permanent settlement in Illinois, and 
once the metropolis of the Mississippi Valley, occupied a site 
which now lies in the bed of the present main channel of the 
Mississippi River. 

Wabash River Basin. — The Wabash River rises in the 
western part of Ohio, flows west and southwest across Indiana, 
and from a point 15 miles below Terre Haute, Indiana, to its 
junction with the Ohio River, forms the lUinoisTndiana 
boundary line. Of the 33,000 square miles of the Wabash River 
Basin, 8,770 square miles are in Illinois. There are several 
important Illinois tributaries. The Vermilion, on which Dan- 
ville is located, flows across a portion of Indiana to reach the 
Wabash. The Embarras is one of a group of streams which 
have their sources in the vicinity of Champaign and Urbana, 
and radiate in various directions to widely separated regions 
of the state. The Embarras flows southward through Cham- 
paign, Douglas, Coles, Cumberland, and Jasper counties, 
then southeastward, touching Richland County and crossing 
Crawford and Lawrence counties. Along its course are 
Newton and Lawrenceville ; within its basin are Tuscola, 



GO THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

Charleston, and Bridgeport. Bonpas Creek enters the Wabash 
at Grayville. 

The Little Wabash rises near Mattoon and flows southward 
nearly parallel with the Embarras, about 25 miles farther 
west. It joins the Wabash between White and Gallatin 
counties 15 miles above the Ohio. Skillet Fork is an impor- 
tant western tributary of the Little Wabash. Effingham, 
Louisville, and Carmi are on or near the Little Wabash. 
Olney and Fairfield are on tributaries. 

The Wabash River Basin in Illinois occupies portions of 
the Early Wisconsin and Lower Illinoisan glaciations. The 
surface features of the northern portion consist of the level 
ground moraines of the Early Wisconsin, varied by numerous 
ridges of the Bloomington, Champaign, and Shelby ville terminal 
moraines. The topography of the southern portion is exceed- 
ingly flat throughout as there is but slight development of 
moraines. In extensive areas not a knoll as much as 10 feet 
in height is to be found. This general flatness is interrupted, 
however, by the broad, shallow' trenches of well-developed 
stream valleys. The bluft"s and flood plain of the Wabash are 
important topographic features of this part of Illinois. 

Ohio River Basin. — That part of Illinois which drains 
directly into the Ohio has an area of 2,730 square miles, and it 
contains the most rugged topography of the state, the Illinois 
Ozarks. 

The Saline River and its tributaries reach northward in 
the level Lower Illinoisan glaciation to Hamilton County and 
southward to the crest of the Ozarks. Its basin has an area 
of 1,130 square miles. Harrisburg and Eldorado are in one 
of the most productive coal regions of the state. 

Cache Valley, once occupied by the Ohio River, extends 
between two highland areas across Pope County, along the 
edges of Johnson, Union, Massac, Pulaski, and Alexander 
counties, and unites with the flood plains of both the Mississippi 
and Ohio. The eastern end of the valley is drained by Big 
Bay Creek, which rises in Johnson County and flows eastward 
across Pope County to the Ohio. Its basin has an area of 
275 square miles. The larger part of the valley is drained 
by Cache River, which rises in the highlands to the north; 



SURFACE AND DRAINAGE 61 

enters the valley in Massac County; flows westward and south- 
ward, joining the Ohio between Mound City and Cairo. The 
basin of the Cache River has an area of 623 square miles. 

The divide between Big Bay Creek and Cache River lies 
in the swamp and overflow lands of the Cache Valley. So 
slight is this divide that a deep ditch in Big Bay Creek has been 
extended westward far enough to reverse a part of the natural 
drainage of the Cache River system. 

The Ohio River is an important transportation route. 
The county seats of the six Illinois counties along the 126 
miles of the Ohio are all river ports. These are Shawnee- 
town, Elizabethtown, Golconda, MetropoHs, Mound City, 
and Cairo. 

Rugged areas of Illinois. — Although Illinois is characterized 
by slight relief and broad areas of level lands, there are a few 
regions of sufficient ruggedness to merit special mention and 
to attract the attention of tourists who wish to visit those 
portions of Illinois presenting scenery in striking contrast to 
the flat prairie lands of the rich agricultural districts. The 
state-aid system of good roads leads into every county of the 
state, and these picturesque regions will thus be opened to 
automobile parties for easy and profitable exploration. 

The Ozark Ridge. — The Ozark Highland, of which the 
Illinois Ozarks is a spur, is the most conspicuous elevated region 
between the Appalachian and the Rocky mountains. Its 
area of 50,000 square miles is shared by five states, with 33,000 
square miles in southern Missouri, 13,000 in northern Arkansas, 
3,000 in northeastern Oklahoma, and the remaining 1,000 
square miles in southern Illinois and southeastern Kansas, 
the area in Illinois being larger than that in Kansas. The 
Ozark Ridge of southern Illinois is the most conspicuous 
single topographic feature in the state. It extends eastward 
across the state from the flood plains of the Big Muddy and 
Mississippi rivers in Jackson and Union counties to the flood 
plains of the Sahne and Ohio rivers in Gallatin and Hardin 
counties, a distance of about 70 miles. Its northern edge 
extends east-west in the southern portions of Jackson, William- 
son, Saline, and Gallatin counties, while the southern edge is 
found along a more irregular line across the southern portions 



62 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



of Union, Johnson, Pope, and Hardin counties. To the north 
He the lower lands of the Big Muddy and SaUnc river basins, 
and to the south the bottom lands of the Ohio, Big Bay, and 
Cache rivers. The axis of the ridge thus lies along an east- 
west line in the northern portions of the four counties last 
named. A rectangle 70 miles in east-west extent and 12 miles 
in north-south dimension includes nearly all of the highlands 
of the Ozark Ridge in Illinois and considerable areas of lowlands 




TYPICAL VIEW OF THE OZARK HILLS ABOUT THREE MILES WEST 
OF EDDYVTLLE, POPE COUNTY 

The rugged Ozarks may present barren rocks, forested areas, or fairly good 
farm lands. The presence of the rail fence indicates an important local use of the 
timber. (Photograph by Clarence Bonnell.) 



along the stream valleys. The area, more than 600 feet above 
sea-level, is nearly 400 square miles in extent, and the total 
area, more than 500 feet in elevation, is about twice as large. 
The crest of the ridge, in at least four areas, rises above 700 
feet, with the culminating peak, WiUiams' Hill in north- 
eastern Pope County, rising to an altitude of 1,005 feet above 
sea-level, and more than 700 feet above the Ohio River 12 
miles distant. 



62 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



of Union, Johnson, Pope, and Hardin counties. To the north 
He the lower lands of the Big JNIuddy and Saline river basins, 
and to the south the bottom lands of the Ohio, Big Bay, and 
Cache rivers. The axis of the ridge thus lies along an east- 
west line in the northern portions of the four counties last 
named. A rectangle 70 miles in east-west extent and 12 miles 
in north-south dimension includes nearly all of the highlands 
of the Ozark Ridge in Illinois and considerable areas of lowlands 




TYPICAL VIEW OF THE OZARK HILLS ABOUT THREE MILES WEST 
OF EDDYVILLE, POPE COUNTY 

The rugped Ozarks may present barren rocks, forested areas, or fairly good 
farm lands. The presence of the rail fence indicates an important local use of the 
timber. (Photograph by Clarence Eonnell.) 



along the stream valleys. The area, more than 600 feet above 
sea-level, is nearly 400 square miles in extent, and the total 
area, more than 500 feet in elevation, is about twice as large. 
The crest of the ridge, in at least four areas, rises above 700 
feet, with the culminating peak, Williams' Hill in north- 
eastern Pope County, rising to an altitude of 1,065 feet above 
sea-level, and more than 700 feet above the Ohio River 12 
miles distant. 




PHYSICAL MAP OF THE OZARKS 

The highest point in the Illinois Ozarks is Williams' Hill, 1,055 feet, in northeastern Pope County. No point in Illinois between the Ozark Ridge and the 
rugged lands of Jo Daviess County reaches the I.OOO-foot level. 



SURFACE AND DRAINAGE 



63 



The Ozark Ridge rises somewhat abruptly from the border- 
ing lowlands to elevations of 300 to 700 feet above the plains. 
Short, swift streams have eroded much of the area into rugged 
hills and ridges with numerous valleys. Some of these valleys 
are so narrow and steep that no bottom lands have yet been 
developed; others contain bottom lands of sufficient area to 
provide fertile farms. The ridges are in places too narrow and 
too rugged for cultivation, while in other portions, where 
stream erosion has not yet fully dissected the uplands, relatively 
large areas are capable of profitable cultivation. The topog- 
raphy, climate, and soil of certain portions of the Illinois 
Ozarks are well adapted 
to fruit growing, and 
orchards have been de- 
veloped with profit. 

A narrow spur ex- 
tends southward from 
the main ridge in Jack- 
son County into the 
northern portion of 
Alexander County be- 
tween the Cache and 
Mississippi rivers. In 
the southern portions 
of Pulaski, Massac, and 

Pope counties, rugged hills and ridges are found between the 
broad flood plains of Cache and Big Bay rivers on the north and 
the Ohio River on the south. These detached highland areas 
are a part of the Ozark system. Small detached hills and ridges 
of solid rock are also found in the Mississippi flood plain in 
Jackson County and in the lowlands near the Saline and 
Ohio rivers in Gallatin and Hardin counties. Sink holes 
and caves are found in some of the limestone regions of the 
Illinois Ozarks. The village of "Cave-in-Rock" in Hardin 
County is so named because of the presence of a large cave in 
the rocks along the Ohio River near the village. 

From the western end of the Ozark Ridge in Jackson 
County, a long, narrow, rugged belt of limestone rocks extends 
northwestward between the Mississippi flood plain on the 




v«W i*^-" 



COUNTRY HOME AMONG Till m/.| i. - \ 
TUNNEL HILL, JOHNSON COUNTY 

(Photograph by W. H. Simmons) 



64 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

west and the coal-producing regions to the east, crossing the 
Mississippi River south of East St. Louis. It rises 300 to 
400 feet above the Mississippi and 200 to 300 feet above the 
plains to the east. The ridge is 5 to 10 miles wide and is con- 
tinuous throughout its extent of about 80 miles in Illinois 
except for two gaps, each not more than 2 miles in width, 
made by the Big Muddy and Kaskaskia rivers. In this 
limestone ridge sink holes and caves are common, and under- 
ground drainage through these sink holes and caves prevents 
the development of systematic valley systems on the surface. 
This rugged belt has an elevation of 650 to 750 feet above 
sea-level. It forms the eastern edge of the extensive Ozark 
Highland which has its chief development on the opposite side 
of the Mississippi in southern INIissouri. The narrow belt 
in Illinois has been severed from the main highland by the 
IMississippi River. 

The topographic control of the Ozark Ridge on the courses 
of streams and on the location and direction of highways and 
railroads is very marked. No stream within the state crosses 
the highland in a north-south direction. Short, swift streams 
flow down the steep northern slope to the Big Muddy and 
SaUne rivers. The rapid streams on the south slope of the 
main ridge carry their waters quickly to the sluggish Cache 
River and Big Bay Creek, which occupy an abandoned channel 
of the Ohio. No railroad traverses the Ozark region along 
an east-west line. Low passes are sought, for north-south 
lines, and at Tunnel Hill in Johnson County a railroad tunnel, 
900 feet in length, has been driven through soHd rock. High- 
ways seek the lowest passes and the easiest grades which, 
at their best, are difficult of ascent. 

Other rugged areas. — Near the junction of the Illinois and 
IMississippi rivers, a geological uplift has given rise to rugged 
lands in Jersey, Calhoun, and Pike counties. Just east of 
the mouth of the Illinois River, a few points have an altitude 
of more than 800 feet above sea-level. The rugged ridge of 
Calhoun County and southern Pike County is 700 to 750 feet 
above sea-level. 

In the northwestern part of Illinois, including Jo Daviess 
County and portions of Stephenson and Carroll counties, is 



SURFACE AND DRAINAGE 65 

found the rugged land of the Driftless Area, which is more 
extensive in Wisconsin than in Illinois. "Mounds" and 
"knobs" are more characteristic of the topography of this 
region than ridges. Charles Mound, 1,241 feet above sea- 
level, in Jo Daviess County near the state line, is the highest 
point within Illinois. These mounds rise 75 to 300 feet above 
the more level land of the region, and vary in size from a few 
acres to several square miles. The numerous mounds and 
well-developed drainage systems make this region one of varied 
topography. 

These rugged areas of Illinois together with the river bluffs 
of the main streams, especially the lUinois, Mississippi, and 
Ohio, furnish a greater variety of interesting and picturesque 
scenery than is usually credited to the Prairie State. 

Summary. — While lUinois is rightly considered as a part of 
a flat plain, its surface features are sufificiently extensive and 
varied to present striking contrasts of scenery and of land 
values. While the swamps and shallow lakes of the Illinois 
uplands have been drained and turned into fertile fields, there 
still remain numerous difiicult and expensive reclamation 
projects along the flood plains of bordering and of state streams. 
Twenty-three of the forty-eight states of the nation furnish 
water which flows across Illinois or along the borders of the 
state. Populous commercial centers so located as to be subject 
to flood damage must ever apply the best methods of securing 
protection against the floods which come from time to time. 



CHAPTER V 
WEATHER AND CLIMATE 

Illinois weather and climate. — Illinois experiences the 
weather and climate characteristic of middle latitudes in 
the interior of continents. It lies nearer the equator than the 
pole. The fortieth parallel passes through the central part of 
the state. This latitude insures long days and steep sun's rays 
in summer with abundant warmth and sunshine for the growth 
of staple food crops. It also insures short days and slanting 
rays in winter with cold weather, for which provision must be 
made during the preceding summer. The latitude of Illinois 
places it throughout the year in the belt of the prevailing 
westerly wands, whose usual direction is interrupted at inter- 
vals of a few days by the passage of low-pressure areas, or 
cyclonic storms, of large extent, averaging about 500 miles in 
diameter. These cyclones carry rainfall from the Gulf of 
Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean to Illinois and the Mississippi 
Valley. 

Only a few small areas of Illinois have an elevation of more 
than 1,000 feet above the sea. The state is a plain with an 
average altitude of about 600 feet. The slight differences of 
elevation within the state have but little influence vipon distri- 
bution of temperature or rainfall, and they permit easy move- 
ment of winds in all directions. 

All parts of the state lie more than 500 miles from the Gulf of 
Mexico, more than 600 miles from the Atlantic, and more than 
1,500 miles from the Pacific Ocean. The long distance to the 
Pacific and the high intervening mountains preclude the possi- 
bility of important intluence of the western ocean on the 
climate of Illinois. The open plains to the Gulf and the 
moderate altitude of the Appalachians furnish free passage to 
Illinois of the moisture-bearing winds, which, vmdcr cyclonic 
influences, blow from the Gulf and the Atlantic, bringing the 
abundant and well-distributed rainfall which enables Illinois 
to rank as the first agricultural state in the Union. 



WEATHER AND CLIMATE 



67 



The location of Illinois, therefore, determines that the 
weather and climate shall be of the continental type with 




Paths of Highs in the United States. (After Van Cleef) 




Paths of Lows in the United States. (After Van Cleef) 

warm summers, cold winters, and a rainfall exceptionally well 
adapted to the development of agricultural pursuits. 



G8 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Changeableness of Illinois weather. — In a region situated 
as Illinois is, weather changes arc frequently rapid and 
occasionally excessive. The ordinary temperature changes 
controlled by solar inllucnccs whereby the heat of the day 
gradually increases until an hour or two after midday, and 
then gradually decreases during late afternoon and all night, 
may, under cyclonic influences, be greatly modified or entirely 
reversed. The following rapid changes in temperature took 
place at Chicago, but all parts of the state have similar 

experiences. On May 10, 
1911, the temperature rose 
27° F. in two hours; on 





CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE 



The thermograph records here shown indicate that a violent fall of temperature 
may take place during the hours of the day when temperature is normally rising, 
also that the temperature may remain stationary during an entire 24-hour period. 

April 11, 1910, the temperature fell 2S° F. in one hour; 
on March 29-30, 1895, the temperature rose 48° F. in a 
twenty-four-hour period; on November 11-12, 1911, the 
temperature fell 61° F. in a twenty-four-hour period. This 
rapid temperature change was general throughout the state. 
At some stations the fall was from 84° F. to 19° F., or 65° F. in 
an eighteen-hour period. 

While this is the most remarkable change of temperature 
recorded by the Weather Bureau, more striking results occurred 
during a sudden drop in temperature on December 20, 1836, as 
shown by reports of citizens hving at that time in central 
Illinois. Early in the day, with a temperature of about 40° F., a 



WEATHER AND CLIMATE 



69 



rain had changed the snow on the ground to skish. Suddenly 
the temperature grew colder, and in a few minuses the slush 
became solid ice strong enough to bear the weight of a horse. 
Chickens were caught in the freezing slush and held fast. 
Ducks swimming on the pond had ice frozen to their feet and 
feathers. A man riding to Springfield on horseback through 
the rain was frozen to his saddle. Arriving at Springfield, he 
and his saddle were removed from the horse, carried into a 
warm room and thawed apart. In striking contrast to these 
unusual changes, the temperature at Chicago on March 24, 
1891, remained all day at 32° F. 

Winds may blow steadily from one direction for an entire 
day or for several days; they may change direction with such 



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JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. || 



.WER.^GE MONTHLY PRECIPIT.\TIOM OF ST.^TE .\S .A WHOLE 

The heavier rainfall of May, June, and July is favorable to growing crops, 
while the lighter rainfall of the later months is especially favorable for the threshing 
of the small grains and the ripening and gathering of corn. 



rapidity that they blow from all quarters of the compass within 
a few hours; they may change velocity in a short time from a 
gentle breeze to a strong gale. While the average wind 
velocity at Chicago is 13 miles per hour, or 312 miles per day, 
on February 12, 1894, during a severe storm, the wind move- 
ment for the twenty-four hours was 1,347 miles, an average of 
56 miles per hour. For a five-minute period the rate was 84 
miles per hour, and the fastest mile was at the rate of 115 miles 
per hour. 

The rainfall for each month in Illinois averages more than 
2 inches and less than 5 inches, yet the monthly precipitation 
may vary from 0.00 as at Bushnell, McDonough County, and 
at Yorkville, Kendall County, in November, 1904, to 20.03 
inches as at Monmouth, Warren County, in September, 1911. 



70 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

The rainfall resulling from ihc passage of a single cyclonic 
disturbance may vary from a mere sprinkle lo a heavy down- 
pour of more than S inches, which resulted from the passage of 
the Galveston hurricane across the state August 17-18, 1915. 
Rain may fall so gently that dry ground is barely moist after 
an hour or more, or it may fall at the rate of 1 inch in 8 minutes 
as at Springfield on July 23, 1917. The former record was 
1 inch in 12 minutes. 

Unchangeableness of Illinois climate. — Since climate deals 
with averages of the various weather elements, sudden changes 




m9 '« -«»«K-.^. 




,,? '"'it- - •* 



ICE IN OHIO RIVER AT CAIRO 

In December, 1917, the coldest December for Illinois, the Ohio River could be 
crossed at Cairo on the ice for the first time in history. (Photograph by Florence 
Snyder.) 

of temperature, unexpected shifting of wind direction, violent 
wind storms, unusual drought, or excessive rainfall may not 
modify to any appreciable extent the averages based on 
thousands of observations extending over periods of 20 to 40 
years. CUmatic maps thus take on a character of permanence 
while weather maps for a day, or a month, or a year may present 
a wide variation from the climatic conditions established on 
averages of 20 or more records of weather conditions at a 
station for a certain date, a certain month, or a certain year. 



WEATHER AND CLIMATE 



71 



An average temperature established by observations over a 
long period of years is known as the normal temperature. 

Even when marked departures from the normal occur, the 
excess is reduced to very slight changes on the average. Thus, 
while July, 1901, holds the record of the state as the hottest 
month with an average of 82.2° F., an excess of 6.3° above 
the normal for July, the average temperature of the year for 



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JAN. FEB. ^AR. APP. /^AY JUN€ JULY AUG. 3£Pr. OCT /S/OV DEC. 



TEMPERATURE DEPARTURE FROM NORMAL 

The normal temperature, determined from the averages of many years, is 
represented by a smooth curve, while the temperature of a single year may depart 
from the normal sufficiently to produce irregularities in the curve for that year. 



the state was . 1° below the normal for the state. While 
December, 1917, was 8 . 1° colder than the normal for Decem- 
ber, the year 1917 was but 2.5° colder than the normal annual 
temperature. These departures, when combined with all 
previous records, change the averages only slightly. In fact, 
December, 1918, was 8.2° warmer than normal, thus offsetting 
completely in the average for December the unusually cold 
temperature of the previous December. While January, 1918, 



72 



THE GEOGRAPHY OE ILLINOIS 



holds the record of the state as the coldest month, with an 
average of 12.6°, or 14.3° colder than the normal for January, 
the average for 1918 was 0.5° warmer than normal. The 
normal annual rainfall of the state, 36.54 inches, would be 
changed only a fraction of an inch by the 47-inch rainfall of 
1898, or by the 25-inch rainfall of 1901. In fact, when both 
these extremes of rainfall are used in the computation their 
influence on the average entirely disappears. 




DAILY VARIATION IN TEMPERATURE JANUARY-JUNE, 1917 

The 365 vertical lines of this graph with its continuation on page 73 show the 
daily range of temperature for every day during the year 1917. 



This unchangeable character of the state's chmatc does not 
indicate uniformity of climate throughout the year. lUinois 
has a climate of the continental type and therefore experiences 
great seasonal changes of temperature with smaller seasonal 
variations in rainfall. The average temperature for the coldest 
month, January, is 26.9°, and that of the warmest month, 
July, 75 .9°. December has the smallest average precipitation, 
2.16 inches, and May has the largest, 4.07 inches. 

Weather Bureau stations. — The United States Weather 
Bureau Service was established in 1870. It has been enlarged 



WEATHER AND CLIMATE 



73 



and extended until there are now 200 regular stations, fully 
equipped, and in charge of trained observers. Four of these 
stations are in Illinois. The one at Chicago is in the Federal 
Building; the one at Peoria is in the Weather Bureau Building 
on the campus of Bradley Polytechnic Institute; the one at 
Springfield is in the Weather Bureau Building at 107 Monroe 
Street; and the one at Cairo is in the Federal Building. Each 
of these stations is equipped with a full set of instruments for 




DAILY VARIATION IN TEMPERATURE JULY-DECEMBER, 1917 



measuring temperature; pressure; direction and velocity of 
wind; rainfall; snowfall; humidity; sunshine and cloudiness. 
The Chicago station issues district forecasts for Illinois, 
Wisconsin, and states west to Montana. It has charge of the 
storm-warning equipment for a part of Lake Michigan. It is 
the central office for the corn and wheat regions of the country. 
The Springfield station is the section center for the state. It 
receives reports from the co-operative observers and issues 
monthly and annual reports for the state. It also receives 
reports from a large number of crop correspondents throughout 
the state and issues a weekly report of Illinois crop conditions 



74 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



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WEATHER BUREAU STATIONS OF ILLINOIS 



WEATHER AND CLIMATE 



75 



(luring the crop-growing season. Tlie Peoria and Cairo 
stations maintain river gauges. The Cairo olTicc also has 
charge of the river stations on the Ohio from Cairo to the 
mouth of the Wabash, and on the Tennessee and Cumberland 
rivers throughout their courses. 

In addition to the fully equipped stations, the government 
has estabhshed about 4,500 co-operative stations, about 70 of 
which are in Illinois. The location of the Weather Bureau 




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INSTRUMENT SHELTER AND RAIN GAUGE, PONTIAC, LIVINGSTON COUNTY 

The shelter in the foreground contains the maximum and minimum ther- 
mometers. At the right of the center is the cylindrical rain gauge. Instruments are 
read and results recorded daily. At the end of the month reports are sent to the 
section center at Springfield. 



stations of Illinois is indicated on the foregoing map. Each 
co-operative station has a rain gauge and a thermometer 
shelter with maximum and minimum thermometers. Observa- 
tions are made and recorded daily by co-operative observers. 
At the end of the month the records of both the regular and 
the co-operative stations are sent to the section director 
at Springfield. From these he compiles and publishes a 
monthly report giving in detail the records of the various 
stations accompanied by a general description and summary 
of the weather of the month. Early in the year the section 



76 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



director issues an annual summary for the preceding year. 
The facts of greatest general interest concerning monthly 
and annual weather conditions are widely published by the 
newspapers. 






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JAN rEB nm afr tM juncjul r aug Sipr ocr noj oic F' C 



WEATHER CONDITIONS IN CENTRAL 
DIVISION 



These two graphs and the one on page 77 make possible a comparison of the 
weather conditions of the three divisions of the state. _ Differences in latitude are 
the most important single factor ini3uencing differences in weather and climate. 



Weather records. — For chmatological data the Weather 
Bureau has divided lUinois into three divisions along county 
lines. The northern division lies between the Illinois-Wisconsin 
boundary and the county lines near the forty-iirst parallel; 
the central division extends southward to the county lines 



WEATHER AND CLIMATE 



77 



near the thirty-ninth parallel; the southern division includes 
the rest of the state. 

It is impossible to give here the climatological data for 
all the stations. Selection has therefore been necessary. Of 
the 15 stations chosen, 
5 are in each division. 
These are well distributed 
over the state and within 
the divisions. Only small 
sections of the state are 
more than 50 miles from 
one of these selected sta- 
tions. The climatologi- 
cal data, therefore, for 
any point within the state 
will be very nearly the 
same as that of the near- 
est station given in the 
tables. The stations are 
arranged in order of lati- 
tude from north to south. 
For convenience in com- 
puting the north-south 
distances between sta- 
tions, one minute of lati- 
tude may be given the 
value of one mile, al- 
though it is somewhat 
more than a mile in 
length. While latitude is 
the chief factor in deter- 
mining differences in temperature; and distance from the Gulf 
of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean the principal factor in 
determining differences in rainfall in Illinois; yet other factors, 
such as altitude, topography, and the presence of water bodies, 
have their influences, which may modify slightly the results 
expected from the main factors alone. 

Table I, which deals with temperature, shows many 
interesting facts, but, owing to the limited number of places, 



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--15 



WEATHER CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN DIVISION 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



not all extremes are shown. Sycamore in DcKalb County 
has the lowest annual temperature in the state, 47.1°, and 
Cairo the highest, 57.6°, giving a difference of 10.5°. This 
is at the rate of 1° to 33 miles, or about 2° of temperature to 1° 
of latitude. In July, however, the differences are less, and 
in January more, than for the year. In July the lowest 
temperature, 71.8°, is at Riley in IVIcHenry County, and the 

TABLE I 

Temperatures for Selected Stations 



Stations 


Latitude 


Normal 
Temperatures 


Extreme 
Temperatures 


Annual 


July 


Jan- 
uary 


Highest 


Lowest 


Range 


Rockford 


42°16' 
41°53' 
41°49' 
4121' 
41°13' 
40°42' 
40°35' 
40°00' 
39°48' 
39°00' 
38°53' 
38° 7' 
38° 3' 
37°35' 
37°00' 


48.2 
48.5 
48.5 
50.4 
50.0 
49.9 
51.2 
51.0 
52.2 
53.8 
54.2 
55.7 
55.6 
55.3 
57.6 


73.9 
72.4 
73.6 
75.5 
74.9 
75.4 
76.4 
74.7 
76.5 
76.7 
77.7 
77.7 
77.9 
76.7 
78.6 


21.0 
23.7 
21.2 
24.1 
23.7 
23.1 
24.1 
26.0 
26.3 
29.5 
29.4 
32.6 
31.8 
33.0 
34.8 


110 
103 
111 
112 
108 
106 
108 
105 
107 
105 
113 
111 
110 
112 
106 


-26 
-23 
-30 
-26 
-30 
-27 
-30 
-26 
-24 
-21 
-21 
-23 
-19 
-26 
-16 


136 


Chicago 


126 


Morrison 

Ottawa 

Aledo 

Peoria 


141 
138 
138 
133 


La Harpe 


138 


Philo 


131 


Springfield 


131 
126 


Greenville 

Sparta 


134 
134 


McLeansboro 

New Burnside 

Cairo 


129 

138 
122 






State averages for 




52.0 


75.4 


26.9 


115 


-32 


147 









All temperature readings are given in Fahrenheit degrees. 



highest, 79.7°, at Carbondale in Jackson County. This gives 
a difference of 7.9° among the stations of the state. In 
January, the lowest temperature, 17.9°, is at Freeport in 
Stephenson County, and the highest, 35.8°, at Equality 
in Gallatin County, giving a difference of 17.9°, or 2j times 
as great as for July. All parts of the state have experienced 
temperatures above 100° and below — 15°. The coldest tem- 
perature on record for the state, —32°, occurred in Ash ton, 



WEATHER AND CLIMATE 



79 



Lee County, February 13, 1905, the hottest, 115°, at Centralia, 
in Marion County, July 22, 1901. The extreme range for 
Illinois is thus 147°. The temperature range for the United 
States is 184°, and for the world 217°. 




FROST FREE SEASON 



FROST SEASONS FOR SELECTED STATIONS 

June, July, and August are the only frost-free months for all parts of the state. 
Occasional frost occurs in May and September for all parts of the state except the 
extreme southern portion. 

TABLE II 

Frost D.\tes for Selected Stations 





Average Date of 


Average 

Number of 

Days 

WITHOUT 

Frost 


Date of 


Stations 


Last Killing 
Frost in 
Spring 


First Killing 
Frost in 
Autumn 


Latest 

Killing Frost 

in Spring 


Earliest 
Killing Frost 
in Autumn 


Rockford 

Chicago 

Morrison 

Ottawa 

Aledo 


May 7 
Apr. 9 
May 4 
Apr. 26 
Apr. 29 
Apr. 15 
Apr. 25 
Apr. 30 
Apr. 16 
Apr. 19 
Apr. 14 
Apr. 18 
Apr. 14 
Apr. 19 
Mar. 29 


Oct. 6 
Oct. 22 
Oct. 10 
Oct. 12 
Oct. 14 
Oct. 18 
Oct. 4 
Oct. 12 
Oct. 17 
Oct. 15 
Oct. 20 
Oct. 16 
Oct. 17 
Oct. 16 
Oct. 27 


160 
182 
161 
168 
168 
186 
162 
154 
184 
179 
189 
170 
186 
180 
211 


May 31 
May 23 
Mav 27 
May 21 
May 11 
May 11 
May 16 
May 31 
May 22 
May 14 
May 6 
May 7 
May 5 
May 14 
Apr. 19 


Sept. 18 
Sept. 27 
Sept. 19 
Sept. 19 
Sept. 26 


Peoria 

La Harpe 

Philo 


Sept. 30 
Sept. 13 
Sept. 13 


Springfield 

Palestine 

Greenville 

Sparta . . 


Sept. 25 
Sept. 19 
Sept. 29 
Sept. 14 


McLeansboro. . . 
New Burnside. . 


Sept. 19 
Sept. 23 
Sept. 30 







80 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Table II, which records frost data, indicates the average 
length of the frost-free season or the "growing season" at the 
various stations. It also shows the extent to which this 
period has been shortened at times in the spring and in the 
fall. The growing season of the state varies from 5 months 
in the north to 7 months in the south. The longer growing 
period of southern Illinois and the somewhat less severe winter 
temperatures give more favorable conditions for fruit growing 
than are found in the northern part of the state. It also makes 
possible the successful cultivation of cotton in the lowlands 
of the extreme southern part of the state. 

TABLE III 
Average Precipitation, in Inches, for Selected Stations 





ij 










Growing 


.-1 
.-1 




< 










Se.-^son 






g 
< 




















— 


o 
z; 


Stations 


Pi 










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cr; 




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z; 








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z 




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m 


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fn 


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< 


CL. 


< - 


Rockford 


3.5.80 


9.76 


11.32 


8.30 


6.42 


21.81 


61 


42.2 


Chicago 


33.28 


8.80 


10 . 18 


8.07 


6.23 


19.45 


58 


34.6 


Morrison 


34.92 


10.41 


11.94 


7.73 


4.84 


23.37 


67 


31.5 


Ottawa 


.34.08 


9.80 


10.38 


7.88 


6.02 


20.98 


61 


27.9 


Aledo 


31.49 
36.29 


9.00 
10.50 


9.65 
10.20 


8.48 
8.. 33 


4.36 

7.26 


20.92 

20.86 


66 
57 


21.9 


Peoria 


22.5 


La Harpe 


.37.78 


10.56 


12.23 


8.60 


6.39 


24.22 


64 


28.1 


Philo 


35.74 
36.96 


10.37 
10.87 


10. 38 
10.01 


8.10 
8,63 


6.89 

7.45 


20.51 
21.18 


57 

57 


19.8 


Springfield. . . . 


21.4 


Palestine 


40.84 


11.09 


11.32 


9.. 32 


9.11 


21.69 


53 


18.9 


Greenville 


42.13 


11.96 


11.72 


9.70 


8.75 


23.75 


56 


25.6 


Sparta 


.39.84 


11.48 


10.77 


9. 34 


8.25 


21.87 


55 


16.2 


McLeansboro. . 


40.57 


11.43 


10.73 


8.69 


9.72 


21.21 


52 


14.6 


New Burnside.. 


42.45 


12.03 


10.78 


9.41 


10.23 


21.64 


51 


12.9 




41.70 


11.42 


10.69 


9.12 


10.48 


20.56 


49 


11.7 






State averages 


















for all sta- 


















tions 


36. 54 


10.33 


10.76 


8.47 


6.98 


21.65 


59 


24.6 



Table III, which records precipitation, shows the normal 
annual rainfall and the amount received in each of the four 
seasons, also the amount falling during the six months, April 



WEATHER AND CLIMATE 



81 




AVERAGE ANNUAL SNOWFALL 

In general, the snowfall increases 
rapidly with latitude or distance from 
the equator. Snow is melted and re- 
ported as a part of the rainfall. About 
10 or 12 inches of snow are equal to 1 
inch of rainfall. 



to September, inclusive — the half of the year during which crops 

make practically all their growth. In recording snowfall as a 

part of the precipitation, 

the observer makes three 

records; one indicates the 

depth of newly fallen snow 

on the level; another, the 

depth of snow including 

previous snowfalls; and the 

other, the amount of water 

obtained by melting the 

snow which fell during the 

past 24 hours. This latter 

result is added to the rain- 
fall of the month, and thus 

snowfall finds its way into 

the precipitation records 

as rain. The table shows 

clearly the inl^uences of latitude on the amount of snowfall 

received. 
-^^'"^ The annual -rainfall 

map shows that the 
normal annual rainfall 
of Illinois is not as regu- 
larly distributed as the 
normal annual tempera- 
ture. There is, however, 
a similar change as the 
state is crossed from 
north to south. The 
least normal annual 
rainfall reported by any 
station is 31 . 28 inches at 
Elgin in Kane County; 
the heaviest is 47.44 

inches among the Ozark Hills at Anna in Union County, 

making a difference of 16.16 inches. 

The normal annual rainfall for the state, 36 . 54 inches, with 

its seasonal distribution, is exceptionally favorable for the 




i^-H^'-k 



VEGETATION WEIGHED DOWN WITH WINTER 
SNOW AT CORNELL, LIVINGSTON COUNTY 

Damp, clinging snow, falling without strong 
winds, covers bushes and trees with a mantle 
of white. (Photograph by Mabel Jones.) 



82 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



production of maximum crops. If the average rainfall were the 
actual rainfall year by year, season by season, and month by 
month, there would be no crop failures of any kind; there would 
be neither swollen streams nor flooded farm lands; the larger 
precipitation of spring and summer would always suffice for 
the rapid growth of all crops; and the smaller rainfall of autumn 

and winter would give the 
best of weather for har- 
vesting and threshing small 
grains, and for the ripening 
and gathering of corn. 

The normal temperatures 
of the state and the average 
length of the growing season 
are also favorable for the 
production of large yields of 
staple farm crops. It is be- 
cause the normal or average 
climatic conditions of Illinois 
are especially satisfactory 




that the state can undergo 
marked variations from aver- 
age conditions without dis- 
astrous results. 

The rainfall of a single 
year. — A study of the cli- 
matic factors of a single year 
shows that weather condi- 
tions may vary widely from 
the cHmatic averages. The 
abundant crops of 1915 were 
produced with an annual 
rainfall for the state of 41 .90 
inches, an excess of 4.77 inches. The variations among 
stations were from 29.46 inches at JoUet, where the deficiency 
for the year was 3 .33 inches, to 59 . 16 inches at Chester, Ran- 
doph County, where the excess was 16.21 inches. The differ- 
ence between the two stations for this year was 29.70 inches, 
while the greatest difference between the normal annual rain- 



NORMAL PRECIPITATION 

Normal precipitation, like normal tem- 
perature, decreases from south to north, 
but somewhat less regularly than normal 
temperature. 



WEATHER AND CLIMATE 



83 



fall for any two stations is 16.16 inches, and the difference 
between the six northernmost and the seven southernmost 
counties is 10.55 inches. 
During 1915 the varia- 
tion in rainfall by 
months was from only a 
trace at Fairfield, Wayne 
County, in April, to 
14.77 inches at Griggs- 
ville, Pike County, in 
June. There was a de- 
ficiency of rainfall in the 
months of February, 
March, April, October, 
and November amount- 
ing to 6.45 inches. 
The excess of 1 1 . 22 
inches during the other 
seven months was suffi- 
cient to equal the defi- 
ciency of these five 
months and to add an 
excess of 4.77 inches for 
the year. 

The table of state averages (Table IV) shows how the pre- 
cipitation of 1915 varied from the normal by months. 

TABLE IV 




10 20 30 40 In. 

^B APR.-SERiNc I I OCT.-MAR.iNc 

RAINFALL FOR SELECTED STATIONS 

In general, the annual rainfall decreases with 
distance from the Gulf of Me.xico and the 
Atlantic Ocean. Less variation in amount of 
rainfall occurs in the summer half of the year 
than in the winter half. 



Excess of Precipitation 


Deficiency of Precipitation 


Month 


Inches 


Month 


Inches 


January 


.23 
2.81 

.73 
3.15 

2.84 
.81 
.65 


February 

March 

April 

October 

November 


.34 


May 


2.15 


June 


1.99 


July 


1.69 


August 


.28 






December. . 








Deficiency of 5 months. 




Excess of 7 months. . 
Excess of year 


11.22 

4.77 


6.45 



84 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



The following is from the annual summary of weather con- 
ditions for Illinois in 1915, published by the Weather Bureau: 

The year opened with a rather cold month and some extremely low 
temperatures, but February was almost springlike and there was very little 
snow. The early spring was dry, with warm sunny weather in April. Crops 
were planted in good season. A period of cool, cloudy, and wet weather 
began in May and continued through August, and the summer was the 
coldest and rainiest in the meteorological history of the state. Destructive 
local storms were frequent, and much land was inundated. Corn was 
damaged and its growth retarded, and threshing operations were greatly 
delayed. The autumn was favorable for farm work, especially in October 
when the weather was clear and dry. Killing frost injured late corn in the 
more northern counties. Field work ended December 10 and considerable 
snow fell after the twentj'-third. 

The mean temperature was practically normal, but the highest, 101, 
has been equalled or exceeded in every previous year. Lower minimum 
temperatures occurred in 190o, 1910, and 1912. There have been but two 
wetter years since 1884, the number of cloudy days was exceeded only in 
1S9.S. The precipitation was above normal at nearly all stations; and in 
several counties the excess was more than 10 inches. 

The heav>^ but fairly well-distributed rains of May and June, 
accompanied by moderate temperatures, induced a remarkably 



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JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. ^| 



R.MNF.'^LL or THE ST.VfE, 1915 

Although the precipitation of 1915 was below normal tor five months, the 
excessive rainfall of other months made the summer season very wet. 



vigorous growth of vegetation; and wheat, oats, and corn devel- 
oped rapidly. The continuance of excessive rains through 
July and August made the harvesting and threshing of wheat 
and oats very difficult. Evtu with these handicaps of weather 
a most satisfactory yield was procured and marketed. 

The excess of rainfall for August was due almost wholly to 
the passage of the Galveston hurricane diagonally across the 
state from southwest to northeast, August 17-18, with exceed- 



WEATHER AND CLIMATE 85 

ingly heavy rainfall, some points reporting more than 8 inches. 
This excessive rainfall and the high winds accompanying it 
laid the ripening corn over vast areas flat on the muddy ground. 
The moderate rainfall of September, however, followed by a 
clear and dry October and November, permitted the successful 
ripening and harvesting of an abundant corn crop. 

The heavy rains of the year and their peculiar distribution in 
some localities were so far removed from the ordinary as to make 
perceptible changes in the annual-rainfall map of the state when 
the 1915 reports were averaged with all preceding records. 

Tornadoes. — Many tornadoes have occurred in Illinois, 
and have done great damage over small areas. The tornado 
is a small, violent, whirling storm, which sometimes develops 
in the southeast quadrant of a cyclone, or low-pressure area, 
during the spring and summer months. It is almost always 
less than a mile, often only a few hundred feet, in width. Its 
course is easterly and the path is usually 20 or 30 miles in length. 
Tornadoes are more common in the Mississippi Basin than else- 
where in the world. The St. Louis tornado of May 27, 1896, 
caused its greatest destruction in the city of St. Louis, but the 
storm crossed the Mississippi River and did much damage in 
Illinois. No means has been found for forecasting the time or 
place of occurrence of a tornado. In the open country a person 
may observe the narrow, funnel-shaped cloud approaching 
and run out of its path so as to escape its violence. It is better 
to run to the north of the center of the path as the winds are 
less violent on the north than on the south side of the tornado. 

On May 26, 1917, Illinois and Indiana experienced two of 
the most remarkable tornadoes in the history of the Weather 
Bureau observations. These storms are fully described in the 
Weather Bureau reports for May, 1917. Only a brief summary 
can be given here: 

The northern storm was first seen at Mendota, La Salle County, Illinois, 
at 3 : 10 P.M. of the twenty-sixth. It reached Kouts, Porter County, Indiana, 
at 5:56 p.m., thus traversing a distance of 110 miles in 2 hours and 46 min- 
utes, or at an average velocity of translation of 40 miles per hour. The 
path varied greatly, being as wide as 3 miles in places, but the worst effects 
were noted in a track about one-half mile in width. Intense darkness was 
reported by those directly in the path of the storm, and heavy rain and hail 
fell, some hailstones being as large as hens' eggs. The co-operative observer 
at Joliet measured a hailstone 1.25 inches by 3.92 inches. The loss to 



86 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



property in Illinois was at least $750,000. The property loss in Porter 
County, Indiana, was estimated at $500,000. Hailstones from 6 to 10 inches 
in circumference and a half pound in weight fell thickly in Indiana. 

The central tornado was remarkable, not only on account of its severity, 
but because of its great length. The tornado cloud was first seen at Pleasant 
Hill, Pike County, at noon on the twenty-sixth. From this point it moved 




P.ATHS OF TORNADOES 



This map shows the path and time of arrival at various stations for two torna- 
does of May 26, 1917. The average rate of travel was 40 miles per hour for each 
tornado. 



due east in a remarkably straight line to Charleston: then bore southeast- 
ward across three-fourths of Indiana, terminating near North Vernon, 
Indiana, at 7 20 p.m. It covered 188 miles in Illinois and 105 miles in 
Indiana, or a total length of path of 293 miles in 7 hours and 20 minutes, or 
at an average velocity of translation of 40 miles per hour. This is the 
exact velocity of the northern storm. The efiects of the tornado were felt 



WEATHER AND CLIMATE 87 



over a path more than one-half mile wide, but the path of serious damage 
was generally about one-fourth mile in width. The storm seemed to lift 
at times, causing little harm at some places in its path, but inflicting great 
destruction at others. 

Mattoon and Charleston were the largest cities in the direct path of the 
storm, and great destruction was wrought. This storm crossed the entire 
state of Illinois, and caused within the state the loss of 101 lives, injury to 
638 persons, and a property loss estimated at $2,500,000. 

In the late afternoon of May 27, tornadic storms occurred in south- 
western Illinois with a property loss estimated at $200,000. 

The Weather Bureau report for Illinois gives detailed 
information concerning the tornadoes of March, 1920: 

Local tornadic storms occurred in Logan County on the twenty-fifth 
and in the northeastern part of the state on the twenty-eighth. The Logan 
County tornado occurred between 5:00 p.m. and 5:30 p.m. Its path was 
about 20 miles long. It seemed to rise when it reached the west boundary 
of Lincoln and at other places in its path, leaving some stretches unharmed. 
The property loss is estimated at $15,000. 

Three distinct tornadoes occurred in northeastern Illinois between 
noon and 1 :00 p.m. (Central Standard Time) on Sunday, March 28. There 
were 28 known deaths, 300 persons were injured, and the property losses 
amounted to over $3,000,000. 

The Elgin tornado apparently had its inception in Kane County, 
about 3h miles southwest of Geneva at about 12:05 p.m. It reached Elgin, 
15 miles from its point of inception, at 12:23 p.m., or at an average velocity 
of translation of 50 miles an hour. The total length of its path was 
appro.ximately 30 miles and its width varied from 300 yards to about 
one-half mile. 

The Melrose Park-Wilmette tornado originated about 12:15 p.m. in 
Will County, about 8 miles southwest of JoUet. Great destruction was 
wrought about 3 miles west and northwest of Joliet. The tornado cloud 
lifted when about 2h miles northwest of Lockport and it dipped only occa- 
sionally as it neared the Des Plaines River. Only minor damage was done 
until the tornado reached Bellwood, Maywood, and Melrose Park. The 
greatest devastation was experienced in Melrose Park at 12:55 p.m. The 
tornado cut a path northeastward across the village about 100 yards wide. 
The tornado continued to move directly northeastward, passing through 
the northwestern part of Evanston, and across Wilmette to Lake Michigan, 
which it reached about 1: 15 p.m., just one hour after its inception in Will 
County. 50 miles to the southwest. 

The Clearing tornado, 10 miles in length, occurred in the central part 
of Cook County between 1:00 p.m. and 1:15 p.m. The damage wrought 
was slight in comparison with the other two tornadoes. 

Sleet, hail, and ice storms. — Precipitation sometimes falls 
in winter in the form of small, clear pellets of ice consisting 
of frozen raindrops known as sleet. Sleet is also called "winter 
hail." Small, white pellets of compacted snow occasionally fall 
in spring or late autumn. This is sometimes called "soft hail," 
but the Weather Bureau reports it only as snow. 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Hail sometimes falls during a thunderstorm. It accom- 
panies thunderstorms in the hottest part of the year and the 
hottest part of the day. The area receiving hail is smaller than 
the area of the accompanying thunderstorm. A large hail- 
storm may be 6 to 7 miles wide and 40 to 50 miles long. Hail- 
stones vary in size up to several inches in diameter. Doubtless 
hail has fallen in every part of Illinois. In some instances 




ICE WEIGHING DOWN TREES AT WAVHRLY, MORGAN COUNTY 

Vegetation and other exposed objects may be below freezing-point while 
rain is falling. The rain is changed to ice on these cold surfaces. Branches of 
trees and bushes and telephone and telegraph wires are heavily loaded, sometimes 
broken, by the weight of the ice. (Photograph by A. H. Moffett.) 



the destruction caused has been very great. Cornstalks have 
been stripped of their leaves and the crop practically ruined. 
Windows of houses have been broken, and the glass coverings 
of greenhouses have been shattered. In some cases animals 
have been killed. 

The Weather Bureau report of June, 1915, gives an account 
of a destructive hailstorm which occurred during the night of 
June 20-21. The hailstorm crossed the state in a southeasterly 



WEATHER AND CLIMATE 89 

direction from Calhoun County, where it appeared at 8.30 p.m., 
to Wabash County, where it passed into Indiana about mid- 
night. 

Buildings and trees were destroyed, wire service crippled, trains delayed ' 
one person injured, large quantities of plate glass in store windows and 
glass in greenhouses broken by hail; timothy, oats, corn, and wheat laid 
flat by the wind and torn into shreds by the hail, causing a loss to crops 
alone of thousands of dollars. White County reports the total damage to 
buildings and crops as approximately .$100,000. Carrollton, Greene County, 
reports an estimated loss in that immediate vicinity of more than $100,000. 
The hail killed 50 shoats on a farm near Carrollton. Reports stated also 
that some sheep and cows were killed by the hail. 

As in the case of a tornado, no forecast can be made of the 
approaching hailstorm. 

An ice storm occurs when rain falls on surfaces cold enough 
to freeze the rain. These are often called "sleet storms," but 
the Weather Bureau uses the term sleet only for precipitation 
which falls in the form of frozen raindrops, and thus reaches the 
ground. An ice storm may occur when weather colder than 
freezing is followed by rain, and the rain is then frozen to the 
cold surfaces. Or, the ice storm may come during the latter 
part of a long-continued rainstorm with the temperature falling 
so rapidly that exposed surfaces, such as poles, wires, trees, 
shrubs, grass blades, stubble, and weeds radiate their heat so 
rapidly that they reach freezing temperature an hour or two 
before the ground or water freezes, and before the rain ceases 
or turns into snow. 

On January 30, 1916, an ice storm prevailed over portions 
of Illinois. The writer traveled across the area of ice formation 
from East St. Louis to Springfield. A heavy rain had been 
falling for several hours. The temperature began to fall. At 
8:00 A.M., when the train left East St. Louis, a thin coating of 
ice was forming on the trees and shrubs. Soon the ice was 
observed on the telegraph and telephone wires. Trees, weeds, 
and wheat plants were incrusted in ice. The wet ground and 
pools of water were not yet frozen, but plants projecting above 
the water were completely covered with ice. By 9: 30 the rain 
had ceased. Slender twigs and their incrustations were from 
three to six times the diameter of the twigs alone. Wires were 
loaded with a thick coat of solid ice and with innumerable 
icicles 3 or 4 inches in length. Strong poles carrying as many 



90 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



as fifty wires were brought to the ground. For several miles, 
in the center of the ice storm, telegraph and telephone poles were 
down or leaning heavily. Railroad switching devices were so 
thickly ice-covered that they were operated with great difficulty. 
The heaviest ice observed was from Godfrey in Madison County 




RirrNS AFTER TORNADO AT MELROSE PARK, COOK COUNTY 

Results of the tornado of March 28, 1920. The path of the tornado in this 
part of its course was about 100 yards in width. (Photograph by Eugene J. Hall.) 



to Brighton in Macoupin County, but the ice storm was severe 
along the route of the journey from East St. Louis to Spring- 
field. North of Springfield the ice formations grew rapidly 
less in amount, and no indications of an ice storm were found 
at Bloomington. 

An ideal climate. — Whether a climate is ideal or not depends 
on what we mean by ''ideal." 

For rest and recreation a warm equable climate is doubtless most delight- 
ful; for a fishing or climbing trip something quite different is desirable. 
For most people the really essential thing in life is the ordinary work of 



WEATHER AND CLIMATE 



91 



every day. Hence, the climate which is best for work may, in the long run, 
claim to be the most ideal. At least it is the one which people will ulti- 
mately choose in the largest numbers. ' 

A progressive people as measured by modern standards 
cannot develop in the warm equable climate of the tropics, nor 
in the rigorous cold of the polar regions. Human progress has 
been achieved most largely in middle latitudes where climatic 
conditions permit and require careful and systematic tilling of 
the soil during the growing season of summer to provide food 
and clothing sufficient for the entire year, which includes the 
long, unproductive season of winter. Within this temperate 
belt, energetic and pro- 
gressive nations have 
occupied with large 
populations all those 
regions having favorable 
cHmatic conditions. 

Illinois lies in the 
midst of one of the 
most extensive of these 
favored lands. The 
warm growing season of 
5 to 7 months gives op- 
portunity to mature the 
great staple food crops 
year after year without 

extensive frost damage. The normal annual rainfall with 
proper distribution during the growing and ripening seasons 
is favorable for the production of maximum crops. The 
constant winds of moderate velocity carry moisture and 
give an invigorating atmosphere. The daily and seasonal 
changes of weather stimulate human activity in all lines of 
endeavor. Human energy and human progress are greatest 
in those regions of the earth where there are striking but 
not extreme differences between winter and summer; where 
weather changes from day to day are marked, but not violent; 
where stormy weather comes at frequent intervals, alternating 
with clear, dry weather. Judged by these standards Ilhnois 
stands second to none in her invigorating "ideal climate." 

1 Ellsworth Huntington, Civilisation and Climate. 




rook's creek, LIVINGSTON COUNTY 

A typical winter scene, showing the open 
forest commonly found along streams in the 
prairie lands of Illinois. (Photograph by 
Mabel Jones.) 



CHAPTER \T 
NATIVE VEGETATION 



Vegetation areas. — The land surfaces of the earth may be 
classified on the basis of native vegetation into three regions: 

forests, grasslands, and 
deserts. The fertile soil 
and the favorable cli- 
mate of IlHnois preclude 
any possibility of desert 
areas within the state. 
Abundant plant growth 
in natural forests and 
natural grasslands, or 
prairies, covered the 
entire state. In south- 
ern Illinois native vege- 
tation consisted of large 
tracts of mixed hard- 
wood forests, inter- 
spersed with small 
prairies; in central and 
northern Illinois exten- 
sive areas of prairie 
lands prevailed with 
long tongues of forest 
extending from the 
wooded belt of the 
south along the prin- 
cipal watercourses and 
their tributaries, thus 
dividing the prairies into 
irregular areas in the 
inter-stream spaces. 
These wide areas of grasslands were new to the explorers 
and pioneers who had come from the East where the entire 

92 




VEGETATION MAP OF ILLINOIS 

This map shows by the shaded portions the 
extent to which the Prairie State was occupied 
by natural forests. The unshaded portion rep- 
resents the original open prairies. 



NATIVE VEGETATION 



93 



country had originally been covered by a heavy growth of 
timber. Small prairies were found in portions of Ohio and 
Indiana, but not until the Illinois country was reached did 
prairies become characteristic of large regions. The name 
"Prairie State" was given to Illinois, although other states 
farther west, and settled later, have a larger proportion of 
prairies than Illinois. 




LUXURIANT VINE AND TREE GROWTH IN FORMER VIRGIN FOREST OF THE LOWER 
WABASH NEAR MOUNT CARMEL 



(Copyright by Robert Ridgway) 



The forests. — The forests of Illinois are but a portion of that 
great forest area which, in its original extent, stretched along 
the entire Atlantic Coast, thence westward beyond the Mis- 
sissippi into Texas, Arkansas, and Missouri, and to the prairies 
of Illinois and southern Wisconsin. These Illinois forests 
were of supreme importance to the pioneer. They furnished 
all necessary building materials for his house, barn, and other 



94 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




ROCKS CO\KRED WITH FERNS AND LICHENS, JOHNSON COUNTY, NEAR TUNNEL HILL 

At places among the Illinois Ozarks the precipitous cliffs support only a scant 
vegetation. (Copyright by Robert Ridgway.) 



-.J. 




SQUARED WHITE-OAK TIMBER BEING SHIPPED FROM MOUNT CARMEL TO ENGLAND 
FOR CONSTRUCTION OF BRITISH NAVY 

The forests of southern Illinois have produced large quantities of excellent 
timber. This photograph was taken many years ago. (Copyright by Robert 
Ridgway.) 



NATIVE VEGETATION 



95 



structures; rails for his fences; fuel for his home; protection 
from the storms; and a building site near a supply of water for 
domestic use. 

We of today are prone to pass criticism on the pioneer for 
lack of foresight in crossing prairie land, now valued at more 
than $300 per acre, to settle in a forested area with a present 
value of less than one- 
third that of the prairie. - ^w '-^ 
Yet it is possible that, 
with our present knowl- 
edge of relative values, 
we would do as the 
pioneer did if we were 
to enter a similar area 
with his equipment and 
the necessity of supply- 
ing ourselves with all 
the necessaries of life 
from our immediate en- 
vironment. The diffi- 
culties presented by the 
open prairies for con- 
structing houses, barns, 
and field inclosures; for 
obtaining water for man 
and beast; for securing 
a fuel supply; and- for 
protection from strong 
winds were too great to 
compensate for possible 

increases in land values during the next fifty years, even if 
such land values had been suspected. Thus the Illinois forests 
along the Wabash, Ohio, Mississippi, and Illinois rivers became 
naturally and necessarily the sites of the earlier settlements of 
the state. 

Sawmills in the forests were among the earliest manufactur- 
ing plants of the state. A number of well-equipped sawmills 
are today doing an important business among the forests of 
southern Illinois. Forests in the Cache Valley are now being 




ISOLATED ROCK IN WOODS NEAR TUNNEL 
HILL, JOHNSON COUNTY 

Land as rugged as that shown in this view 
is necessarily left in its natural condition 



96 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




NATIVE ILLINOIS FOREST NEAR MOUNT CARMEL, WABASH COUNTY 

The flood plain of the Wabash River Valley originally supported a dense growth 
of native forest trees. (Copyright by Robert Ridgway ) 



NATIVE VEGETATION 



97 



cut over for the third time. The first cutting of more than 
thirty years ago included the larger trees, many of which were 
cypress. The second cutting of about twenty years ago 
included smaller trees than the first cutting, but many of these 
had made considerable growth in the years intervening. More 
money, but probably not more lumber, was realized from the 
second cutting than from the first. The third cutting, now in 




STEEL BRIDGE ON CAIRO DIVISION OF "BIG FOUR" RAILROAD AT GLEN FERN, 
JOHNSON COUNTY 

The forested areas of the Illinois Ozarks are still extensive, especially where 
the rugged topography is not favorable for agriculture. (Copyright by Robert 
Ridgway.) 



progress, promises to yield a larger return in money, but not in 
lumber, than either of the previous cuttings. 

Extensive forests are still to be found in southern Illinois, 
especially in those portions of the broad flood plains which are 
too swampy to be easily drained for agricultural purposes, and 
among the Ozark Hills where the slopes are too steep for culti- 
vation. The traveler who makes a journey through these 
regions finds the extent of unbroken forest areas in striking 



98 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




VIEW SHOWING RECENT NATLTiAI, REFORESTATION IN SOUTHERN ILLINOIS 

The forest here shown is a natural growth on land once cleared and farmed 
for a period of years. (Coiiyright lay Roljcrt Ridgway.) 




VIEW LOOKINT, UP FLOOD PLAIN OF WABASH RI\ER FROM TOP OF BLUFF 
AT MOUNT CARMEL 

f The native forest of the river flood plain has been cleared away and the land 
made into farms. (Copyright by Robert Ridgway.) 



NATIVE VEGETATION 



99 



contrast with the narrow, open forests along the stream courses 
in the prairie lands. 

The lUinois forests have yielded for home use and for sale 
important timber products. About two million acres of land 
are still in forests, and are better adapted to the production of 
timber crops than farm crops. A scientific forest policy should 
be developed so that good crops of timber might be harvested 




LANDSCAPE VIEW AMONG THE OZARKS NEAR TUNNEL HILL, JOHNSON COUNTY 

The log cabin, such as seen at the left of this view, is still common in the for- 
ested areas of southern Illinois. (Copyright by Robert Ridgway.) 

at intervals throughout an indefinite future. With increasing 
scarcity of timber and advancing prices of timber products, 
profitable returns may be had by planting areas of the poorer 
lands of the state in trees which may be used for various pur- 
poses on the farm, on the railroad, or in the mine. 

Forests and the pioneer. — Most of the native forests of 
Illinois occupying good agricultural land have been cleared. 
Timber not needed for the homestead was burned. This 
waste of valuable timber was necessary if fertile agricultural 



100 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



lands were to be put to their best use — the production of crops 
lor food and clothing through proper cultivation of the soil. 
The pioneer in the Illinois forest could not await a market for his 
timber products. It was necessary to clear the land by burning 
the timber in order to raise cereals, other crops, and domestic 
animals that his family might be supplied with necessary food 




VIEW IN VIRGIN FOREST OF THF, LOWER WABASH, SHOWINO LUXURIANT VINE GROWTH 

(Copyright by Robert Ridyway) 



and clothing. In densely forested regions the abundance of 
timber led to the belief that there would always be an ample 
supply for future use. Hill lands and poor lands were frequently 
cleared when they should have been kept in trees and given the 
necessary care to insure a perpetual supply of timber products 
whether for fuel, railroad tics, posts, or lumber for building 
purposes. In many cases land of fair agricultural value may 



NATIVE VEGETATION 101 

be more profitable to the farmer if preserved as forest than to 
be cleared and used for farm crops. The annual income from 
a well-cared-for \yood lot may equal or exceed that from the 
same acreage of farm land. The pioneer or first settler did not 
carry the destruction of forests farther than his agricultural 
needs required, as this could not be done, as a rule, during his 
lifetime. His successors continued the clearing of land so that 
the timber has been removed from many areas where a well- 
managed wood lot would have been profitable as a source of 
timber products for local use. 

Native trees of Illinois. — A careful study of the forests of 
Illinois was made in 1910 and published by the State Laboratory 
of Natural History. The following extracts and the complete 
list of trees native to Illinois are from this bulletin:^ 

While Illinois is emphatically a prairie state, it has never been so nearly 
treeless as the states beyond the Missouri. Large districts of southern 
Illinois were originally densely wooded, and forest belts from three to thirty 
miles wide extended along the banks, and filled the areas between the forks 
of rivers. 

This study shows that the present forest area of Illinois is about two 
million acres or 5j per cent of the total land area. 

The distribution of species is governed chietly by climate and physiog- 
raphy. The southeast portion of Illinois, along the Ohio and Wabash 
rivers, is the richest in number of species, and in this respect is not surpassed, 
or perhaps not even equaled by any other region of the United States. 
There are about one hundred different species of trees found in this part of 
the state. The valleys of the other large rivers, such as the Mississippi, 
Kaskaskia, Illinois, and Rock, also contain a great variety of species. 
Toward the north, the number of species grows less, although there are 
some belonging to a more northern flora, which do not occur at all in the 
south. Alany southern lowland trees reach the limits of their normal range 
along stream valleys, as such situations afford shelter and favorable sites on 
which to grow. On the other hand, others, such as bur oak, which in the 
south ordinarily grows on wet situations, extend northward on higher, 
better-drained sites. 

The Illinois forests are composed almost entirely of hardwoods, while 
conifers are few in number and generally restricted in occurrence. 

The only evergreens that grow throughout the state are the two sparsely 
distributed species of juniper one of which, the dwarf juniper, is seldom 
more than a shrub. The only commercially important native conifer is 
the bald cypress, which is found in the bottoms of the Cache and Ohio 
rivers in fairly large quantities. In the south there is also the shortleaf 
pine, which is confined to small stands along the bluffs of the Mississippi, 
from opposite Wolf Lake, in Union County, to tne southern borders of Jack- 
son County. In the north, white and jack pine are occasional, the latter 
along the Wisconsin boundary, and the former extending as far south as 

1 R. C. Hal! and O. D. Ingall, Forest Conditions oj Illinois. 



102 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Ogle County in the valley uf Rock River. Tamarack and arbor-vitae grow 
near the northern boundary, on low ground. 

Among the hardwoods, the oaks and hickories lead in number of species, 
in number of trees, and in amount of wood. There are nineteen species 
of oaks and nine of hickories. Among the other important genera that are 
well represented are the ash, with five species widely distributed. All the 
important maples are included in the five species, most of which are widely 
distributed, and on the lowlands often form a large part of the forest. 
Practically all the important species of elm are found in large quantities, 
the white and red occurring throughout the state, while the winged elm is 
restricted to the south and the cork elm to the north. Among the true 




ROCKS AT GLEN FERN, JOHNSON COUNTY 

Vigorous plant growth may occur where soil conditions seem unfavorable. 
(Copyright by Robert Ridgway.) 



poplars, the common cottonwood is very widespread while the trembling 
and largetooth aspens are northern species, and the swamp cottonwood is 
confined to the extreme southern bottoms. 

The black walnut was originally both widespread and fairly abundant 
but only the smaller sizes are left, and it is very scattered because of the great 
demand for it in the timber markets. Butternut is also found throughout 
the state, sparsely scattered throughout the forests. Hornbeam and blue 
beech are very widely distributed. Beech is found chiefly in the cool valleys 
of the Ozark Hills, but extends north to some extent up the streams, espe- 
cially of the Wabash River system. Mulberry is very scattered, with few 
large specimens, partly because it is eagerly sought after for fence posts. 
Tulip-poplar is widely distributed in the southern half of the state. Sassa- 
fras grows everywhere, often in old fields, and very seldom as a large tree. 
Sweet gum is common throughout the southern bottom lands, and reaches 



NATIVE VEGETATION 



103 



its best development there. Sycamore is everywhere characteristic of the 
banks of the streams, and reaches enormous dimensions in the Wabash-Ohio 
basin. 

The various species of crab, thorn, haw, and phim trees never reach 
large size, and are generally found as an understory to the larger trees. 
Ohio buckeye is fairly common, but not abundant, along the valley sides 
of the larger rivers, and sometimes on bottoms, while yellow buckeye is 




THE EAGLE S NEST, NEAR OREGON, OGLE COUNTY 

This view shows the natural forest growth along the valley side of a stream in 
the prairie lands. (Photograph by Eugene J. Hall.) 



comparatively rare. The coffee tree is a widely distributed but infrequent 
tree, found in much the same situations as the buckeyes. The basswoods 
or lindens are also found throughout the state, but do not often form any 
great proportion of the stand except in the north, where in limited localities 
they grow in fair quantities on some of the bottoms of the smaller streams. 
Black gum occurs over a greater part of the south and central part of the 
state, where it often forms an appreciable part of the forests; while tupelo 



104 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



gum, although found in considerable quantities, is confined with cypress to 
the extreme southern bottoms. 

The common catalpa is a naturalized species, but the hardy catalpa is 
native on the southern bottomlands, where it once attained considerable 
size and commercial importance as a post timber. Pawpaw and persimmon 
occur commonly as small trees or bushes. The former is more restricted 
in range than the latter, occurring most abundantly in the southern third 
of the state. 

Many other species such as sumacs, hornbeam, blue beech, witchhazel, 
red bud, wahoo, dogwood, and viburnums, are found as small trees or 
bushes that form an understory in the forest. 

The following list shows 129 native and 4 naturalized species. This 
number includes a few that are seldom more than bushes. On the other 
hand, it omits many species of Crataegus, and perhaps a few of Pyriis and 
Sali.x that are sometimes classed as trees. It does not atternpt to include 
all of the naturalized trees. The preferred common name is given first, 
followed by other local names that are applied to the same species. The 
common names are followed by the scientific or botanical name. 

LIST OF TREES NATIVE TO ILLINOIS 



1. 


White pine 




Pinus strobus 


2 


Shortleaf pine. Yellow pine 




Fimis echinata 


3! 


Jack pine. Scrub pine 




Pinus divaricata 


4. 


Tamarack. Larch 




Larix laricina 


5. 


Bald cypress 




Taxodium distichum 


6. 


Arbor-vitae. White cedar 




Thuja occidentalis 


7. 


Red jumper. Red cedar 




Juniperus virgiiiiana 


S. 


Dwarf juniper 




Juniperus communis 


9. 


Butternut. White walnut 




Juglans cinerea 


10. 


Black walnut 




Juglans nigra 


11. 


Pecan 




Hicoria pecan 


12. 


Bitternut. (Hickory.) Pig \m 


:kory 


Hicoria minima 


13. 


Water hickory 




Hicoria aquatica 


14. 


Shaebark. (Hickorv) 




Hicoria ovata 


15. 


Shellbark. Bottom or Big shellbark 


Hicoria laciniosa 


16. 


Mockernut. (Hickory.) Bullnut 
Whiteheart hickory. Hardbark hickory 


Hicoria alba 


17. 


Pignut. (Hickory) 




Hicoria glabra 


IS. 


Pale-leaf hickory 




Hicoria mllosa 


19. 


Black willow 




Salix nigra 


20. 


Ward willow 




Salix wardii 


21. 


Almondleaf willow 




Salix amygdaloides 


22 


Longleaf willow 




Salix flicviatilis 


23 ; 


Glossyleaf willow 




Salix lucida 


24. 


Glaucous willow 




Salix discolor 


25. 


Bebb willow 




Salix bebhiana 


26. 


Aspen. Quaking asp. TrembI 
aspen. Poplar 


ing 


Populous Iremuloides 


27. 


Largetooth aspen. Poplar, 
wood 


Cotton- 


Populus grandidentali 


28. 


Swamp Cottonwood 




Populus heterophylla 


29. 


(Common) Cottonwood 




Populus delloides 


30. 


Paper birch 




Betula papyrifera 


31, 


River birch 




Betula nigra 



NATIVE VEGETATION 



105 



32. 
33. 
34. 

35. 
36. 
37. 

38. 
39. 
40. 

41. 

42. 
43. 

44. 
45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 

50. 
51. 

52. 
53. 
54. 

55. 
56. 
57. 
58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 

64. 
65. 

66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 
70. 



73. 
74. 

75. 
76. 

77. 



Black oak. Pin 



Black oak 



Sweet birch. Black birch 
Hornbeam. Hop hornbeam. Ironwood 
Blue beech. Water beech. Hornbeam. 
Ironwood 
Beech 
White oak 
Post oak. Run oak 

Bur oak. Mossycup oak. Overcup oak 
Overcup oak. Bur oak 
Chinquapin oak. Pin oak. 
oak. Yellow oak 
Swamp white oak. Bur oak 
Cow oak. White oak. Bur oak 
Texan oak. Red oak. 
oak. Water oak 
Red oak. Black oak 
Scarlet oak. Red oak 
Yellow oak. Black oak 
Spanish oak. Red oak. Black oak 
Pin oak. Water oak 
Northern pin oak. Hill's oak. Black 
oak 

Blackjack. Jack oak 
Shingle oak. Laurel oak. Jack oak. 
Water oak. Pin oak 
Lea oak 
Willow oak 

Swamp Spanish oak. Red oak. Yellow- 
bottom oak. Water oak 
Slippery elm. Red elm 
white elm. American elm. Water elm 
Cork elm. Rock elm. Hickory elm 
Wing elm. Winged elm. Wahoo 
Planer-tree 
Hackberry 

Sugarberry. Hackberry 
Red mulberry 

Osage orange. Hedge plant. (Natural- 
ized) 

Cucumber tree 

Tulip tree. Yellow poplar. Tulip- 
poplar. Whitewood 
Pawpaw 
Sassafras 

Witchhazel. Hazel 
(Red or) Sweet gum. Gum. 
Sycamore. Buttonwood. Buttonball 
tree 

Sweet crab. American crab. Wild crab. 
Cra,b apple 
Narrowleaf crab 
Iowa crab 
Soulard crab 

Serviceberry. June berry. Shadbush 
Cockspur. Red haw. Cockspur haw 
Scarlet haw. Red haw. White haw 



Belula lenla 
Ostrya virginiana 
Carpinus caroliniana 

Fagus atropiinicea 
Qiiercus alba 
Quercus minor 
Qiiercus macrocarpa 
Quercus lyrata 
Chestnut Quercus acuminata 



Quercus platanoides 
Quercus michauxii 
Quercus texana 

Quercus rubra 
Quercus coccinea 
Quercus velulina 
Quercus digitata 
Quercus palustris 
Quercus ellipsoidalis 

Quercus marilandica 
Quercus imbricaria 

Quercus leana 
Quercus phellos 
Quercus pagodaejolia 

Ulmus pubescens 
Uhnus americana 
Ulmus racemosa 
Ulmus alata 
Planera aquatica 
Celtis occidentalis 
Celtis mississippiensis 
Morus rubra 
Toxylon pomiferum 

Magnolia acuminata 
Liriodendron tulipifera 

Asimina triloba 
Sassafras sassafras 
Ha m a m el is virgin ian a 
Liquidambar styraciflua 
Platanus occidentalis 

Pyrus coronaria 

Pyrus angustifolia 
Pyrus ioensis 
Pyrus soulardi 
Amelanchier canadensis 
Crataegus crus-galli 
Crataegus coccinea 



106 



TEE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



78. Pear haw. Blackthorn. 
Thorn apple 

79. Washington haw 

80. Green haw 

81. Longspine haw 

82. Downy haw 
8.3. Dotted haw 

84. Canada plum 

85. Wild garden plum 

86. Chickasaw plum. (Naturalized) 

87. Wild red cherry 

88. Choke cherry 

89. Black cherry. Wild cherry 

90. Redbud. Judas tree 

91. Honey locust 

92. Water locust 

93. CofJee tree. Coffeebcan. Kentucky 
coffee tree 

94. Locust. Black locust 
9.5. Prickly ash 

96. Hoptree. Wahoo 

97. Ailanthus. Tree of Heaven. (Natural 
ized) 

98. Staghorn sumach. Sumac 

99. Dwarf sumach 

100. Poison sumach 

101. Deciduous holly 

102. Wahoo. Burning bush. 

103. Sugar maple. Sugartree. 
Rock maple 

104. Black maple 

105. Red maple. Soft maple. Swamp maple 

106. Box elder. Ash-lcafed maple. Negundo 
maple 

107. Ohio buckeye 

108. Yellow buckeye 

109. Yellow buckthorn 

110. Basswood. Linn. Linden 

111. White basswood. Linden 

112. Angelica-tree. Hercules clulj 

113. (Flowering) Dogwood 

114. Blue dogwood. Alternatc-lcavcd dog- 
wood 

115. Blackgum. Sour gum. Tupelo 

116. Cotton gum. Tupelo 

117. Tree huckleberry 

118. Shittimwood 

119. Buckthorn bumelia 

120. Persimmon 

121. Silverbell-tree 

122. Blue ash 

123. Black ash 

124. White ash 

125. Red ash 

126. Green ash 

127. Pumpkin ash 



Hawthorn Crataegus tomenlosa 



Arrowwood 
Hard maple. 



Crataegus cordata 
Crataegus viridis 
Crataegus macracantha 
Crataegus mollis 
Crataegus punctata 
Primus nigra 
Prunus hortulana 
Primus angustifolia 
Prunus pennsylvanica 
Prunus virginiana 
Prunus serotina 
Cercis canadensis 
Gleditsia triacanthos 
Gleditsia aquatica 
Gymnocladus dioica 

Robinia pseudacacia 
Xanthoxyliim clava-herculis 
Ptelea trifoliata 
Ailanthus glandulosa 

Rhus hirta 

Rhus copalina 

Rhus vernix 

Ilex decidua 

Evonymiis atropurpureus 

Acer saccharum 

Acer saccharum var. nigrum 
Acer rubrum 
Acer negundo 

Aesculus glabra 
Aesculus octandra 
Rhamnus caroliniana 
Tilia americana 
Tilia heterophylla 
A ralia spinosa 
Cornus florida 
Cornus altcrnifolia 

Nyssa sylvatica 
Nyssa aquatica 
V accinium arboretim 
Bumelia lanuginosa 
Bumelia lycioides 
Diospyrus virginiana 
Mohrodcndron carolinum 
Fraxinus quadrangulata 
Fraxinus nigra 
Fraxinus americana 
Fraxinus pennsylvanica, 
Fraxinus lanceolata 
Fraxinus profunda 



NATIVE VEGETATION 107 



128. (Common) Catalpa. Indian bean Calalpa catalpa 
Cigar-tree. (Naturalized) 

129. Hardy catalpa Catalpa spcciosa 

130. Sheepberry. Black haw Viburnum lenlago 

131. Black haw Viburnum rufidulum 

132. Nannyberry. Black haw Viburmtm prunifolium 

133. Foresteria. Swamp privet Forcsteria acuminata 

Museum specimens of native trees. — A very compre- 
hensive exhibit of the native trees of Illinois is found in the 
State Natural History Museum at Springfield. Each species 
of the exhibit is represented by natural sections of the tree 
showing cross-section, longitudinal section, and radial section. 
These specimens constitute a permanent display of the more 
common trees of the native forests of the state, representing 
101 species. 

Native trees of a small woodland. — A large variety of trees 
may be found within the limits of a small native woodland. 
The plants of "Bird Haven," a tract of 18 acres near Olney, 
Richland County, have been listed by the owner, Mr. Robert 
Ridgway, America's noted ornithologist. The list given 
shows how well the term "mixed hardwood forest" applies even 
to a smaU tract of the native forests of the Central states. 

NATIVE TREES GROWING NATURALLY IN BIRD HAVEN 

I. Conifers. 1. Juniper. 

II. Walnut Family. 2. Butternut. 3. Black walnut. 4. Bitternut. 
5. Shellbark hickory. 6. Bottom shellbark; Big shellbark. 
7. Mockemut; "Bullnut." 8. Pignut. 9. Downy pignut. 
10. Hickory (species undetermined). 

III. Willow or Poplar Family. 11. Black willow. 12. Cottonwood. 

IV. Betula or Birch Family. 13. River birch; Red birch. 
V. Oak Family. 14. Red oak. 15. Pin oak; "Water oak." 

16. Schneck's oak. 17. Black oak. 18. Blackjack; Jack oak. 
19. Shingle oak; "Laurel oak." 20. White oak. 21. Post oak. 
22. Bur oak. 23. Swamp white oak. 24. Chinquapin oak; 
Yellow oak. 
VI. Elm Family. 25. White elm. 26. Slippery elm. 27. Rough-leaved 

hackberry. 
VII. Mulberry Family. 28. Red mulberry. 29. Osage orange. 
VIII. Magnolia Family. 30. TuUp tree; "Poplar." 
IX. Custard Apple Family. 31. Pawpaw. 
X. Laurel Family. 32. Sassafras. 

XI. Plane-Tree Family. 33. "Sycamore"; Buttonwood. 

XII. Rose Family. 34. Fragrant crab apple. 35. Narrow-leaved crab 

apple. 36. One of the hawthorns. 37. One of the hawthorns, 

distinct from 36. 38. Wild plum. 39. Downy-leaved wild plum. 

40. Wild red plum. 41. Wild-goose plum. 42. Wild black cherry. 

XIII. Legume Family. 43. Redbud. 44. Honey locust. 



108 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



XIV. Rutaceae. 45. Prickly ash. 46. Wafer ash. 
XV. Celastraceae. 47. Wahoo; Burning bush. 
XVI. Maple Family. 48. Sugar maple. 49. Red maple. 50. Bo.x elder. 
XVII. Dogwood Family. 51. Sour gum; Black gum. 52. Flowering 

dogwood. 
XVIII. Ebony Family. 53. Persimmon. 
XIX. Olive Family. 54. White ash. 55. Red ash. 56. Green ash. 
XX. Bignonia Family. 57. Catalpa. 
XXI. Bubiaceae. 5S. Button bush. 
XXII. Honeysuckle Family. 5'.). Black haw. 




BIRD H.-WEN, A TREE .^ND BIRD PRESERVE NEAR OLNEY, RICHLAND COUNTY 

Bird Haven is owned by Mr. Robert Ridgway America's noted ornithologist. 
Protection, food, and opportunity for nesting unmolested are furnished to the birds 
visiting this tract. (Copyright by Robert Ridgway.) 



In addition to the foregoing, the white mulberry (60) is 
growing spontaneously as an e.xotic in Bird Haven; it is 
thoroughly naturalized in Richland County. 

While Bird Haven is so well supplied with trees growing 
naturally, these do not constitute all the native plant life of 
this small area. Probably no other forest area of Illinois has 
had all its vegetation so carefully and accurately listed as Bird 



NATIVE VEGETATION 109 

Haven. Mr. Ridgway's detailed lists show the great variety 
of plant life to be found on a small area of Illinois woodland. 
Of woody species growing naturally, there were 60 trees, 17 
shrubs, and 12 climbers, a total of 89 native plants. In 
addition, other woody species native to Illinois have been 
planted in Bird Haven as follows: trees 13, shrubs 6, and 
climbers 3, or 22 in all, making a total of woody plants of 111 
species. To this number a list must be added of 227 herbaceous 
plants, growing naturally, making a grand total of 338 plant 
species accurately determined. 

White-pine forest. — A native forest area in northern Illinois 
is described as follows in a pamphlet issued by the White Pine 
Forest Association. 

The White Pine Forest consists of a tract of about 500 acres situated in 
the western part of Ogle County. The main Une of the Chicago, Burlington 
and Quincy Railway from Chicago to Minneapolis passes along the edge of 
the forest, and the station of Stratford is one mile distant. The picturesque 
stream of Pine Creek traverses the forest from north to south. In many 
places the stream runs at the base of high limestone cliffs. These cliffs and 
almost perpendicular walls are overgrown with ferns and moss in great 
profusion. 

Over thirty different varieties and species of hardwoods have been 
counted growing on the tract, including oaks, elms, maples, walnuts, butter- 
nut, hickory, ash, cherry, sycamore, etc. 

Wild flowers native to Illinois are found on every hand. 

But the chief attraction is the White Pine Woods. Some eleven acres 
of these beautiful and magnificent trees remain undisturbed. Many of 
these trees are 2 to 2j feet in diameter and rear their heads 90 to 100 feet 
skyward. Their branches so closely interweave as almost to exclude the 
sunlight. In another section of the tract splendid red cedars are growing. 
Throughout the grounds occupied by the hardwood trees, young white 
pines are springing up on every hand, and need only protection from fire 
and stock to make splendid trees in a few years. Sufficient of these could 
be transplanted to add many acres to the present pine woods. 

The state should purchase and preserve this tract. This is valuable 
land which others stand ready to buy for the timber that is on it and for the 
value of the agricultural lands after the timber is cut off. 

The White Pine Forest tract is easy of access from the cities of northern 
Illinois, and in case it is set apart as a State Park, the roads leading to the 
White Pines would be greatly improved. That these Pines should be 
preserved cannot be denied. 

The purchase of this forested tract has been considered by 
several legislatures. The location of the white pines in a 
region easy of access from many cities, and near the Lincoln 
Highway with its throngs of transcontinental tourists, is ideal 
for a state park consisting of a native forest in the Prairie State. 



110 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

Prairies of Illinois. — The explorers and early settlers 
marveled at the great stretches of prairies in central and 
northern Illinois. They had been accustomed to the con- 
tinuous forest lands of more eastern states, and were surprised 
to find large areas of unwooded tracts covered with a rich 
growth of grass. The causes of the Illinois prairies are not 
fully understood. Illinois is the transition belt between the 
unbroken original forests to the east and south and the vast 
prairie regions farther westward. The following is a brief 
statement of the various theories concerning the origin of the 
Illinois prairies: 

The prairies of northern Illinois aroused the wonder of all early travelers. 
They were attributed to fires; to hurricanes which had blown down the 
timber, leaving it to be readily consumed by fire, when dry; to the former 
presence of lakes; and to other causes. The upland prairies are now gener- 
ally thought to be due to the undrained condition of the flattish inter- 
stream areas, which practically prevented the growth of the species of 
trees adapted to the latitude. Occasional protracted droughts and fires, 
furthermore, doubtless served to kill any young trees that had succeeded 
in establishing themselves. Summer droughts were especially effective 
in killing seedlings on the sandy terraces of the Illinois valley, where they 
were probably a chief cause of the general absence of trees.' 

The original prairie, much more fully than the original 
forest, has disappeared from the Illinois landscape. While 
original forest areas of considerable size are still supporting 
native timber, no typical area of upland prairie remains for 
examination and study. It may be of interest to the reader, 
therefore, to see the prairies through descriptions written, 
pubhshed, and read more than SO years ago, at a time when 
these grasslands were in their natural state and the tide of 
immigration was just beginning to go beyond the edge of the 
well-known and long-tested forest areas into the unknown and 
uncertain prairie regions. The following extracts from Illinois 
in 1837 &° 38 give an idea of the prairies as they were seen by 
writers of that date : 

Undoubtedly the most remarkable feature of the state of Illinois is its 
extensive prairies or unwooded tracts. In general, they are covered with a 
rich growth of grass forming excellent natural meadows, from which cir- 
cumstance they take their name. Prairie is a French word, signifying 
meadow. 

The Indians and hunters annually set fire to the prairies in order to 
dislodge the game. The fire spreads with tremendous rapidity, and pre- 

1 H. H. Barrows, Geography of the Middle Illinois Valley. 



NATIVE VEGETATION 111 

sents one of the grandest and most terrible spectacles in nature. The 
flames rush through the long grass with a noise like thunder; dense clouds 
of smoke arise; and the sky itself appears almost on fire, particularly during 
the night. Travellers then crossing the prairie are sometimes in serious 
danger which they can only escape by setting fire to the grass around, and 
taking shelter in the burnt part where the approaching flames must expire 
for want of fuel. Nothing can be more melancholy than the aspect of a 
burnt prairie, presenting a uniform black surface like a vast plain of charcoal. 

It is well known that in the richest and most dry and level tracts, the 
aboriginal inhabitants, before they had the use of fire-arms, were in the 
habit of enclosing their game in circular fires in order that it might bewilder 
and frighten the animals, and thus render them an easy prey. 

From whatever cause the prairies at first originated, they are undoubt- 
edly perpetuated by the autumnal fires that have annually swept over them 
from an era probably long anterior to the earliest records of history. Along 
the streams and in other places where vegetation does not suffer from the 
drought, the fire does not encroach much; consequently the forests prevail 
there, and probably increase in some places upon the prairies. As soon 
as the prairies are plowed and the heavy grass kept under, young timber 
begins to sprout, particularly such as is produced by winged seeds, as 
Cottonwood, sycamore, etc. 

When the tough sward of the prairie is once formed, timber will not 
easily take root. Destroy the prairie turf by the plow or by any other 
method and it is soon converted into forest land. There are large tracts 
of country in the older settlements where, a number of years ago, the farmers 
mowed their hay, and these tracts are now covered with a forest of young 
timber of rapid growth. 

As soon as timber or orchards are planted in the prairies, they grow 
with unexampled luxuriance. A correspondent writes from Adams County 
that "locust trees, planted, or rather sown, on prairie land near Quincy, 
attained in four years a height of 25 feet and their trunks a diameter of 
from 4 to 5 inches. These grew in close, crowded rows, affording a dense 
and arbory shade. In a few instances where the same kind of trees had 
been planted out in a more open manner, they grew in the same period to 
a thickness of 6 inches, and in from seven to ten years from their planting, 
have been known to attain sufficient bulk to make posts and rails. 

From May to October, the prairies are covered with tall grass and 
flower-producing weeds. In June and July, they seem like an ocean of 
flowers of various hues, waving to the breezes which sweep over them. The 
numerous tall flowering shrubs which grow luxuriantly over these plains 
present a striking and delightful appearance. The bushes are often over- 
topped with the common hop. 

In the prairie region there are numerous ponds; some are formed from 
the surface water, the effect of rain and the melting of snows in the spring, 
and others near the rivers from their overflowing. 

In the southern part of the state, the prairies are comparatively small, 
varying in size from those of several miles in extent to those which contain 
only a few acres. As we go northward, they widen and extend on the more 
elevated ground between the watercourses to a vast distance, and are 
frequently from six to twelve miles in width. Their borders are by no 
means uniform, but are intersected in every direction by strips of forest land 
advancing into and receding from the prairie towards the watercourses 
whose banks are always lined with timber, principally of luxuriant growth. 
Between these streams, in many instances, are copses and groves of timber 
containing from 100 to 2,000 acres in the midst of the prairies like islands in 
the ocean. 



112 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

The largest tract of prairie in Illinois is denominated the Grand Prairie. 
Under this general name is embraced the country lying between the waters 
which fall into the Mississippi and those which enter the Wabash rivers. 
It does not consist of one vast tract, boundless to the vision, and uninhabit- 
able for want of timber, but is made up of continuous tracts with points of 
timber projecting inward and long arms of prairie extending between the 
creeks and smaller streams. 

The southern points of the Grand Prairie are formed in the northeastern 
parts of Jackson County. Grand Prairie then extends in a northeastern 
course between the streams, varying in width from 1 to 10 or 12 miles, 
through Perr>', Washington, Jefferson, Marion, Fayette, Effingham, and 
Coles into Champaign and Iroquois counties where it becomes connected 
with the prairies that project eastward from the Illinois River and its 
tributaries. A large arm lies in Marion County between the waters of 
Crooked Creek and the east fork of the Kaskaskia River. 

A prejudice at one time prevailed against the prairies as not being 
fit for cultivation; but this was found to be erroneous, and they are more 
in request as it is a most important object to save the labor of clearing the 
wood. 

The first improvements are usually made on that part of the prairie 
which adjoins the timber; and thus we may see at the commencement, a 
range of farms circumscribing the entire prairie as with a belt. The burning 
of the prairies is then stopped the whole distance of the circuit in the 
neighborhood of these farms to prevent injury to the fences and other im- 
provements. This is done by plowing two or three furrows all round the 
settlement. In a short time the timber springs up spontaneously on all the 
parts not burned, and the groves and forests commence a gradual encroach- 
ment on the adjacent prairies. By and by you will see another tier of 
farms springing up on the outside of the first, and farther out in the prairie. 
Thus farm succeeds farm until the entire prairie is occupied. 

In breaking up prairie land three or four yoke of oxen are required. 
The shear plow turns up about 18 to 24 inches of turf at a furrow to a depth 
of 3 to 4 inches. The sod turns entirely over so as to lay the grass down, and 
it fits furrow to furrow smoothly enough to harrow and sow wheat. It is 
usual to break it up in May, and drop corn along the edge of every fourth 
row. This is called sod corn. No working or plowing is necessary the first 
season. The sod is left lying for the grass to decay; and after the next 
winter's frost it crumbles and becomes light and friable. 

The sod com does not make more than half a crop. It is cut up for 
fodder for stock. The next year the crop of com is most abundant, averag- 
ing 50 bushels per acre. Well cultivated wheat averages 25 to 30 bushels; 
rye 25 to 35; and oats 40 to 60 bushels per acre. Irish potatoes, timothy 
hay, and all the different garden vegetables yet tried yield most abundantly. 
A man here can tend double the quantity of corn that he can in newly settled 
timbered countries as there are no stumps to obstruct the plow or hoe. 

The prairies are generally from one to six miles in width; of course, about 
three miles is the farthest distance from timber, and the prairie constitutes 
the finest natural road possible to haul on. The settlements are at present 
chiefly confined to the margins of the timber and prairie. 

The prairie lands are undoubtedly worth from $10 to $15 per acre more 
for farming than those that are timbered, not only because they are richer, 
but because it would take at least that sum per acre to put the timbered 
lands of Ohio and Indiana in the same advanced state of cultivation. 

The prairies are the highest as well as the most level land, and the 
roads generally pass through the middle of them, from whence there is an 



NATIVE VEGETATION 113 

.easy slope on each side, at first barely sufficient to drain the waters towards 
the sides of the prairies or to the nearest point of timber. 

Few have, as yet, settled out in the middle of the prairie on account 
of the distance from timber to build fence, etc. Those who have done 
so have invariably found it to their interest; and the practice will no doubt 
in a short time become general, until the whole of the extensive prairies of 
Illinois will be covered with valuable and productive farms. The middle 
of the prairie is not only the highest and most level, but it is the most 
fertile land. As the surface descends towards the timber, it has an increased 
unevenness and ruggedness, and the greater the descent in perpendicular 
depth, the less fertile is the soil. 

The grass which covers the prairies in great abundance is tall and 
coarse in appearance. In the early stages of its growth it resembles young 
wheat, and in this state furnishes a succulent and rich food for cattle. 
They have been seen, when running in the wheat fields where the young 
wheat covered the ground, to choose the prairie grass on the margins of the 
fields in preference to the wheat. It is impossible to imagine better butter 
than is made while the grass is in this stage. Cattle and horses that have 
lived unsheltered and without fodder through the winter and in the spring, 
scarcely able to mount a hillock through leanness and weakness, are 
transformed, when feeding on this grass, to a healthy and sleek appearance 
as if by a charm. When the prairie grass is two or three feet high it is 
suitable for hay and is mowed by the farmers for winter use. 

Sand and swamp vegetation. — While almost all of Illinois 
was originally covered by forests and upland prairies, there 
were regions of sand and swamp which had their characteristic 
vegetation. Much of the sand areas have been brought under 
cultivation, but thousands of acres still exist in their original 
condition. The bunch-grass association of plants originally 
occupied more than nine-tenths of the unforested portion of the 
sand area. The bunch-grass formation extended over hill 
and dale except where interrupted by "blowouts," areas of 
bare sand where depressions have been formed by wind action. 
The principal vegetation of these "sand prairies" consists of ten 
species of bunch-grass, the bunches of the various species vary- 
ing from four inches to three feet in diameter. 

The principal sand areas are in the northern half of the 
state and on the flood plains on the east sides of rivers. The 
Havana area extends from Pekin in Tazewell County to Mere- 
dosia in Morgan County, a distance of 75 miles. The plain 
reaches a width of 14 miles in Mason County. While the sand 
deposits occupy only a portion of the area, their aggregate 
extent is estimated at 179,000 acres. The Hanover area of 
nearly 6,000 acres lies in the second bottoms of the Mississippi 
Valley in Jo Daviess County. The Oquawka area is along the 



114 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

Mississippi in Henderson and Mercer counties; the Amboy area 
along Green River in Lee County. The Kankakee area of 3,000 
square miles lies mainly in Indiana; about one-fourth is in 
Iroquois and Kankakee counties of Illinois. 

Extensive areas of the upland prairies were swamp lands 
occupied by vegetation appropriate to the natural conditions. 
These upland swamps have been so fully drained and culti- 
vated that their natural vegetation has disappeared almost as 
completely as that of the typical well-drained prairies. Skokie 
Marsh in Lake and Cook counties still exhibits much of its 
natural vegetation. This marsh is about S miles long and 1 mile 
wide and contains a native flora of 217 species. 



CHAPTER VII 
NATIVE ANIMALS 

Conditions for animal life. — The forests, prairies, streams, 
and lakes of Illinois in their natural state furnished favorable 
conditions for a varied and abundant animal life. Numerous 
species of mammals were found throughout the state varying 
in size from mice to buffaloes. The black bear was common 
in the wooded districts; the buffalo on the prairie; the deer and 
elk throughout the state both in forest and on grasslands; 
the beaver, otter, and muskrat along the streams. The leaves 
and twigs of trees, nuts, berries, roots, and the rich prairie 
grasses furnished a plentiful food supply for animals depending 
wholly on plants. The flesh-eating animals such as the wolf 
and bear found abundant food among the smaller mammals, 
and often among the larger animals. They also ate largely of 
birds and their eggs. The otter and other animals frequenting 
streams were skilful in securing fish, crayfish, and other food 
supplies from the water. 

Bird life was exceedingly abundant in response to plentiful 
food supplies in the form of berries, fruits, insects, seeds of 
grasses and other herbaceous plants, and to favorable breeding 
grounds throughout the state. The passenger pigeon, now 
extinct, was found in flocks of many thousands. The prairie 
hen was so abundant that a hunter could kill dozens of them 
in a single day. Wild turkeys were common, and wild ducks 
and wild geese frequented the waters of the state in great flocks. 

Frogs, snakes, and turtles were common. The streams 
and lakes abounded in fish. Myriads of insects were present in 
forest, prairie, swamp, and stream. The fresh-water mollusk, 
which was later to become a source of an important industry, 
was abundant. 

Man and native animals. — Prior to the coming of the 
white man to Illinois, a balance had been fairly well developed 
among the physical features, the native plant life, the native 
animal life, and the native human life of the state. Soil, 

115 



116 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

surface, rainfall, and temperature had determined the character 
and profusion of vegetation ; the vegetation had determined the 
nature and amount of animal life; while the Indian had 
adjusted himself to the natural environment in which he lived. 
The white man came with a knowledge of agriculture, mining, 
manufacturing, and commerce. He brought about such 
changes as best suited his method of life. In doing so, he 
wrought profound changes in the native animal life of the 
state. 

He soon occupied Illinois in greater numbers than the 
Indian had ever done. With his more powerful weapons and 
the necessity for food, he was soon destroying the native food 
animals more rapidly than the Indian had found possible 
with his crude instruments of the chase. By clearing the 
forest and breaking the prairie, he destroyed many of the 
breeding and feeding grounds of native mammals and native 
birds. By pollution of streams and by over-fishing, the 
abundant life of the lakes and streams declined, and his 
efforts to restore the balance have taken form in artificial 
propagation of fishes. His introduction of cultivated plants 
and domesticated animals more than overbalanced the 
destruction of natural plant and animal life. By his methods 
the Illinois country was to support, in less than a hundred 
years after statehood was attained, a population of 100 persons 
per square mile where not 1 per square mile had lived in the 
days of Indian occupation. 

Animal life in pioneer days. — The following extracts from 
Illinois in 1S37 £^ oS give a glimpse of the animals of pioneer 
days as seen by writers of that day: 

There are several kinds of wild animals in the state of Illinois. The 
principal and most numerous are deer, wolves, raccoons, opossums, etc. 
Several species formerly common have become scarce, and are constantly 
retreating before the march of civilization; and some are no longer to be 
found. The buiTalo has entirely left the limits of the state. This animal 
once roamed at large over the plains of Illinois; and, so late as the com- 
mencement of the present century, was found in considerable numbers. 
Traces of them still remain in the buffalo paths, which are seen in several 
parts of the state. 

Deer are more abundant than at the first settlement of the country. 
They increase to a certain extent with the population. The reason of this 
appears to be that they find protection in the neighborhood of man from 
the beasts of prey that assail them in the wilderness. Immense numbers 
of deer are killed every year by the hunters. 



NATIVE ANIMALS 



117 



Many of the frontier people dress in deer skins, making them into 
pantaloons and hunting shirts. 

The elk has disappeared. A few have been seen in late years, but it is 
not known that any remain at this time within the limits of the state. 

The bear is seldom seen. This animal inhabits those parts of the 
country that are thickly wooded. The meat is tender and finely flavored, 
and is esteemed a great dehcacy. 

Wolves are numerous in most parts of the state. They are very destruc- 
tive to sheep, pigs, calves, poultry, and even young colts. Their most 
common prey is the deer. When tempted by hunger they approach the 
farm houses in the night, and snatch their prey from under the very eyes 
of the farmer. 




BUFFALO IN LINCOLN P.'iRK, CHICAGO 

The buffalo, once common on the Illinois prairies, is now found only in parks. 
(Copyright by Keystone View Company.) 



The fox abounds in some places in great numbers, though, generally 
speaking, the animal is scarce. It will undoubtedly increase with the popu- 
lation. 

The panther and wild cat are occasionally found in the forests. 

The beaver and otter were once numerous, but are now seldom seen 
except on the frontiers. 

There are no rats except along the large rivers where they have landed 
from the boats. 

Wild horses are found ranging the prairies and forests in some parts of 
the state. They are found chiefly in the lower end of the American Bottom. 

The gray and fox squirrels often do mischief in the com fields, and the 
hunting of them makes fine sport for the boys. 



118 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



The gopher is a singular httle animal about the size of a squirrel. It 
burrows in the ground and is seldom seen, but its works make it known. 

The polecat is very destructive to poultry. 

The raccoon and opossum are very numerous and extremely troublesome 
to the farmer, as they not only attack his poultry, but plunder his corn 
fields. They are hunted by boys, and large numbers of them are destroyed. 
The skins of the raccoon pay well for the trouble of taking them, as the fur 
is in demand. 

Rabbits are very abundant and in some places extremely destructive 
to the young orchards and to garden vegetables. Young apple trees must 




AMERICAN RED DEER, STATE MUSEUM, SPRINGFIELD 

Group of deer in the State Natural History Museum at Springfield. A few 
deer are still found in the southern part of the state. (Copyright by Keystone View 
Company.) 



be protected at the approach of winter by tying straw or corn stalks around 
their bodies for two or three feet in height, or the bark will be stripped ofif 
by these mischievous animals. 

The ponds, lakes, and rivers, during the spring and autumn and during 
the migrating season of water fowls, are literally covered with swans, 
pelicans, cranes, geese, brants, and ducks of ail the tribes and varieties. 
Many of these fowls rear their young on the islands and sand bars of the 
large rivers. In the autumn, multitudes of them are killed for their quills, 
feathers, and flesh. 



NA TIVE ANIMALS 1 19 

The prairie fowl is seen in great numbers on the prairies in the summer 
and about the corn fields in the winter. This is the grouse of the New 
York market. They are easily taken in the winter, and when fat are 
e.xcellent for the table. 

Quail are taken with nets in the winter, by hundreds in a day, and 
furnish no trifling item in the lu.xuries of the city market. 

Bees are to be found in the trees of every forest. Many of the frontier 
people make it a prominent business after the frost has killed the vegetation 
to hunt them for the honey and wax, both of which find a ready market. 
Bees are profitable stock for the farmer, and are kept to a considerable 
extent. 

Poisonous reptiles are not so common as in unsettled regions of the 
same latitude where the country is generally timbered. Burning the prairies 
undoubtedly destroys multitudes of them. 

Animal life of today. — -The present state of wild animal 
life in Illinois is well set forth in the Annual Reports of the 
Game and Fish Conservation Commission for 1913-16. The 
following extracts are taken from these reports: 

There are very few wild animals in the state of IlUnois that are in the 
class of game animals or fur-bearing animals. At the present time there 
are a few deer in the southern part of the state. In the Sangamon River 
bottoms there is a herd of wild deer, about thirty-five in number. These 
deer, originally owned by private parties, were turned loose a few years 
ago, and they have gradually increased in numbers. 

Occasionally a bear is seen in the wild bottom lands of the Mississippi 
River. 

Of the smaller variety of animals, we have the squirrels and the rabbit. 
The squirrel is very hardy and well able to care for himself if given the 
opportunity. Where there is even a small amount of woodland these busy 
little fellows are to be found. Under a good system of protection they are 
likely to hold their present status. 

Rabbits are numerous in all parts of the state, and while they are not 
regarded by law as a game animal, and are without legal protection, they 
nevertheless furnish good sport for the hunter and add materially to the 
food supply of the state. Because of his tendency to bark young orchards, 
he has been made an outlaw that any one may kill at any season of the year. 

Of fur-bearing animals there are but few. In places, the muskrat is 
sufficiently numerous to attract the trapper. His fur has a real value, and 
for that reason this animal is well worth protecting. Mink are not numerous, 
but some are caught by trappers along our water courses. 

The fox and the wolf are by no means plentiful throughout the state, 
but in those sections where there are large tracts of timber land many of 
these animals are to be found. The hunter regards them primarily as of 
value because of his love of the chase. In addition, the furs of these animals 
have a commercial value. The farmer looks upon the wolf and the fox 
as a pair of thieves that should be exterminated because of their fondness 
for young pigs and domestic fowls. 

At the present high value of farming land, the farmer cannot afford 
to maintain much woodland and other places that are haunts of wild animals. 
It is therefore probable that we shall see a decrease in all these animals, 
except, possibly, the rabbit, and he is not likely to be as plentiful in the 
future as he is now. 



120 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

A goodly number of prairie chicken are still to be found in the state, 
but no method of game conservation can bring it back in such numbers as 
formerly, because the character of the country has been changed by the 
white man's plow. Proper care and protection, however, may increase 
the number so that, in all parts of the state, an opportunity to kill a small 
number of these birds each year may be ofTered to the sportsmen. 

At the present time there are not enough quails in the northern counties 
of the state to make quail shooting attractive. In the southern counties 
where there is more cover, good shooting is to be had, although not so good 
as ten years ago. With aid of game reservations it is hoped that in some 
sections the supply will be kept up. In the closely tilled country, quails 
will be scarcer. 

There are but few wild turkeys left in Illinois. In the southern part 
of the state where there are large tracts of timber and swamp land, this 
bird is still to be found in fair numbers. As a table bird it outranks the 
.domestic turkey. 

The Mississippi River and the Illinois River hold myriads of wild fowl 
in season. There is not, of course, the great number of ducks to be found 
on these waters that there were many years ago, but there is still a good 
supply, and this supply is likely to be kept up now that there is a disposition 
to do away with the late spring shooting. 

Our best duck, of course, is the canvas back, which, though never numer- 
ous, is sufficiently plentiful in sections of the state to afford good sport. 

The mallard and teal, both splendid ducks, are to be found in fairly 
good numbers in all parts of the state. 

The wood duck, wliich breeds regularly in the state, is one of our most 
beautiful ducks. 

Brant and geese follow the same course to the North and South that 
our ducks take, but they are not disposed to remain in our waters very long 
while on their migrations. Both are exceedingly wary birds and keep 
away as much as possible from the shooting territory frequented by sports- 
men. 

It is an important duty of the commission to consider the welfare of 
our song and insectivorous birds. Nearly all of our non-game birds live 
wholly or in part upon insect life and no.xious weeds. These birds, as well 
as the game birds, are being encouraged through game reservations where 
they can nest and rear their young undisturbed. 

Mammals of Illinois. — The following list includes all of 
the species of mammals now living in Illinois or known to have 
lived in the state since first visited by the white man. The 
limits of space permit the use of only the common names for 
family and species : 

I. Opossum Family. 1. Virginian opossum. 

II. Deer Family. 2. Virginia deer. White-tailed deer. 3. Northern 
White-tailed deer. 4. American elk. 

III. Cattle Family. 5. American bison or buffalo. 

IV. Squirrel Family. 6. Southern flying squirrel. 7. Western fox 
squirrel. 8. Southern gray squirrel. 9. Northern gray squirrel. 
10. Southern red squirrel. 11. Chipmunk. 12. Gray-striped 
chipmunk. 13. Striped ground squirrel, "Gopher." 14. Frank- 
lin's ground squirrel, "Gray gopher." 15. Woodchuck, Ground 
hog. 



NATIVE ANIMALS 121 



V. Beaver Family. 16. Beaver. 

VI. Family of Rats and Mice. 17. House mouse. 18. Norway rat. 
House rat. 19. White-footed mouse. 20. Northern white-footed 
mouse. 21. Prairie white-footed mouse. 22. Western cotton 
mouse. 23. Southern golden mouse. 24. Rice field mouse. 25. 
Illinois wood rat. 26. Meadow mouse. 27. Prairie meadow mouse. 
28. Mole mouse. 29. Muskrat. 30. Goss's lemming mouse. 
VII. Pocket Gopher Family. 31. Pocket gopher. 
VIII. Jumping Mouse Family. 32. Hudson Bay jumping mouse. 
IX. Rabbit Family. 33. Cotton-tail rabbit, Gray rabbit. 34. Swamp 

rabbit. 
X. The Cat Family. 35. Panther, Cougar. 36. Canada lynx. 37. 

Wild cat, Bay lyrLx, Bob cat. 
XI. Wolf Family. _ 38. Gray fox. 39. Wisconsin gray fox. 40. Red 

fox. 41. Prairie wolf. Coyote. 
XII. Otter Family. 42. Canada otter. 43. Northern skunk. 44. Illi- 
nois skunk. 45. Alleghenian spotted skunk. 46. .\merican 
badger. 47. Mink. 48. New York weasel. '49. Fisher. 

XIII. Raccoon Familv. 50. Raccoon. 

XIV. Bear Family. 51. Black bear. 

XV. Shrew Family. 52. Common shrew. 53. Carolina shrew. 54. 
Mole shrew. 55. Carolina short-tailed shrew. 56. Small short- 
tailed shrew. 
XVI. Mole Family. 57. Prairie mole. 58. Star-nosed mole. 
XVII. Bat Family. 59. Little brown bat. 60. Gray bat. 61. Say's bat. 
62. Silver-haired bat. 63. Georgian bat. 64. Brown bat. 05. Red 
bat. 66. Hoary bat. 67. Rafinescjue bat.^ 

An examination of the list shows that the 67 species of 
Illinois mammals are distributed among 17 families; each of 
7 famiHes is represented by a single species; 6 other famihes 
have 2, 3, 4, or 5 species each; of the 4 remaining families, the 
Otter Family is represented in Illinois by 8 species; the Bat 
Family by 9 species; the Squirrel Family by 10 species; and 
the family of Rats and Mice by 14 species. 

If the 17 famihes be grouped from the standpoint of the 
size of the animals, 7 families may be designated as small, 
7 as medium, and 3 as large. The 7 families of small mammals 
include 42 of the 67 species varying in size from the smallest 
of mice to the largest of the squirrels. The 7 families whose 
members are here considered as medium sized include 20 species 
varying in size from the rabbit and opossum to the wolf and the 
beaver. The 3 families of large mammals include 5 species — - 
the Virginia Deer, the Northern White-tailed Deer, the 
American Elk, the Black Bear, and the American Bison or 
Buffalo. 

1 Charles B. Cory, The Mammals of Illinois atid Wisconsin, Field Museum of 
Natural History. 



122 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

Birds of Illinois. — In Illinois there have been found 365 
species of birds. I1ic following list includes 141 species of 
ihe more common birds. Probably 100 of these can be found 
in almost any county of the state. 

WATER BIRDS 

I. Grebe Family. 1. Picd-billed grebe. 
II. Loon Family. 2. Loon. 

III. Gull Family. 3. Herring gull. 4. Bonaparte's gull. 5. Black 
tern. 

IV. Cormorant Family. 6. Double-crested cormorant. 

V. Duck Family. 7. American merganser. 8. Hooded merganser. 
9. Mallard. 10. Baldpate. 11. Green-winged teal. 12. Blue- 
winged teal. 13. Shoveller. 14. Pintail. 15. Wood duck. 
16. Redhead. 17. Canvasback. IS. Lesser scaup duck. 19. 
.American golden-eyed. 20. Bufflehead. 21. Lesser snow 
goose. 22. Canada goose. 23. Hutchins goose. 
VI. Heron Family. 24. American bittern. 25. Great blue heron. 
26. Little green heron. 27. Black-crowned night heron. 
VII. Rail Family. 2iS. King rail. 29. Virginia rail. 30. Carolina 
rail. 31. Florida gallinule. 32. American coot. 
VIII. Snipe Family. 33. American woodcock. 34. Wilson snipe. 
35. Greater yellow legs. 36. Yellow legs. 37. Bartramian 
sandpiper. 3<S. Spotted sandpiper. 
IX. Plover Family. 39. American golden plover. 40. Killdeer. 

L.\XD BIRDS 

X. Grouse Family. 41. Bol) white. 42. Ruffed grouse. 43. 
Prairie hen. 44. Wild turkey. 
XI. Pigeon Family. 45. Mourning dove. 
XII. Vulture Family. 46. Turkey vulture. 

XIII. Hawk Family. 47. .Marsh hawk. 48. Sharp-shinned hawk. 
49. Cooper hawk. 50. Red-tailed hawk. 51. Golden eagle. 
52. Bald eagle. 53. .'\merican osprey. 

XIV. Owl Family. 54. Barred owl. 55. Screech owl. 56. Great 
homed owl. 57. Snowy owl. 

XV. Cuckoo Family. Sis. Yellow-ljilled cuckoo. 59. Black-billed 

cuckoo. 
XIV. Kingfisher Family. 60. Belted kingfisher. 
XVTI. Woodpecker Family. 61. Hairy woodpecker. 62. Northern 
downy woodpecker. ()3. Yellow-bellied sapsucker. 64. Red- 
headed woodpecker. 65. Red-bellied woodpecker. 66. North- 
ern flicker. 
XVIII. Goatsucker Family. 67. Whippoorwill. 68. Night hawk. 
XIX. Swift Family. 69. Chimney swift. 
XX. Hummingbird Family. 7(J. Ruby-throated hummingbird. 
XXI. Flycatcher Family. 71. Kingbird. 72. Great-crested fly- 
catcher. 73. Phoebe. 74. Wood pewee. 75. Green-crested 
flycatcher. 
XXII. Lark Family. 76. Horned lark. 77. Prairie horned lark. 
XXIII. Crow Family. 78. Blue jay. 79. American crow. 



NATIVE ANIMALS 123 

XXIV. Blackbird Family. 80. Bobolink. 81. Cowbird. 82. Yellow- 
headed blackbird. 83. Red-winged blackbird. 84. Meadow- 
lark. 85. Orchard oriole. 86. Baltimore oriole. 87. Rusty 
blackbird. 88. Bronzed grackle. 
XXV. Sparrow Family. 89. Evening grosbeak. 90. Purple finch. 
91. American crossbill. 92. White-winged crossbill. 93. Red- 
poll. 94. American goldfinch. 95. Snowflake. 96. Vesper 
sparrow. 97. Grasshopper sparrow. 98. White-throated spar- 
row. 99. Tree sparrow. 100. Slate-colored junco. 101. Fox 
sparrow. 102. Towhee. 103. Cardinal. 104. Rose-breasted 
grosbeak. 105. Indigo bunting. 106. Dickcissel. 

XXVI. Tanager Family. 107. Scarlet tanager. 108. Summer tanagcr. 
XXVII. Swallow Family. 109. Purple martin. 110. Clifi swallow. 
111. Barn swallow. 112. Tree swallow. 113. Bank swallow. 
XXVIII. Waxwing Family. 114. Cedar waxwing. 

XXIX. Shrike Family. 115. Northern shrike. 116. Loggerhead 
shrike. 

XXX. Vireo Family. 117. Red-eyed vireo. 118. Warbling vireo. 

XXXI. Warbler Family. 119. Black and white warbler. 120. Yellow 
warbler. 121. Oven bird. 122. Northern yellowthroat. 123. 
American redstart. 
XXXII. Wren and Thrasher Family. 124. Mocking bird. 125. Cat- 
bird. 126. Brown thrasher. 127. Carolina wren. 128. Bewick 
wren. 129. House wren. 130. Short-billed marsh wren. 131. 
Long-billed marsh wren. 

XXXIII. Creeper Family. 132. Brown creeper. 

XXXIV. Chickadee Farinily. 133. White-breasted nuthatch. 134. Rcd- 
breasted nuthatch. 135. Tufted titmouse. 136. Chickadee. 

XXXV. Kinglet Family. 137. Golden-crowned kinglet. 138. Ruby- 
crowned kinglet. 
XXXVI. Thrush Family. 139. Wood thrush. 140. American robin. 
141. Bluebird. 1 

The foregoing is but a partial list of birds now found within 
the state. 

Of the 365 species of birds which have been found in Illinois, 
129 are classified as water birds and 236 as land birds. These 
include a total of 52 families. Each of 13 famihes is represented 
by a single species; 12 other families are each represented by 
2 species; 16 additional families are each represented by fewer 
than 10 species, and 6 families have 10 to 13 species each. 
The 5 remaining families contain 180 species, or nearly one-half 
of the total for the state. The Hawk Family has 26 species; 
the Snipe Family 28; the Warbler Family 39; the Duck 
Family 41; and the Sparrow Family 46. 

The large number and great variety of species of birds in 
Illinois at present indicate that the conditions for bird life 

I D. Lange, How to Know the Wild Birds of Illinois, Illinois Audubon Society. 



124 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

throughout the state are still good, although not so favorable as 
originally. The bird life of small areas has been carefully and 
scientifically studied in some portions of the state. Mr. 
Robert Ridgway has observed 134 species on Bird Haven, a 
tract of woodland of IS acres in Richland County; 53 species 
of this number breed on the adjoining farm. On the campus 
of the Illinois State Normal University, 56 acres in extent, 
there have been observed 138 species, and 80 species have 
been identified in one season in Normal, Illinois, on a city lot 
66 feet by 198 feet in size. More than 150 species have been 
idenlificd in Lincoln Park, Chicago. 

Density of bird population. — In June, July, and August, 
1907, a special survey was made under the direction of Pro- 
fessor S. A. Forbes to determine the abundance of birds in 
Illinois. Two observers traversed 428 miles in the southern, 
central, and northern parts of the state. They counted all the 
species and all the individuals on a total area of 7,693 acres. 
They found 85 species and 7,740 individuals. This gives a 
density of 645 birds per square mile, or almost precisely 1 bird 
per acre. On this basis, Illinois contained 36,000,000 birds. 
The English sparrow was the most numerous, making up 18 
per cent of the individuals observed; the meadow lark consti- 
tuted 13 per cent; the bronzed grackle 11 per cent; the mourn- 
ing dove 6 per cent; and the dickcissel 5 per cent. Others, 
constituting more than 1 per cent, and in order of abundance, 
were: red-winged blackbird, prairie horned lark, flicker, robin, 
field sparrow, American goldfinch, kingbird, bobolink, grass- 
hopper sparrow, brown thrasher, cowbird, red-headed wood- 
pecker, barn swallow, quail, Bartramian sandpiper, and crow. 
These 21 species included 85 per cent of the individuals 
observed. 

The English sparrow decreases in abundance from north to 
south. The meadow lark increases in abundance from north 
to south as does the total of bird life. For every 100 birds 
counted in northern Illinois, 133 were found in central lUinois 
and 181 in southern Illinois. These Illinois birds showed a 
decided preference for prairie and woodland conditions. Fifty 
per cent of the birds were found in pastures and meadows which 
constituted only 36 per cent of the land surveyed. Birds 



NATIVE ANIMALS 125 



were about one-third as abundant in cornfields as in grasslands; 
and in small grains they were twice as abundant as in corn. In 
orchards they averaged 4^ times as numerous as in fields of 
grain, 2,471 to the square mile. Among native trees and 
shrubbery the density of birds averaged 1,451 per square mile. 

Reptiles and batrachians. — Reptiles include snakes, lizards, 
and turtles; batrachians include mud-puppies, salamanders, 
toads, and frogs. Natural conditions in Illinois were favorable 
for the development of a varied and somewhat abundant life 
of reptiles and batrachians. The march of the white man, 
however, has made the existence of these forms of life more 
difficult than formerly. The poisonous rattlesnake, once 
abundant, has been nearly exterminated. Garter snakes, 
bull snakes, moccasins, grass snakes, and blue racers are com- 
mon in Illinois at the present time. Turtles are common, 
especially along the Illinois river, and they are of commercial 
importance; $15,000 worth have been marketed in a single 
year. The extensive drainage of swamps has greatly reduced 
the number of frogs of the state. 

Fishes of Illinois. — The entire fish life of Illinois comprises 
150 species. A comprehensive study of them has been pub- 
lished by the Natural History Survey of the state. 

About three dozen of our 150 species of Illinois fishes have a marketable 
value as food, and a dozen more may be classed as edible, although not 
popular enough or abundant enough within our limits to have any com- 
mercial value as Illinois products. A dozen of the more useful species are of 
really good quality, and half of these are among the best of the fresh-water 
species. In the following list the edible species are distinguished in classes 
of graduated importance, according to our judgment of the estimation in 
which these fishes are generally held. A few species are put in a lower class 
than their quality would call for because of their infrequent occurrence in 
our fisheries. 

First class. — Whitefish, Great Lake trout, blue cat, channel-cat, mud- 
cat, common pike, white crappie, black crappie, bluegill, small-mouthed 
black bass, large-mouthed black bass, wall-eyed pike. 

Second class. — Golden shad (rare), northern mooneye (rare), lake 
herring, eel. Missouri sucker, red-mouth buffalo, mongrel buffalo, small- 
mouth buffalo, European carp, eel cat (rare), lake catfish (rare), rock bass, 
blue-spotted sunfish, long-eared sunfish, pumpkinseed sand-pike, yellow 
perch, white bass, yellow bass. 

Third class. — Paddle-fish, lake sturgeon, shovel-nosed sturgeon, white- 
nosed sucker, common red-horse, short-headed red-horse, yellow bullhead, 
common bullhead, black bullhead, little pickerel, warmouth, sheepshead. 

Fourth class. — Dogfish, gizzard-shad, river carp, lake carp, spotted 
sucker, common sucker, burbot. 



126 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



The distinction of Illinois as a fish-producing state is to be found in its 
relation to the Mississippi River and some of the most important branches 
of that stream. The state is traversed diagonally by the Illinois River, 
admirably adapted by its sluggish current, by the many bottom-land lakes 
connected with it at low water, by the extensive breeding-grounds afforded 
to fishes during the period of the spring overflow, and by the vast abundance 
of fish food in its waters at all seasons of the i'ear, to support an unusually 
large and varied fish population. 

Illinois markets a larger value per annum in fishes taken from flowing 
streams than all the states immediately surrounding it taken together. 
Illinois furnishes, indeed, more than one-third of the fishes sent to market 
from all the streams of the Mississippi Valley. P'urthcrmore, Illinois River 
and its tributaries produced, in 1899, 72 per cent of all the fishes taken from 
the streams of the state, and a fourth of the entire fish product of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley came in that year from this one stream. The totals for the 
different Illinois stream svstems were as follows: Illinois, .1371,110; Mis- 
sissippi, .i;il8,278; Wabash, $38,065; Ohio, $20,029; Kaskaskia, $3,002; 
Big Muddy, $1,136. 

The Great Lakes fisheries in Illinois waters arc of insignificant propor- 
tions. The total longshore product for Cook and Lake counties during the 
last census year was $12,500 — about $2,000 less than the sum derived from 
our river turtles alone. 

The fisheries of the state are of sufficient economic interest to make it 
the duty of all concerned to preserve them carefully and to take all prac- 
ticable measures for their improvement and development. ' 

TABLE 

Pounds of Commerci.\l Fish C.-vught on 



Station 


Carp 


Buffalo 


Sunfish and 
Crappies 


Bullcat 




453,000 
950,000 
150,000 
1,412,000 
1,000,000 
422,743 


5,000 
80,000 

5,000 

121,500 

60,000 

16,776 


74,000 
78,000 
75,000 
84,000 
65,000 
157,547 


12,000 


Chillicothe 


10,000 
20,000 




56,000 


Pekin 


45,000 


Liverpool 


88,819 


Bath 










Browning 

Beardstown 


378,000 
1,034,300 


111,300 
240,200 


236, .^}50 
70,400 


51,300 
180,100 












Vallev City 


66,000 

55,000 

20,500 

3,000 


5.000 
3,000 
3,500 


2,000 
1,200 












RpHfnrd 
























Total 


5,944,543 


657,276 


843,697 


463,219 



I Stephen A. Forbes and Robert E. Richardson, 7'/ 
History Survey of Illinois, Vol. HI, 1908. 



Fishes of Illinois, Natural 



NATIVE ANIMALS 



127 



The accompanying table shows in detail the fish catch in 
pounds for a single year. The stations are arranged in order 
from Henry, Marshall County, downstream to Meppen, 
Calhoun County, a distance of about 200 miles. 

Insects. — In addition to the vertebrate animals already 
mentioned, Illinois is the home of myriads of invertebrates, the 
most important groups of which are the insects and mollusks. 

The insects of the state are of great economic importance 
because of their relation to field crops, vegetable gardens, 
flowers, shrubs, and trees. Injurious insects are reduced in 
number and their ravages greatly lessened by the work of insec- 
tivorous birds, predaceous and parasitic insects, and by man. 
The study of the life-histories of injurious insects and the best 
methods of combating them is carried on by state and national 
governments, and the results are widely published. 

Among the more injurious insects to lUinois field crops are 
the chinch bug, Hessian fly, army worm, cut worm, corn-root 



I 

Illinois River, Season of 1913-14'' 



Catfish 


Dogfish 


Perch 


Assorted Fish 


Total 










544,000 


2,000 


10,000 
20,000 
5,000 
55,000 
46,870 


800 




1,130,800 


1000 




271,000 


12,200 






1,690,700 




2,000 


8,000 

550,000 

2,200.000 • 

700,000 

10,000 


1,235,000 


3,099 


1,285,854 






2,200,000 








700,000 


110,800 


8,000 
20,000 


3,000 
6,000 


909,150 
1,557,600 














34,500 
10,000 


34,500 


1,000 




500 
500 
150 


84,500 


1 000 




60,700 


500 






24,650 








3,000 








500,000 


500,000 










131,599 


164,870 


13,550 


4,012,500 


12,231,454 



* From Annual Report of the Game and Conservation Commission tor 1913-14. 



128 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

aphis, corn-root worm, and green-oat aphis. Among the 
garden pests are found the potato beetle, cabbage worm, 
striped cucumber beetle, squash bug, and aphids. Some of 
the insects which infest trees are the codling moth, San Jose 
scale, tent caterpillar, peach-tree borer, wooly apple aphis, and 
the tussock moth. 

Many insects are of value to man because they destroy 
injurious insects. These helpful insects are predaceous if 
they eat their prey; parasitic, if they live upon the bodies of 
other insects. Among the predaceous insects are the lady-bird 
beetles, lace-winged flies, and ground beetles. Some of the 
important parasitic insects arc the braconoid flies, ichneumon 
flies, and chalcis flies. 

MoUusks. — Snails and fresh-water mussels, or "clams," are 
the chief representatives of the mollusks in Illinois. Mussels 
are abundant in the principal streams of the state, and "mussel- 
ing" has been carried on extensively on the Illinois, Mississippi, 
Ohio, and Wabash rivers. The shells are sold by the ton to 
button factories; the "meats" make good fertilizers. Pearls 
are sometimes found in the mussels. When "musseling" was 
at its height on the Illinois River, large jewelry establishments 
sent their representatives up and down the river in motor 
boats to purchase pearls of the fishermen. Prices varied from 
$3 for the smaller specimens to more than $2,500 for the 
largest and most perfect pearls. 



CHAPTER VIII 
NATIVE PEOPLE 

The Indians. — Prior to the coming of the white man in 1673 , 
the Illinois country had been occupied exclusively by Indian 
tribes, and the Indians were an important factor in the popula- 
tion of the state until 1833, 160 years after the explorations of 
JoHet and Marquette, when the Indians ceded their remaining 
lands to the United States. A primitive race, obtaining its 
livelihood by means of hunting, fishing, and crude agricultural 
pursuits, had maintained itself for unknown generations on the 
resources of the native forests and prairies of Illinois. 

From the standpoint of the Indian, who depended mainly 
on the results of the chase for food and clothing, the Illinois 
country was fully populated by his people. As seen by the 
white man, who, for centuries, had obtained his food and 
clothing by careful cultivation of the soil and rearing of domesti- 
cated animals, the Illinois country with its level surface, fertile 
soil, and favorable climate was capable of supporting many 
times the population found among the Indian inhabitants. 

Density of Indian population. — The number of Indians 
living in North America, in the United States, or in Illinois 
prior to the settlement of the white man can be known only 
through the careful estimates of men who have made a special 
study of the problem. The following is from the American 
Indian by Elijah M. Haines: 

Careful investigation into this subject warrants the assertion that there 
was not, and has not been, since the time of the discovery of America, 
within what is now the territory of the United States, nor upon the whole 
North American continent, 2,000,000 Indian inhabitants. 

Concerning the Indian population of New England Mr. W. A. Phelan 
finds that the total of the Indian population of New England, originally 
estimated at 70,000, is reduced by close investigation to, at the outside, 
13,000 or 14,000. 

The report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, under date of Sep- 
tember 28, 1886, shows the total population of Indians assigned to reserva- 
tions, exclusive of those in Alaska, to be 247,261, the number of Indians 
in Alaska being estimated at 20,000. The number of Indians scattered 
about the country of which the United States have no immediate care or 

129 



130 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

jurisdiction, and of which no accurate census has been taken, will, perhaps, 
increase the number of Indians of all descriptions, at present inhabiting 
the United States, to 300,000. Add to this the Indians of the British 
possessions and the northern regions, and it will doubtless swell this number 
of Indians in North America to somewhere about 500,000. 

The original estimate of 70,000 Indians for New England, 
regarded by later investigators as entirely too high, gives a 
density of but 1 person to the square mile, while the later 
estimate of 14,000 gives but 1 person to 5 square miles, or 25 
square miles per family. New England and Illinois may be 
considered fairly comparable in their fitness for Indian occupa- 
tion and development. 

The Indian mode of life would not permit a dense popula- 
tion. The contests among the tribes for possession of favorite 
hunting grounds were frequent and fierce. Tribal boundary 
lines were shifted back and forth generation after generation 
during historic times, and such changes had doubtless gone 
on during earlier centuries. It seems that no area of con- 
siderable size in the United States ever supported an Indian 
population having a density as great as 1 person per square 
mile. 

Indian population in Illinois. — In general, it is estimated 
that one-fourth of the Indians were counted as warriors. 
The number of warriors reported for any tribe of Indians was 
thus a basis for estimating Indian population. The following 
statements concerning Indian tribes which lived in Illinois 
are based on Beckwith's work;^ 

The several Indian tribes, which from time to time occupied parts of 
Illinois, were the Miamis, Illinois, W'inncbagoes, Sacs and Foxes, Kickapoos, 
Potawatomies, and, at short intervals, the Shawnees. The Illinois Indians 
were composed of five subdivisions; Kaskaskias, Cahokias, Tamaroas, 
Peorias, and JNIetchigamis. 

In 16.S0, the Indian population of an Indian village near Starved Rock 
was estimated at 7,000 or 8,000 souls. 

The building of Fort St. Louis upon the heights of Starved Rock by 
La Salle, in 1682, gave confidence to the Illinois who had again returned to 
their favorite village. They were followed by bands of Weas, Piankashaws, 
and Miamis, near kinsmen of the Illinois, and by the Shawnees and other 
tribes of remoter affinity; and soon a cordon of populous towns arose about 
the fort. The military forces of these villages at the colony of La Salle, in 
1684, was estimated at 3,680 fighting men, the Illinois furnishing more than 
one-third of this number. (If the population were four times the number 

'Hiram Beckwith, Illinois and Indiana Indians. 



NATIVE PEOPLE 



131 



of warriors the Starved Rock region, according to this estimate, contained 
nearly 15,000 Indians.) 

In an enumeration of Indian tribes made in 1736, the number of 
warriors of the Illinois Indians are set down as follows: Metchigamis, 2.50; 
Kaskaskias, 100; Peorias, 50; Cahokias and Tamaroas, 200. This gives a 
total of 600 warriors and a population of 2,400. 

General William Henry Harrison reported that when he was made 
governor of Indiana in 1800 that the once powerful Illinois were reduced 
to 30 warriors, of whom 25 were Kaskaskias, 4 Peorias and a single 
Metchigamian. 




ILLINOIS RIVER AND VALLEY FROM STARVED ROCK STATE PARK 

In this scene we are looking down the Illinois River. Within the view, to the 
right of the river, is the site of the Kaskaskia Indian village visited by Joliet and 
Marquette in 1673. (Copyright by Keystone View Company.) 



The Indian population of Illinois, when admitted as a 
state in 1818, is set forth in Illinois in 1S18, as follows: 

The best available evidence as to the population of Indian tribes living 
in Illinois in 1818 is an estimate made by the secretary of war in 1815, but 
unfortunately the figures refer to the tribes as a whole and not merely to the 
groups living in Illinois. According to this estimate the Potawatomi were 
the most numerous, having 4,800 souls. The Sauk numbered 3,200 and the 



132 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Fox 1,200, making a total of 4,400 for the two tribes. The Winnebago 
were credited with 2,400 souls but only a few of these lived south of the 
boundary line. Nearly all of the 1,600 Kickapoo, on the other hand, were 
within the limits of Illinois. The Kaskaskia tribe had been reduced to 60 
souls and the Peoria were not included in the count at all. In each instance 
it was estimated that about one-fourth of the members of the tribe were 
warriors. 







STARVED ROCK .\S SEEN FROM ILLINOIS RIVER 

Starved Rock, now included in a state park, was occupied in the early French 
days by Fort St. Louis, and numerous Indian tribes lived near. 



These numbers give a total of 13,260. After deducting 
those outside the state, the Indian population of Illinois in 
1818 was somewhat less than 12,000, a density of about 1 
person to 5 square miles, or one family to 25 square miles for 
the state as a whole. This population, however, was almost 
entirely in central and northern Illinois which had not yet 
been opened for settlement. Southern Illinois, from Madison 



NATIVE PEOPLE 133 



County southward, had been surveyed and opened to settlement 
before 1818, and in this area 40,000 white settlers were counted 
at the time that Illinois was organized as a state. 

Life of the Indian. — The Indian, like all other inhabitants 
of the earth, spent the greater part of his time and energy 
in securing food, clothing, and shelter for himself and his 
family. He was a child of nature, adapting himself to his 
natural environment in such a manner as to be very largely 
dependent on nature's supplies, developing a crude agriculture 
by the labor of the women only as a supplement to the fruits of 
the chase. 

The following from Illinois in 1818 gives a clear picture of 
the ordinary activities of the Indians of Illinois: 

All these tribes belonged to the iMgonkin linguistic group with the 
exception of the Winnebago, who were of Dakota stock. The material 
culture, social organization, and religious beliefs of the different tribes 
were fairly uniform. They were people neither of the forest nor the plain, 
but lived along the water courses much as did the first white settlers. Their 
time was divided about equally between hunting and agricultural life. 
"They leave their villages," says Marston, "as soon as their corn, beans, 
etc., are ripe and taken care of, and their traders arrive and give out their 
credits and go to their wintering grounds; it being previously determined 
on in council what particular ground each party can hunt on. The old 
men, women, and children embark in canoes, and the young men go by 
land with their horses; on their arrival they immediately commence their 
winter's hunt, which lasts about three months. They return to their 
villages in the month of April, and after putting their lodges in order, com- 
mence preparing the ground to receive the seed." 

The principal crop was Indian corn, of which they had extensive fields. 
Speaking of the Sauk and Fox near Rock Island, Major Marston says: 
"The number of acres cultivated by that part of the two nations who reside 
at their villages in this vicinity is supposed to be upwards of three hundred. 
They usually raise from seven to eight thousand bushels of corn, besides 
beans, pumpkins, melons, etc. The labor of agriculture is confined princi- 
pally to the women, and this is done altogether with the hoe." While 
corn formed the staple of the Indians' diet, they made some use of wild 
vegetables and roots. They ate meat of many varieties, preference being 
given to venison and bear's meat. They cared little for fish, but ate it when 
other food was scarce. 

The ordinary garments of the Indian men were a shirt reaching almost 
to the knees, a breechclout, and leggings which came up to the thigh and 
were fastened to the belt on either side. In earliest times all their clothing 
was made of leather, but by 1818 this material had been generally replaced 
by trade cloth. The women wore a two-piece garment, short leggings 
reaching to the knees, and moccasins; they also employed the customary 
Indian ornamentation of quills and beads. Both sexes wore the robe, 
and later the trade blanket. The men painted their faces in various ways, 
while the women painted very little or not at all. 

The principal manufacturing operations of these tribes were tanning, 
weaving, and the making of pottery; although the last named industry 



134 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

liad practically been given up by 1818. The central Algonkin were not 
familiar with the loom, but they twisted a twine from the inner bark of the 
linden, and with this wove excellent bags of various sorts, which they used 
for a great variety of purposes. These were decorated by weaving in 
geometric designs and conventional representations of animals. They 
also made reed mats sewed with twine, which were used as coverings for 
floors, and as roofing for the winter houses. The pottery was of a rather 
inferior sort, burned in an open fire, or simply sundried, and decorated with 
a few incised lines. With the coming of the whites, this native ware was 
rapidly replaced by the trade kettle. 

All the tribes living in Illinois used two types of houses, one for summer, 
the other for winter. The summer houses as described by Forsyth, were 
"built in the form of an oblong, a bench on each of the long sides about 
three feet high and four feet wide, parallel to each other, a door at each end, 
and a passage through the center of about si.x feet wide, some of those huts 
are fifty or sixty feet long and capable of lodging fifty or sixty persons. 
Their winter lodges are made by driving long poles in the ground in two 
rows nearly at equal distances from each other, bending the tops so as to 
overlap, then covering them with mats made of a kind of rushes or flags. 
A bearskin generally serves for a door, which is suspended at the top and 
hangs down. When finished, it is not unlike an oven with the fire in the 
center and the smoke emits through the top." 

It is evident that the Indian had nothing that could be called a formal 
civil government. Most affairs were left to individual initiative; the love 
of freedom was one of the Indians' chief characteristics; and they suffered 
their personal liberty to be only slightly limited even by the authority of 
the chiefs and sachems. 

In 1818, the Indians retained but little of the independence and self- 
sufficiency of their forefathers. Their agriculture was of a rude and primitive 
sort, and they had come to rely upon the white trader for a large number of 
articles which, once unknown, had become necessities of life; and these 
they secured in exchange for the returns of their hunts. 

The Indians leave Illinois. — The first government land 
sales in Illinois took place in 1814. Southern Illinois was 
first opened to settlement. Central and northern Illinois 
were opened soon after statehood was attained, and by 1833 
all Indian tribes had ceded their Illinois lands to the United 
States and agreed to removal to lands west of the Mississippi. 
Thus in 160 years from the first appearance of the white man in 
Illinois, the land of the state had passed from the exclusive 
ownership of the Indians into the permanent possession of 
another race. 



CHAPTER IX 
THE COMING OF THE WHITE MAN 

Indian and white man. — It seems certain that the fertile 
and productive lUinois country of 56,000 square miles never 
supported an Indian population having a density as great as 
1 person per square mile, and that at times the population did 
not exceed 1 person to 3 or 4 square miles. In 1673 JoHet and 
Marquette, the first white men known to the Indians of Illinois, 
crossed the state along the valleys of the Illinois, Des Plaines, 
and Chicago rivers. By 1833, 160 years after this first visit, 
the white man had induced the Indian to relinquish his claim 
to the last square mile of Illinois and to remove to more western 
lands. The United States census of 1830 showed that 157,445 
white people, or 3 per square mile, had already made their 
homes in the state; by 1910 this number had increased to 
5,638,591, or 100 persons per square mile. 

The procession of the white man into the Illinois country 
was continuous and rapid. Various stages marked the process 
of taking possession of the land. The explorer was followed by 
the fur-trader; then came the "hunter pioneer," who competed 
directly with the Indian for occupation of the land. He was 
followed by the "first settler," who depended somewhat more 
on agriculture than did the hunter pioneer. The "permanent 
settler" then came to improve the land and to estabhsh a 
home for his own and succeeding generations. 

The explorers. — A land of such bountiful natural resources 
as Illinois, adapted to the support of a numerous and prosper- 
ous population, could not remain unknown to civilization 
after the fact of its existence had been established. The 
routes of the early explorers were determined by geographic 
conditions. With waterways as the ready-made roads of 
travel, it was but natural that early expeditions for discovery 
and exploration should carry Joliet and Marquette along the 
Illinois country down the Mississippi, and across the level 
plains of the state up the easily navigated Illinois River, 

135 



136 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

along the Des Plaines, the Chicago portage, and the Chicago 
River to Lake Michigan. It was the shores of Lake Michigan 
and the courses of the St. Joseph and Kankakee rivers that 
directed the route of La Salle, late in 1679, across Michigan 
and Indiana into the Illinois country. During the next few 
years La Salle and his men made numerous trips across Illinois, 
but always along the most easily traveled route — the Illinois 
Valley and easy portages to Lake Michigan. As long as the 
white man was only an explorer, he changed the Indian's 
mode of life but httle. 

The fur trade. — When the explorer became a fur-trader, as 
did La Salle and his companions, the white man's influence on 
the daily life of the Indian became distinctly noticeable. 
The trade kettle soon displaced the crude Indian pottery. 
The trade blanket and trade cloth were substituted for much 
of the fur clothing. Glass beads were eagerly sought as orna- 
ments. The white man's gun and ammunition took the place 
of bow and arrow. Whiskey was eagerly sought and used 
with deadly effect. All articles of commerce were to be paid 
for in peltry. The introduction of firearms and the steady 
demand for furs led to greater destruction of animal life than 
was possible under the natural conditions prior to the coming 
of the fur-trader. The balance which had been developed and 
maintained in previous generations was being unsettled by 
the fur-trader; it was further disturbed by the hunter pioneer, 
and entirely overthrown by the coming of the permanent 
settler. The principal regions of fur-trading activity were the 
valleys of the Mississippi, Illinois, and Wabash rivers. 

With increased knowledge of the Illinois country as a fur- 
producing region, fur-traders multiplied in numbers until the 
stale was well supplied with trading posts. 

It is difficult for the present inhabitants to reahze the extent to which 
wild game once abounded in the state, and the enormous quantities of peltry 
which were annually exported. The valley of the Illinois River was, at the 
close of the territorial period, one of the important fur bearing areas of 
the northwest. In 1S16, the furs sent out from the various posts upon the 
Illinois River included 10,000 deer; 300. bear; 10,000 raccoons; 35,000 
muskrat; 400 otter; 300 pounds of beaver; 500 cat and fox; and 100 mink. 
The total value of this peltry was estimated at $23,700. The merchandise 
imported into the region during the same year was estimated to be worth 
more than 3!18,000. In considering the lUinois fur trade, it should be 
remembered that it constituted only one part of an industry of enormous 



THE COMING OF THE WHITE MAN 137 

proportions, covering the Great Lakes region, and extending westward far 
beyond the Mississippi, an industry which at one time or another has made 
its influence felt in almost every part of the North American continent. ' 

Illinois lands opened to settlement. — Had the era of the 
fur-trader been continuous, Illinois would have remained 
clothed with its native vegetation, inhabited by its native 
animals and its native peoples, and the chief articles of export 
would still be furs instead of corn and live stock. But no region 
of the earth as favorably situated as Illinois can remain in a 
state of nature, supporting a mere handful of people. The 
inhabitants of more densely populated regions inevitably move 
into such lands, introduce agriculture, and obtain a good living 
for a population many times the number of the original occu- 
pants. 

The Illinois region passed from hunting lands to farm lands 
very slowly for more than a century after its discovery; then 
with exceeding rapidity the transformation of the state from 
hunting grounds to cultivated fields was completed. During 
this pioneer period, thousands of eager, industrious people 
from all parts of America and Europe came to Illinois to 
find homes, till farms, build cities, and develop a worthy civili- 
zation. By 1833 the national government had secured title 
from the Indians to all the lands of the state; by 1860 the 
pioneer period had passed and the lands of Illinois were fully 
occupied, ready for a long period of continuous development 
and progress. 

The earliest French settlements in Illinois were made about 
the year 1700 at Cahokia in St. Clair County and at Kaskaskia 
in Randolph County. In 1722 Prairie du Rochcr in Randolph 
County was also founded by the French. About 1800, 
Shawneetown in Gallatin County was first settled. 

In a hundred years, 1700 to 1800, the white population of 
the state had reached only 2,458; the population of 1810 was 
12,282, a gain of 400 per cent in ten years, and up to this 
date no public lands had been placed on sale by the national 
government. Under a system of land tenure whereby the 
public lands are to pass into the hands of individuals for pri- 
vate and permanent ownership and occupation, the would-be 

1 Solon J. Buck, Illinois in i8i8. 



138 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

owners must await the action of the government. Thus 
Illinois remained practically an Indian country until the land 
was surveyed and officially opened to settlement. 

The survey of Illinois was authorized in 1804. The second, 
third, and fourth principal meridians and their base lines were 
estabhshed. Locating main township lines was begun in 
1804, but detail work in the townships was not taken up until 
about 1810. Sales of public lands in Illinois were first made 
in 1814. When Illinois was admitted as a state in 1818, 
southern Illinois had been surveyed and opened to settlement. 
The survey is described as follows in Illinois in 1818: 

The frontier of Kovernment survey then, in 1818. started on the Missis- 
sippi near Alton and ran east to the third principal meridian, then south 
thirty miles to the base line, east again to the southeast corner of the Vin- 
cennes tract and then northeastwardly along the boundaries of that tract 
and the Harrison purchase to the Indiana line near the boundary between the 
present Vermilion and Edgar counties. 

The map facing page 52 in Illinois in 1818 shows the extent 
of this survey. North of this frontier line of government survey 
of 1818, some lands were still held by the Indians, some had 
been ceded by the Indians to the federal government, and the 
"military tract" between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers 
had been surveyed and opened to allotment under the law in 
October, 1817. The "military tracts" consisted of 6,000,000 
acres of public lands in Michigan, Illinois, and Missouri, set 
aside by Congress at the beginning of the War of 1812 to satisfy 
the bounties of 160 acres promised to each soldier. The 
"military tract" of Illinois included 3,500,000 acres, or one- 
tenth of the state. It extended northward from the junction 
of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers to an east-west line drawn 
from the junction of the Vermilion and Illinois rivers at La 
Salle due west to the Mississippi River between Rock Island 
and Mercer counties. No important settlements in the mili- 
tary tract were possible in the few months that elapsed between 
its opening in October, 1817, and the movement for statehood. 
After statehood was attained, the public lands of the entire 
state were rapidly made available for settlement. The open- 
ing of the Erie Canal and the development of steamboat 
traffic on the Great Lakes brought an ever-increasing stream 
of immigrants into the northern and central parts of the state. 



THE COMING OF THE WHITE MAN 139 

The pioneer. — The frontier line during American settlement 
may be considered as the line separating regions having a 
density of population of more than 2 persons per square 
mile from regions having less than 2 per square mile. The 
hunter pioneer usually crossed the frontier line and lived 
much as did the Indian. As the frontier line approached his 
home in the solitude, he moved westward. The first settler 
lived along the frontier line, and, as a denser population of 
permanent settlers approached, he sold his belongings and 
moved westward. 

A clear picture of pioneer life in Illinois is developed in 
Illinois in 1818 in the chapter "The Pioneers." The writer 
draws largely from the descriptions written by the early 
inhabitants themselves. Space permits only an abstract of 
the more saHent facts: 

Fordham divided the people of the frontier into four classes. To the 
first two of these classes belonged the bulk of the pioneers. 

The first class consists of the hunters, a daring, hardy race of men who 
live in miserable cabins which they fortify in time of war with the Indians 
whom they hate, but much resemble in dress and manners. They are 
unpolished, but hospitable, kind to strangers, honest, and trustworthy. 
They raise a little Indian corn, pumpkins, hogs, and sometimes have a cow 
or two, and two or three horses belonging to each family, but their rifle 
is their chief means of support. They are the best marksmen in the world, 
and such is their dexterity that they will shoot an apple off the head of a 
companion. Their wars with the Indians have made them vindictive. 
This class cannot be called first settlers, for they move every year or two. 

The second class may be called first settlers, a mixed set of hunters and 
farmers. They possess more property and comforts than the first class. 
They follow the range pretty much; seUing out when the country begins 
to be well settled and their cattle cannot be entirely kept in the woods. 
These original backwoodsmen look upon all new-comers as obtruders. 
The old hunters' rule is: when you hear the sound of a neighbor's gun, 
it is time to move away. These men live in solitude and rely on their own 
efforts to support themselves and their families. They derived their 
rneans of livelihood principally from hunting, and devoted very little atten- 
tion to farming. Some, however, follow a different destiny. Their little 
corn patch increases to a field, their first shanty to a small log house, which, 
in turn, gives place to a double cabin in which the loom and spinning wheel 
are installed. A well and a few fruit trees after a time complete the 
improvement. 

The third class consisted of men of influence in their communities. 
They were usually fairly well educated and possessed of a moderate amount 
of property. They came from Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana, from the 
Southern, Middle .'\tlantic, and the New England States. This class con- 
sisted of young doctors, lawyers, storekeepers, farmers, and mechanics. 
Many of them lived in or near one of the land ofBce towns, Kaskaskia, 
Shawneetown, or Edwardsville, but a few were to be found in the smaller 
settlements. 



140 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



The fourth class is not clearly distinguishable from the third. It 
consisted of old settlers, rich, independent farmers, wealthy merchants, 
possessing a good deal of information, a knowledge of the world, and an 
enterprising spirit. They undertake any business or speculation that 
promises great profit. 

An English pioneer settlement. — Only a region of superior 
qualities favorable for home-making could have drawn people 
from the distant regions of the earth as did Ilhnois. Probably 
the most conspicuous example of the attractiveness of Illinois 
to the home seeker is found in the English settlement at 
Albion, Edwards County. The following abstract is from 
Illinois in 1818: 

George Flower and Morris Birbeck, men of education and means, 
planned the enterprise, selected the site, directed the emigration, and 
established the settlement. Flower had come to the United States in 1816, 
Birbeck in 1817. They decided to locate in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, 
or Illinois. They did not wish to go farther north because of the severity 
of the climate, nor farther south because of their abhorrence of slavery. 
The rough conditions of the frontier did not appeal to them, but the 
opportunity to purchase land in unlimited quantities at a low price appealed 
to them very much. 

While traveling in Kentucky, Flower heard of the prairies of southern 
Illinois. He and Birbeck visited Edwards County in 1817 and decided to 
locate their settlement on the small prairies and adjoining wooded tracts. 
Their first purchase was of 3,000 acres; during the next year they entered 
26,400 acres; additional purchases were made later. 

Birbeck remained in America and Flower returned to England to find 
emigrants. In 1818 about 90 persons sailed. In April Flower left England 
on a chartered ship with 60 emigrants. They brought with them a goodly 
number of cows, hogs, and sheep of the choicest breeds of England. 

This English settlement, induced by the advantages of the Illinois 
prairies, exerted an important influence on the pioneer fife of Ilhnois. The 
leaders were well instructed in the theory and practice of agriculture. 
They were among the first settlers of Illinois to attack the problem of bring- 
ing the prairie under cultivation. The blooded stock which they intro- 
duced was a valuable asset to the community. Nearly all the foreign 
travelers who made tours of the United States during the years 1818 to 1820 
visited the settlement and published accounts of it in their books. This 
English pioneer settlement thus gave to Illinois unlimited advertising, 
not only in England, but on the continent and in the United States as well. 
This undoubtedly helped to promote emigration both from abroad and from 
the eastern states. 

Population of 1818. — The table on page 142 shows how 
sparsely populated the state was at the time of its admission to 
the Union. 

The table includes only the white population of that part 
of the state which had been surveyed. Crawford, Bond, and 
Madison counties included small areas of surveyed lands in their 



THE COMING OF THE WHITE MAN 



141 



southern borders, and about 43,000 square miles additional, 
consisting of the recently surveyed lands of the "military 
tract" and the unsurveyed lands of the state. The returns of 
the census of 1818 showed a population beyond the line of 
survey sufficient to bring the total for the state to 40,000, 
which was the number required for statehood by the terms of 
the Enabling Act. Thus at the time of admission to the 
Union, Illinois had a population density of but 3 per square 

TABLE I 

Area and Population of Counties, 1818 



County 


Total Area 
(sq. mi.) 


Area Surveyed 
(sq. mi.) 


Population 


Density 
(sq. mi.) 


Crawford 


21,522 

2,475 

1.150 

800 

600 

400 

860 

800 

730 

875 

340 

725 

900 

17,535 

6,288 


700 
2,475 
1,150 
800 
600 
400 
860 
800 
730 
875 
340 
725 
900 
570 
432 


2,946 
2,243 
3,832 
3,951 
2,069 
767 
1,228 
2,709 
1,619 
2,974 
1,517 
5,039 
1,819 
4,500 
1,398 


4 




1 


White. 


3 
5 


Pope 


3 




2 


Franklin 


1 
3 


Jackson 

Randolph 

Monroe 

St. Clair 

Washington 

Madison 

Bond 


2 
3 
5 

7 
2 

8 
3 


Total 


56,000 


12,357 


38,611 


3 



mile in the region open to settlement, and less than 1 per 
square mile for the state as a whole. Only a region of remark- 
able promise could have attracted a population of 6,000;,000 
in a single century. 

The distribution of this early population was determined 
largely by natural conditions. The waterways were the 
easiest routes of travel. Timber for buildings and for fuel 
and water for domestic use were easily obtained near the 
streams. Game abounded in the forest, and agriculture was 
readily developed on the small prairies or cleared forest land. 
A population of about 15,000 was found in an area of 2,000 



142 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



square miles between the Mississippi River on the west and 
Kaskaskia River and Shoal Creek on the east. Along the 
Wabash River from the Indiana state line to Sahne River in 

TABLE II 

Nativity of Illinois Pioneers, 1818 



Southern States 

Virginia 

North CaroHna . 
South Carolina . 

Georgia 

Maryland 



Western States 
Kentucky. . . . 
Tennessee. . . 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 



Middle Atlantic States. 

Pennsylvania 

New York 

New Jersey 

Delaware 



New England States 
Massachusetts. . . . 

Vermont 

Connecticut 

New Hampshire . . 
Rhode Island 



Foreign Countries 

England 

Ireland 

Germany 

Canada 

France 

Scotland 



Total . 



Number by 
States 



94 

84 
40 

29 1 
26j 

1501 

82 

23 

9 

aj 

47] 

30 

6 



40] 

10 



Number by 

Groups of 

States 



Percentage 



91 



19 



Gfi 



71(3 



38 



37 



13 



100 



Gallatin County, in a strip of territory about 15 miles wide 
and more than 100 miles in length, lived a population of 
12,000 on an area of 1,500 square miles. These two centers of 



THE COMING OF THE WHITE MAN 



143 



population had a density of about 8 per square mile. Only 
12,000 inhabitants were found in the remaining 8,000 square 
miles of surveyed lands, a density of less than 2 per square mile. 
Professor Buck has traced the birthplace or former residence 
of 716 heads of families who resided in Illinois when the census 
of 1818 was taken (Table II). These are about 12 per cent of 
the 6,020 families then living in Illinois. The summary includes 
birthplace, or the earHest known residence if the birthplace 
could not be determined from the records. Another classifica- 
tion is shown in Table III: 

TABLE III 





Number by 
Regions 


Percentage 


From south of Ohio River and Mason and Dixon's 


505 

145 

66 


71 




20 


From foreign countries 


9 






Total 


716 


100 







Since the population had nearly all moved into the state 
after 1800, the attractions of the Illinois country must have 
been widely known to have drawn, in so short a period, a popu- 
lation whose former homes had been in 18 other states and G 
foreign countries. 

Settlement of central and northern Illinois. — When Illinois 
was admitted to the Union, Indian claims had been extin- 
guished for less than half the state. These lands lay in two 
detached areas, one in the southern third of the state and 
the other to the north and west of the Illinois River. Indian 
claims overlapped in many cases and the same territory was 
involved in more than one Indian treaty. The Piankashaw had 
ceded the last of their claims in Illinois in 1805, the Sac and 
Fox in 1815, and the lUinois in 1818. These cessions had 
been completed before Illinois was admitted as a state. The 
Kickapoo made final cession of Illinois land in 1819, the 
Winnebago in 1829, and the Potawatomi in 1833. 

After government ownership had been established, the 
regions of the state were rapidly surveyed into townships, 



144 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



sections, and quarter-sections, and opened to entry. The 
frontier line of settlement moved steadily northward, more 
rapidly along the streams and forested belts than in the prairie 
regions. This movement of an incoming population is well 
described in the Geography of the Middle Illinois Valley: 

In 1S20 population was confined to the southern portion of the 
state. Durins the next few years settlement spread northward into the 

Sangamon region. In 1823, 
Springfield was a frontier 
\illage containing a dozen 
log cabins; the site of 
Peoria was occupied by a 
few families, and that of 
Chicago by a military and 
trading post. The rest of 
northern Illinois was entirely 
unoccupied. In the latter 
part of the twenties, the 
Sangamon country filled 
rapidly, one hundred wagons 
in a single train being fre- 
fiuently seen on their way 
there. .\ new impetus was 
given to the movements by 
the establishment of stream 
navigation on the Illinois 
River in 1S2S. By 1830 the 
Sangamon district was over- 
llowiiig into the Illinois Val- 
ley, which contained a few 
settlers well beyond Peoria. 
In 1832 the southern 
advance along the Illinois 
Valley was checked, and, 
save at Peoria, the settlers 
were driven south and east 
of the river by Black Hawk's 
War. Before the southern 
frontier had recovered from 
this blow, a great northern 
stream of immigration from 
New York and New England 
valley, occupying first the 




LORADO T.-^FT S FAMOUS STATUE BLACK HAWK 
AT OREGON 



swept into the unoccupied portions of the 
woodland, and later the prairie. 

In the decade 1820-30, an expansion started up actively from New 
England that was destined to become a movement of great proportions 
later. Before the opening of the Erie Canal, the journey from New England 
to the West had been slow, difficult, and expensive. The Erie Canal 
promptly became the most important route to Lake Erie in 1825. There 
were still, however, few vessels upon the lower lakes, and none regularly 
upon the upper, so that various courses were followed from Lake Erie to 



THE COMING OF THE WHITE MAN 145 

the Illinois Valley. Navigation was late in developing upon Lake Michigan, 
and not until 1834 could emigrants count with certainty upon transportation 
to Chicago. 

A flood of settlers now poured into the Illinois Valley and the northern 
part of the state generally. In LS45 the steamboats alone landed 20,244 
passengers at Chicago. Chicago was the gateway to the Illinois Valley. 
From a "little mushroom town" in 1833, and a "dirty village of twenty 
hamlets" in 1834 it grew to a population of 4,479 in 1840, and 28,269 in 
1850. The value of its imports rose 523 per cent in the ten years following 
1836. 

One of the greatest problems facing the pioneer was the transportation 
of his produce to a market. The Illinois River was the only connection 
with the outside world until the appearance of the railroad, unless the 
journey was made by wagon to Chicago. In general, therefore, the earlier 
settlers located near the Illinois or one of its navigable tributaries. 

The prairies of Illinois aroused the wonder of all early travelers. They 
were generally shunned by the first comers for several reasons : (1) Absence 
of trees was thought to mean that they were infertile. (2) Timber was 
imperatively needed for buildings, fences, and fuel. (3) They did not afford 
running water for stock or mills, while lack of fuel left steam mills out of the 
question. (4) There was no protection from the bitter winds of winter, 
which, above all else, made that season disagreeable. Men and cattle 
had even been known to perish in storms on the open prairie. (5) To 
the farmer, the prairies with their tough sod and matted roots constituted 
a new and altogether unknown problem. 

With the growth of population all the woodland was presently occupied, 
and new comers were crowded out upon the prairie. The small prairies 
were presently encircled by a belt of farms. Later, another ring was 
established inside of the first, and farther out on the prairie, and by a con- 
tinuation of the process the entire prairie was finally occupied. 

Saw mills and grist mills constituted a pressing need of the settlers, 
and were among the first improvements made. It was a great inconvenience 
and hardship to be forced to pound grain on a hominy block, or to grind it in 
hand mills. The first grist mill in Bureau County was built on East Bureau 
Creek, in 1830; the machinery was largely of wood, and the mill stones were 
dressed from glacial bowlders taken from the neighboring bluffs. The 
following year the first saw mill of the country was erected on Big Bureau 
Creek. 

A new and powerful factor in the economic life of the Illinois Valley 
appeared in 1848 in the form of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. The canal 
opened new markets, brought the valley into closer relations with Chicago 
and the Great Lakes, and modified its life in important ways. Lumber 
was the most important article brought into the Illinois Valley through the 
canal. The cost of lumber was immediately reduced one-half at Peoria, and 
further reductions soon followed. 

The year 1855 has been taken as marking the close of the period of 
steamboat supremacy in the trade of the Illinois Valley. This decline in 
water traffic was brought about primarily by the competition of the rail- 
roads. The great prairies still remained largely unoccupied in 1850. The 
problems of transportation and of markets still prevented their occupation. 
During the decade 1850 to 1860, however, their conquest was rapidly 
accomplished, and in the latter year the Grand Prairie had everywhere a 
population of over 6 to the square mile, and the great prairie to the north of 
the Illinois River more than 18 per square mile. The population of the 
state as a whole increased over 100 per cent in the ten years. 



146 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




POPULATION DKNSITY IN SUCCESSIVE YEAKS 

This series of maps shows the steady and rapid growth of Illinois in popula- 
tion for more than a century. The 1910 map is drawn on county lines while 
previous maps show regions of population without reference to county lines. 



THE COMING OF THE WHITE MAN 



147 



The first white man saw the IHinois country in 1673. In 
1818, 145 years later, there was a population of 40,000 in the 
state; 15 years after this date, in 1833, the white man's govern- 
ment had obtained ownership, by treaties with the Indians, to 
every square mile of Illinois lands; during the short space of 
another 27 years the frontier hne of settlement was swept 
out of the state, and the year 1860 finds the lands of Illinois 
occupied by an industrious and prosperous population of 
1,711,951. 

The foregoing maps indicate the density of population 
at each decennial census from 1820 to 1860. They show the 
early influences of the streams and forests on population; the 
impetus to settlement given by the Illinois and Michigan 
Canal; and the rapid completion of the pioneer period during 
the first decade of extensive railroad development. 

The accompanying table shows the rapid growth in popu- 
lation of the state as recorded by the United States Census 
reports. 

TABLE IV 

Population of Illinois and United States 





Population 
oi'- Illinois 


Increase 


Population of 
United States 


Percent- 
age of 


Date 


Number 


Percentage 


United 
States in 
Illinois 


1790 . . 








3,929,214 

5,308,483 

7,2.39,881 

9,6.33,822 

12,866,020 

17,069,453 

23,191,876 

31,443,321 

38,558,371 

50,155,782 

62,622,250 

76,303,387 

91,972,266 

105,683,108 




1800 


2,458 

12,282 

55,162 

157,445 

476,183 

851,470 

1,711,951 

2,539,891 

3,077,871 

3,826,351 

4,821,550 

5,638,591 

6,485,098 






.04 


1810 

1820 

1830 

1840 

1850 

1860 

1870 

1880 

1890 

1900 

1910 

1920 


9,724 
42,880 
102,283 
318,738 
375,287 
860,481 
827,940 
537,980 
748,480 
995,199 
817,041 
846,507 


395 

349 

185 

202 

78 

101 

48 

21 

24 

26 

17 

15 


.17 
.57 
1.2 
2.8 
3.6 
5.4 
6.5 
6.1 
6.1 
6.3 
6.1 
6.1 



CIL\PTER X 
THE SOIL AND ITS CONSERVATION 

Importance of soil. — The wealth of Illinois is in her soil and 
her slroigtJi lies i)i its intellige}it development. — Draper. 

These significant words, carved on the walls of the building 
of the State College of Agriculture, at Urbana, are a striking 
expression of the importance of Illinois soils. The develop- 
ment, progress, and prosperity of the state as a whole depend 
on the proper use and care of that thin stratum of the earth's 
crust, only a few inches in thickness, known as the soil. If 
this thin outer layer of land were entirely removed from the 
state, the plant, animal, and human life of today would dis- 
appear. If, by careless cultivation and wasteful methods, 
this soil cover is gradually depleted of its life-sustaining 
properties, the removal of this greatest of our resources is going 
on as certainly as if accomplished suddenly and completely. 
If, on the other hand, a scientific system of permanent agricul- 
ture is established promptly, this invaluable gift of nature 
may be retained, not only in its present high state of fertility, 
but it may be returned to its original productiveness and main- 
tained as one of the world's most fertile regions for all time. 
In considerable areas of the state the original soil may, at 
relatively small expense, be so improved that the returns 
will be increased many fold. 

Population and soil. — In Illinois, as elsewhere in the world, 
the people are dependent directly on the products of the soil 
for sustenance. This is just as true of the people in the over- 
crowded districts of Chicago, many of whose children have 
never seen a field of growing crops, as it is of the strictly 
agricvdtural districts of the state where the boys and girls 
do their share in the production of staple crops. All the 
people of the state are wholly dependent for their food and 
clothing on the soil of Illinois and other regions. No large 
population can be maintained apart from the products of the 
earth secured through the intelligent practice of agriculture. 

148 



THE SOIL AND ITS CONSERVATION 149 

More than 60 per cent of the population of the world live on 
less than 8 per cent of the land area of the world, not from 
choice, merely, but from necessity, a necessity based wholly on 
the productiveness of the soil. The average density of popula- 
tion on this small percentage of the land of the world exceeds 
200 persons per square mile, giving an average area of not 
more than 16 acres per family. The land of Illinois has larger 
capacity for production than the more densely populated 
old-world countries. The Illinois lands passed from a state of 
nature into private ownership for agricultural purposes within 
the short period of 60 years, 1800 to 1860. In 110 years, 1800 
to 1910, the population of civilized men in Illinois was multi- 
plied by more than 2,200. The population during this period 
increased from 1 person to 22 square miles, or 3 townships per 
family, to 100 persons to 1 square mile, or an average of 32 
acres per family. This unparalleled increase of population 
was due primarily to soil fertility which, as time went on, 
was combined with remarkable commercial opportunities and 
valuable mineral resources, especially coal, the basis of modern 
industrial development. 

The census returns for 1920 show that Illinois now supports 
a population of 116 persons per square mile, giving, on an 
average, 28 acres per family. 

Illinois has attracted this large population in the short 
space of three generations of mankind. The fathers and 
grandfathers of those now living were the original settlers of 
Illinois woodland and prairie. In the course of time, Illinois, 
with its wealth of fertile soil, busy factories, and numerous 
mines, is sure to be populated as densely as the average of the 
well-developed old-world regions. This larger population 
can maintain a high standard of living only if the present and 
succeeding generations pass on the soil to their successors with 
unimpaired, and, in many cases, with improved fertility. 

Soil surveys. — Soil may be "surveyed" from diiiferent 
points of view. The early pioneer looked out over the broad 
prairies and extensive woodlands of Illinois, and from the 
general appearance of the landscape selected a future home. 
If he appreciated the possibilities of future land values he 
acquired title to large tracts, sometimes thousands of acres in 



150 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



extent. The eastern farmer who sold his improved holdings 
at good values came to Illinois while lands were still cheap 
and made sufficient examination of the soil and its crops to con- 
vince him that the new farm was obtained at a favorable price. 

After years of heavy 
cropping on soils of 
exceeding fertility, the 
farmer became convinced 
that what was once con- 
sidered a soil of inex- 
haustible fertility was 
producing, even under 
improved methods of 
cultivation, smaller acre 
yields than were obtained 
from the virgin soil. 
This led to the inaugu- 
ration of the scientific soil 
survey of Illinois. A gen- 
eral soil survey of the 
state was first made and 
a map prepared showing 
fourteen soil areas. De- 
tailed county surveys 
have been made for a 
number of counties, and 
these will be continued 
until the detailed survey 
of all the counties is 
completed. 

In the Illinois Experi- 
ment Station at Urbana 
many laboratory experi- 
ments on soils are being 
constantly carried on, solving problems, and adding much to 
our knowledge of the soil. 

These scientific surveys are carried on by soil experts who 
inspect every ten-acre area, and enter on maps, while in the 
field, the areas covered by each soil type. Each surveyor 




MAP SHOWING COUNTIES WITH 
SOIL REPORTS 

County soil reports have been issued for 
counties within all the larger soil types. Pub- 
lication will continue until each county has its 
own report. The soil maps in these reports 
are worthy of most careful study. 



THE SOIL AND ITS CONSERVATION 



151 



carries a small auger 40 inches in length with which to obtain 
soil samples to the depth of 40 inches. The surface soil is 
sampled to a depth of 6| inches. Next, the subsurface soil is 
sampled to a depth of Gf to 20 inches. Below this the sub- 
soil is sampled to a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Thus the 




POT CULTURE LABORATORY FOR INVESTIGATIONS IN SOIL FERTILITY, 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA 

Laboratory experiments with various soil types brought from different parts 
of the state form an important part of the work of the Experiment Station, and give 
a basis for field practice. (Copyright by Keystone View Company.) 

thickness assigned to the surface soil is one-half that of the 
subsurface soil; and the combined thickness of the surface 
and subsurface strata is equal to the thickness of the subsoil. 
These samples, carefully analyzed at the laboratories of the 



152 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

Expcrinionl Station, give accurate, scientific knowledge of the 
I)lant-food elements in each soil type. 

The soil-survey map shows the fourteen soil areas of the 
state. These are readily located on the map. They are 
briefly mentioned in chapter iii, "The Glacial Period." 
A soil area may contain a number of types of soils. The 
Experiment Station has defined the different general groups of 
soil types as follows: 

Peat — Consisting of 3.5 per cent or more of organic matter, sometimes 
mixed with more or less sand or silt. 

Peaty loams — Soils with 1.5 to 3.5 per cent of organic matter mixed with 
much sand. Some silt and a little clay may be present. 

Mucks — Soils with 15 to 25 per cent of partly decomposed organic 
matter mixed with much clay and silt. 

Clays — Soils with more than 25 per cent of clay, usually mixed with 
much silt. 

Clay loams — Soils with from 15 to 25 per cent of clay, usually mixed with 
much silt and some sand. 

Loams — Soils with from 30 to 50 per cent of sand mixed with much silt 
and a little clay. 

Sandy loams — Soils with from 50 to 75 per cent of sand. 

Fine sandy loams — Soils with from .50 to 75 per cent of fine sand mixed 
with much silt and a little clay. 

Sands — Soils with more than 75 per cent of sand. 

Gravelly loams— SoWs with 25 to 50 per cent of gravel with much sand 
and some silt. 

Gravels — Soils with more than .50 per cent of gravel and much sand. 

Stony^ loams — Soils containing a considerable number of stones over 
one inch in diameter. 

Rock outcrop — Usually ledges of rock having no direct agricultural 
value. 

More or less organic matter is found in all the foregoing groups. 

Required plant food. — Ten different chemical elements are 
required for plant growth. These are: carbon, hydrogen, 
oxygen; sulphur, iron; magnesium, calcium; nitrogen, phos- 
phorus, potassium. If any one of these elements is not avail- 
able, the plant fails to develop. With all present in proper 
proportions, and under favorable climatic conditions, a large 
crop is assured. The problem of a permanent and profitable 
agriculture in Illinois, therefore, is the problem of maintaining 
soil fertihty so that these ten elements of plant food shall 
always be available for the production of maximum crops year 
after year throughout the centuries. 

Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen come from air and water in 
unlimited amounts except in times of drought. These three 




SOIL MAP OF ILLINOIS 



THE SOIL AND ITS CONSERVATION 153 

elements constitute about 95 per cent of the weight of the 
mature crop. 

The seven remaining elements, constituting but 5 per cent 
of the crop, are obtained from the soil. Two of these, sulphur 
and iron, are required in such small amounts, and they are 
present in nearly all soils in such large amounts, that they need 
not be considered of importance in maintaining soil fertility. 

Two others, magnesium and calcium, are so abundant in 
Illinois limestones that their supply at moderate cost is assured 
for all time. Special appHcation of ground rock for magnesium 
is rarely necessary. Large quantities of ground limestone are 
used annually on Illinois soils, and greatly increased crop 
yields are thereby obtained. It is especially necessary where 
the soil is "sour" or acid. The limestone is required much 
more for the purpose of correcting the acidity of the soil than 
as a plant food. Since it does play so large a part in crop 
yields, however, it is to be considered as one of the important 
elements of plant requirements which must have the intelligent 
attention of the farmer. 

The three remaining elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, and 
potassium, are required in considerable quantities by all crops, 
while in most soils the supply of one or more of them is limited. 
If the supply of one of these elements is too limited, it must, 
as a consequence, limit the yield of the crop, even though all 
other factors essential to crop production are well provided. 

The actual condition is illustrated by the following examples: 
The sand-ridge soil of Tazewell County produced, without soil 
treatment, crops valued at $12.90 per acre per year as the 
average for six years; with nitrogen added the yields were 
valued at $19.51 per acre per year; additions of potassium 
with the nitrogen increased the yield to $23.53 per acre per 
year. The prairie soil of McLean County yielded, without 
soil treatment, crops valued at $15.83 per acre per year; with 
phosphorus added the yields were valued at $20.73 per acre 
per year; additions of nitrogen and potassium with the phos- 
phorus increased the yield to $22.77 per acre per year. The 
peaty swamp lands of Kankakee County yielded, without soil 
treatment, crops valued at 70 cents per acre per year; with 
potassium added the yields were valued at $13.89 per acre 



154 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



per year; aclditions of nitrogen and i)hosphorus willi the 
potassium gave yields valued at $15.44 per acre per year. 
The yellow silt loam hill land of the unglaciated area in Johnson 
County produced, without soil treatment, crops valued at 
$4.19 per acre per year; with legumes added, $5.12 per acre 
per year; with legumes and lime, $10.41 per acre per year; 
and with legumes, lime, and phosphorus, $12.62 per acre per 
year. These values are all based on prices which were 
extremely low as compared with the war-time prices of 1918. 
These illustrations, based on actual field experiments, show 
conclusively that the sand-ridge soil is especially deficient 

in nitrogen, the prairie 
soil in phosphorus, the 
peaty soil in potassium, 
and the unglaciated soil 
in calcium as well as 
other elements. 

The problem of a per- 
manent and profitable 
agriculture on Illinois 
farms may be expressed 
in briefest form by the 
formula LNPK, in which 
L stands for limestone 
from which calcium is 
obtained; N, for nitro- 
gen; P, for phosphorus; 
and K, for potassium (Lat. kaUiini). These letters, singly and 
in various combinations, are used on the markers in the numer- 
ous agricultural experiment fields of the state to indicate the 
method of soil treatment applied to the experimental plots. 
These four elements, constituting less than 4 per cent of the 
weight of the mature crop, are the factors of soil fertility that 
require the intelligent consideration of the farmer. 

An inexhaustible supply of calcium is found in Illinois lime- 
stones, and it may be readily procured. Leguminous plants 
such as clover, sweet clover, alfalfa, cowpeas, and soy beans, 
on whose roots nitrogen-gathering bacteria thrive, may be 
grown in crop rotations and plowed under. A perpetual supply 




SOIL TREATMENT IN FOUR COUNTIES 

The scientific treatment of four types of 
soils demonstrates the value of supplying in 
proper amounts the four elements of plant 
food not always present in the soil in sufficient 
amounts — nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, 
lime. 



THE SOIL AND ITS CONSERVATION 155 



of nitrogen is thus assured, if scientific methods of agriculture 
are adopted. Phosphorus is obtained from bone meal and 
rock phosphate. It must be purchased and appHed to the land. 
The known phosphate suppHes of the world are limited. The 
most important producing mines are in Tennessee, South 
Carolina, and Florida. The largest reserves yet discovered 
are in Idaho, Montana, and Utah. It is possible that the 
supply of rock phosphate may be the limiting factor in the 
development of a permanent and profitable agriculture through- 
out the nations of the world. Most Illinois soils are exceedingly 
rich in potassium and this element need not be given special 
attention in all parts of the state. In the peaty swamp lands, 
however, soil improvement is almost wholly dependent on 
the application of the potassium salts in a concentrated form. 
The largest potassium beds are found in Germany, and most 
of the world has been dependent upon these deposits for their 
potash supply. It is now known that our supply can be largely 
won from smelter fumes and the dust of cement plants. 

Fertility in Illinois soils. — The upper 6f inches on an 
acre of fertile soil in good physical condition contains a total 
of not less than 8,000 pounds of nitrogen, 2,000 pounds of phos- 
phorus, and 30,000 pounds of potassium. With these numbers 
in mind, the farmer can determine the elements in which his 
land is deficient if he has at hand the report of the Soil Survey 
giving total amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium 
per acre in lands belonging to the same soil type as the farm 
under consideration. The table on page 156 from Bulletin 
No. 123 of the Agricultural Experiment Station gives the 
fertility in the various soil areas and soil types most widely 
represented in the state. 

The first column of the table indicates the soil type by 
number. The figures representing hundreds correspond to 
the soil areas of the state as numbered on the soil map, and 
the name of the soil area is given in the second column. The 
two right-hand figures of the first column stand for a soil type, 
which is named in the third column. Thus 30 stands for 
"gray silt loam on tight clay," while 330 tells that this gray 
silt loam on tight clay is in the soil area indicated on the map by 
the number 3, the Lower lUinoisan glaciation. The number 26 



TABLE I 

Fertility in Illinois Soils 

Average Pounds per Acre in Surface Soil (0-61 inches)^ 



Soil Area or 
Glaciation 



Soil Type 



Total 

Nitro- 
gen 



Total 
Phos- 
phorus 



Total 
Potas- 
sium 



Lime- 
stone 
Required 



Prairie Lands, Undulating 



Lower Illinoisan 



Middle Illinoisan 

Upper Illinoisan 

Pre-Iowan 

lowan 

Early Wisconsin 

Late Wisconsin 



Gray silt loam on 
tight clay 



Brown silt loam 
Brown silt loam 
Brown silt loam 
Brown silt loam 
Brown silt loam 
Brown silt loam 



2880 


840 


24940 


4370 


1170 


32240 


4840 


1200 


32940 


4290 


1190 


35340 


4910 


1220 


32960 


5050 


1190 


36250 


6750 


1410 


45020 



2-5 tons 

Rarely 
Rarely 
i-1 ton 
i-1 ton 
Rarely 
Rarely 



Prairie Lands, Flat 



Middle Illinoisan 
Upper Illinoisan 
Early Wisconsin 
Late Wisconsin 



Black clay loam 
Black clay loam 
Black clay loam 
Black clav loam 



.5410 


1430 


31860 


6760 


1690 


29670 


7840 


2030 


.35140 


8900 


1870 


37370 



None 
None 
None 
None 



Timber Uplands, Rolling or Hilly 



Unglaciated 
Lower Illinoisan 
Middle Illinoisan 
L'pper Illinoisan 
Pre-Iowan 
lowan 

Early Wisconsin 
Deep loess 



Yellow silt loam 
Yellow silt loam 
Yellow silt loam 
Yellow silt loam 
Yellow silt loam 
Yellow silt loam 
Yellow silt loam 
Yellow fine sandv loam 



1890 


950 


31450 


21.50 


950 


31850 


1870 


820 


33470 


2010 


840 


34860 


2390 


850 


37180 


1910 


910 


35780 


1890 


870 


32720 


2170 


960 


35640 



2-5 tons 
2-5 tons 
1-2 tons 
1-2 tons 
1-2 tons 
1-2 tons 
1-2 tons 
1-2 tons 



Timber L^plands, L^ndulating 



Late Wiscons 
lowan 



Yellow-gray silt loam 
Brown sandy loam 



2890 
3070 



810 
850 



47600 
26700 



(?) 
(?) 



Sand, Swamp, and Bottom Lands 



Old bottom lands 
Late bottom lands 
Sand plains and 

dunes 
Late swamp 



Deep-gray silt loam 
Brown loam 

Sand soil 
Deep peet 



3620 
4720 



1440 
34880 



1420 
1620 



820 
1960 



36360 
39970 



30880 
2930 



(?) 
Karelv 



* The numbers given in this table represent the total amounts contained in two million 
pounds of the surface soil on the dry basis, with the exception of peaty swamp soil, for which 
the amounts in one million pounds are used, because the specific gravity of peaty soil is only 
one-half that of ordinary soil; for sand soil two and one-half million pounds are used, 
because it is about one-fourth heavier than ordinary soil. 



THE SOIL AND ITS CONSERVATION 157 

stands for "brown silt loam"; but 426 tells that this brown silt 
loam is in the Middle Illinoisan glaciation; 526 locates it in 
Upper lUinoisan glaciation; and 1126 in the Early Wisconsin. 

Columns 4, 5, and 6 show the total nitrogen, phosphorus, 
and potassium present in one acre of surface soil to a depth of 
6f inches. By comparing these amounts with the minimum 
amounts given above for an acre of fertile soil, it is easy to see 
whether the soil type under consideration is deficient in one 
or more of these limited elements of plant food. Column 7 
shows the amount of limestone required to correct the acidity of 
the soil. 

Thus by turning to the map we see that a farm in Sangamon 
County is in soil area No. 4, the Middle Illinoisan glaciation. 
By examining the table we learn that if this Sangamon County 
farm is made up of undulating prairie lands it belongs to soil 
type No. 426, "brown silt loam," and that the upper 6| inches 
of an acre of this soil contains 4,370 pounds of nitrogen, 1,170 
pounds of phosphorus, and 32,240 pounds of potassium. By 
comparison with the requirements of a fertile soil we find that 
this land is deficient to the amount of 3,630 pounds of nitrogen 
and 830 pounds of phosphorus per acre, while there is an 
excess of potassium. If the farm lies in the flat prairie lands 
of Sangamon County, it belongs to soil type No. 420, "black 
clay loam," and the deficiencies for nitrogen and phosphorus are 
somewhat smaller than in the "brown silt loam." If the farm 
lies in the rolling or hilly timber uplands of Sangamon County, 
it belongs to soil type No. 435, "yellow silt loam." The 
deficiencies for nitrogen and phosphorus are very great, and 
a liberal application of ground limestone is required. 

The county soil report for Sangamon County shows the 
soil types of our selected farm accurately mapped to ten-acre 
areas, and the report contains definite information as to the 
best methods of increasing the fertility in the various soil types. 

The table shows that the nitrogen content of the surface 
soils per acre varies from 1 ,440 pounds in the sand soil to 
34,880 pounds in deep peat; the phosphorus, from 810 pounds 
in yellow-gray silt loam to 2,030 pounds in black clay loam; 
potassium, from 2,930 pounds in deep peat to 47,600 pounds in 
yellow-gray silt loam. Only two of the soil types given in the 



158 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



table have an excess of nitrogen over the minimum amount 
indicated for a fertile soil; only one has an excess of phos- 
phorus; while all but two have an excess of potassium. 

Agricultural experiment fields. — Agricultural experiments 
arc of real worth only as valuable and practical results are 

made available to the 
farmers and used by 
them. Scientific soil 
treatment is brought 
directly to the farmers 
of Illinois in their home 
localities by means of 
agricultural experiment 
fields. These fields are 
established in all parts 
of the state on various 
kinds of soil typical of 
the regions in which the 
fields are located. The 
experiment fields are 
operated under the ordi- 
nary crop conditions of 
the locality, and the 
farmers may learn the 
effect of various methods 
of soil treatment by ob- 
serving the field in their 
locality during the 
season and on special 
occasions when a repre- 
sentative of the Agri- 
cultural Experiment 
Station visits the field to 
discuss the results with 
the farmers of the neighborhood. Information concerning 
these experiment fields has been obtained from various publi- 
cations of the experiment stations. 

The first experiment fields were estabhshed in 1901 on 
tracts of rented land- Since 1908 fields have been located only 




MAP OF ILLINOIS, SHOWING EXPERIMENT FIELDS 

Experiment fields, located on the various 
kinds of soils, enable farmers to learn by 
direct observation the best treatment for their 
own farms and the probable results. 



THE SOIL AND ITS CONSERVATION 



159 



on land donated by the community and deeded to the state. 
In 1916 there were 39 fields, 12 of which were rented and 27 
owned by the state. The names and locations of the fields are 
shown on the accompanying map. 

The diagram of the Urbana Experiment Field on page 160 
represents a typical experiment field of 20 acres. The 
Jield is divided into 5 
series corresponding to 
the different fields of 
a farm. Each series is 
divided into 10 plots so 
that ten methods of soil 
treatment may be tested 
on the plots of each 
series. Each plot covers 
exactly one-tenth of an 
acre. The results are 
then easily converted 
into acre units. 

On this field two dif- 
ferent systems of farm- 
ing are practiced : a 
live-stock system and a 
grain system. In the 
five-stock system, the 
grains, hay, and forage 
are fed to five stock; 
the cornstalks and 
straw are used for bed- 
ding. The resulting 
manure is returned to 
the land and constitutes 
the important source of 
nitrogen and organic 
matter for soil improve- 
ment. In the grain system, the nitrogen and organic matter are 
maintained by plowing under all crop residues after the seed is 
removed (cornstalks, the straw from wheat, oats, soy beans, 
clover, and some cover crops). Under this system, the grain, 




COUNTIES HAVING FARM ADVISERS, 1918 

Through co-operation of county, state, and 
federal governments, trained farm advisers are 
aiding in the development of a better agri- 
culture in Illinois. 



160 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



the alfalfa, and the clover or other legume seeds are marketed. 
Alfalfa is regarded as a money crop, since sufficient residues are 
provided in the regular four-year rotation to supply the needs 
of the non-legumes for nitrogen. 

In both systems of farming there are check plots which do 
not receive any treatment. The only benefits the soil receives 

are those which are in- 



\xi\ 


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R 


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R 


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R 


A1 


cv 








L 


/ 


1 


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1 


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P 


p 


P 

n 


P 


L 



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476 


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cidental to the rotation. 
Everything is removed 
from the land, and 
nothing returned; which 
means a gradual de- 
crease in productive 
power and eventual land 
ruin. The purpose of 
these plots is to show 
by comparison the value 
of the treatment. The 
other plots receive defi- 
nite treatments in such 
a way that the definite 
needs of the soil may 
be determined; whether 
it be manure or residues 
alone, or lime in addi- 
tion, or lime and phos- 
phorus in addition that 
must be applied in order 
to insure greater pro- 
duction. To two plots 
in the series potassium 
is added in order to obtain information in regard to the 
possible need for that element. In both systems of farming, 
provision is made for the maintenance and the increase of 
those elements of plant food and those physical conditions 
necessary for the best plant growth as indicated by the soil 
survey, the soil analysis, and other sources of knowledge. 



Voh 


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13, 


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W\ 


p^ 


W\ 


P^ 


^ 


^ 





R 


AI 


R 


AI 


R 


AI 


R 


Al 


Cv 








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/. 


L 


L 


L 


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P 


P 


P 


P 


L 
p- = 



101 


W\ 


w\ 


104 


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109 


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R 


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R 


AI 


R 


AI 


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L 


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P 


P 


P 


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n 


n 


P-' 



DIAGRAM OF URBANA EXPERIMENT FIELD 

= No treatment; M=Manurc; L=Lime- 
stone; P = Phosphorus; R = Residues (corn- 
stalks, straw of wheat and oats, and all legumes 
except seed); K = Potassium; Cv = Cover crop. i 



^Summary of Illinois Soil Investigations, Bulletin 193, Illinois Agricultural 
Experiment Station. 



THE SOIL AND ITS CONSERVATION 



IGl 




It will be noted in the diagram that those plots whose 
numbers end in 1 receive no treatment; those ending in 3, 5, 7, 
and 9 receive manure and therefore illustrate live-stock farm- 
ing; those ending in 2, 4, 6, and 8 receive residues and thus 
illustrate grain farming; while 10 has residues in the form of 
cover crops and also manure, thus representing a combination 
of live-stock and grain farming. The actual yields of the experi- 
ment field, year after 

year, when studied in 
relation to soil treat- 
ment, reveals unmistak- 
ably the methods of 
scientific farming best 
adapted to the farms of 
the locality having the 
same soil type as the 
experiment field. Very 
few farms of Illinois are 
as far as 50 miles from 



one of the permanent 
experiment fields. 

Some practical re- 
sults. — The Blooming- 
ton Experiment Field is 
located about two miles 
northeast of Blooming- 
ton on the brown silt 
loam prairie soil of 
the Illinois corn belt. 
It is typical of extensive areas of farm lands in central Illi- 
nois. The total crop values per acre during thirteen successive 
years, 1902 to 1914 inclusive, are shown in Table II, on page 
162, and indicate clearly that soil improvement is not only 
possible, but extremely profitable, on the most fertile tracts of 
Illinois soils. The prices used in this table are much lower than 
the war-time prices of later years. 

The plot which received no treatment yielded, in thirteen 
years, crops valued at $266.90 per acre, or an average of 
$20.53 per acre per year; while the plot treated with lime and 



CROP VALUES, BLOOMINGTON 
EXPERIMENT FIELD 

This graph indicates the total value per acre 
of thirteen crops, 1902-14, produced on 
plots with different treatment. Only when 
phosphorus is included in the treatment are 
the yields strikingly increased on the soil type 
represented by the Bloomington Experiment 
Field. 



162 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



phosphorus yielded, during the same period, crops valued at 
1409.45 per acre, or an average of $31.50 per acre per year, a gain 
of $10.97 per acre per year, at a cost of $2.50 per acre per year, 
leaving a net gain of $8.47 per acre per year with a much- 
improved and a much more valuable soil than now found on the 

TABLE II 

Value of Crops per .Vcre in Thirteen Years, Bloomington Field 

Brown Silt Loam Prairie, Early Wisconsin Glaciation 







Total Value 


OF Thirteen 






Crops* 


Plot 


Soil Treatment Applied 








Lower Prices 


Higher Prices 


101 


None 


$186.83 


$266.90 


102 


Lime 


1SB.76 


266.80 


103 


Lime, residues 


193. S3 


276.90 


104 


Lime, phosijhorus 


2S6.61 


409.45 


10.5 


Lime, potassium 


190. 53 


272.19 


106 


Lime, residues, pliosi^horus 


285.03 


407.19 


107 


Lime, residues, potassium 


191 . 10 


273.00 


108 


Lime, phosphorus, potassium 


294.91 


421.31 


109 


Lime, residues, phosphorus 








potassium 


284.47 


406.39 


110 


Residues, phosphorus, potassium 


259 . 10 


.370.15 




TABLE III 

Value of Increase per Acre in Thirteen Years 

For residues 

For phosphorus 

For residues and phosphorus over phosphorus. . 

For phosphorus and residues over residues 

For postassium. residues, and phosphorus over 
residues and phosphorus 

* Lower prices are based on 70 cents a bushel for wheat, 35 cents for corn. 
28 cents for oats, $7 a ton for hay; higher prices, $1 a bushel for wheat, 50 cents for 
corn, 40 cents for oats, $10 a ton for hay. 

untreated plot. Since $8.47 is 6 per cent of $141, land receiv- 
ing the scientific treatment may be capitalized at $141 more 
per acre than the untreated land. 

Thus, if a quarter-section of such land as the Bloomington 
Experiment Field has been farmed for thirteen years after the 
manner of the untreated plot, and is now valued at $175 



THE SOIL AND ITS CONSERVATION 



163 




I Un/reorec/ 
Scienti^/c 0(fr/Cu/fure 



{)cr acre, an adjoining (|uarlcr-scction of the same type of soil 
given scientific treatment for the same period may be vakied at 
$316 per acre. In other words, the two 160-acre farms, having 
precisely the same value thirteen years ago, are now valued at 
$28,000 and $50,560 respectively, a difference of $22,560, an 
amount sufficient to purchase 128 acres of the untreated farm at 
$175 per acre. If invested in United States liberty bonds, at 4| 
per cent interest, this increased value would yield an annual 
income of $1,062. 

At the Odin Experiment Field in Marion County, on poor 
gray prairie land, scientific soil treatment changed the yield of 
wheat, in four years, 
from 11.6 bushels per 
acre to 29.5 bushels, an 
increase of 17.9 bushels 
per acre, or 154 per cent. 
Corn production was 
increased from 38.3 
bushels to 61 .3 bushels, 
or 60 per cent. 

In the same county, 
in 1908, Dr. Cyril G. 
Hopkins purchased a 
tract of 300 acres known 
as Poorland Farm and 

began giving it scientific treatment. In 1913 he harvested 1,278 
bushels of wheat from 36 acres of this land, a yield of 35| bushels 
per acre. An untreated strip of If acres in the same field 
yielded 11^ bushels per acre. This is a gain of 24 bushels per 
acre, or 208 per cent. This particular field had been agricul- 
turally abandoned for five years prior to Dr. Hopkins' purchase. 
As it was purchased for $15 per acre, the single crop of 1913 
had a value at least twice as great as the purchase price of the 
land. On the same farm the yield of wheat in 1917 was 7 .7 
bushels per acre on land which had been treated with manure 
alone, while the yield on land treated with manure, limestone, 
and raw rock phosphate was 44 . 1 bushels per acre. At the 
government price of $2.20 per bushel for the 1917 wheat crop, 
this yield had a value of $97 per acre. 



CROP YIELDS ON ILLINOIS SOILS AS INFLU- 
ENCED BY SCIENTIFIC AGRICULTURE 

The Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, 
through scientific research, demonstrates how 
Illinois farms may be improved in fertility and 
increased in productiveness. 



164 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



At the Momencc Experiment Field in Kankakee Counly 
un peaty swamp soil, the corn crop of 1903 yielded 3!) bushel's 
of corn per acre on ihe untrealcd i)lot; while the adjoining 
plot, to which potassium had been added, j)roduced 72.7 
bushels per acre. 

With such results as these, obtained under ordinary field 
conditions in many parts of the state, the era of scientific 









i 


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r 



WHEATFIELD ON POORLAND FARM, MARIONT COUNTY 

Dr. Cyril G. Hopkins is here seen on May -26, 1917, in the wheatfield where 
his application of scientific agriculture to ''poor land" since 1903 ,£>ave for the season 
of 1917 a yield of 44 . 1 bushels of wheat per acre, while an untreated area on the same 
farm yielded only 7.7 bushe's per acre. (Copyright by Keystone \'iew Comixiny.) 



farming in Illinois is fairly begun, and a system of permanent 
and profitable agriculture may be promptly developed on every 
farm of the state if all landowners and land operators apply 
the scientific knowledge placed at their disposal by the 
researches of those who have spent many years in the study 
of Illinois soils. 



CHAPTER XI 

AGRICULTURE 

Farm products. — The variety of Illinois farm products is 
indicated by the following list of crops reported in the United 
States Census of 1910: 

Cereals: corn, oats, 'wheat, emmer and spelt, barley, buckwheat, rye, 
kafir com, and milo maize. 

Other grains and seeds: beans, peas, peanuts, broom corn seed, flaxseed, 
sorghum cane seed, alfalfa seed, millet seed, other tame grass seeds, flower 
and garden seeds. 

Hay and forage: timothy alone, clover alone, timothy and clover mixed, 
alfalfa, millet, other tame or cultivated grasses, wild, or prairie grasses, 
grains cut green, coarse forage, root forage. 

Other crops: potatoes, sweet potatoes and yams, other vegetables, 
tobacco, broom corn, flowers and plants, nursery products. 

Small fruits: strawberries, blackberries and dewberries, raspberries 
and loganberries, currants, gooseberries, cranberries. 

Orchard fruits: apples, peaches and nectarines, pears, plums and prunes, 
cherries, apricots, quinces, mulberries. 

Grapes. 

Nuts: Persian or EngUsh walnuts, pecans, black walnuts, butternuts, 
chestnuts, hickory nuts. 

Sub-tropical fruits: figs, Japanese persimmons. 

Sugar crops: maple sugar, maple sirup, sugar beets, sorghum cane, 
sorghum sirup. 

Forest products of farms: firewood, fencing material, logs, railroad ties, 
poles, standing timber sold. 

Facts of agriculture. — The accompanying table gives 
significant figures with reference to Illinois as an agricultural 
state. 

TABLE r 

Values of Selected Crops, 1909, Compared with 1917 





1909 


1917 


Corn 

Oats 


$198,000,000 
60,000,000 
38,000,000 
41,000,000 


$459,000,000 
158,000,000 


Wheat 


61,000,000 




68,000,000 






Total, four leading crops. 


$337,000,000 


$746,000,000 



165 



166 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



While the corn crop of 1917 exceeded that of 1909 by only 
2S, 000,000 Inishels, or 7 per cent, its value exceeded that of 
1909 by $201,000,000, or 130 per cent. The yield of oats also 
exceeded the yield of 1909, but there was a decrease in the 
yield of wheat and hay and forage. Thus while the total 
acreage and total yield of crops for 1917 differed but httle from 
those of 1909, these four crops alone had a value of $374,000,000 
greater than the value of all crops for 1909. Thus with but 
slightly increased yields the value of farm crops was more 
than doubled by war conditions. 



55 6U APPLES 





AVERAGE PRODUCTION PER SQUARE MILE OF CEREALS, FORAGE, AND ANIM.\LS 

The average density of population for Illinois in 1910 was 100 inhabitants per 
square mile. This graph therefore indicates the amount of agricultural products 
raised in the state for every 100 persons. The per capita production is found by 
moving the decimal point two places to the left. 



Four leading crops. — Corn, oats, and wheat are the only 
cereals grown on a large scale in Illinois. These three cereal 
crops with hay and forage produce nine-tenths of the value of 
all crops in the state, and they occupy a still larger proportion 
of the area devoted to crops. The methods employed in raising 
and harvesting these staple crops make it possible for Illinois 
farmers to produce large values per man. AU of these four 
crops are grown in every county of the state, but each crop 
has its areas of largest production determined by various 
factors among which are soil, climate, land relief, and markets. 



AGRICULTURE 



167 



Corn. — Corn thrives best in well-drained, deep, warm, black 
loam with an abundance of organic matter. The most favor- 
able climatic conditions for corn are an average summer 




farmer's wife plowing \vtth a tractor 

Tractor cultivation is making rapid development on the level prairie lands 
of the Central States. 



temperature (Jure, July, and August) of about 75° F. with 
warm nights as well as warm days, and an average rainfall 
during the same period of 8 inches or more, well distributed 
through the three months. Illinois with its average summer 



168 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



temperature of 70° to 77° and its average summer rainfall of 
about 11 inches for all parts of the state thus provides the 
ideal cHmatic conditions for this crop. While corn is grown 
in every county of IlHnois, it is raised most largely in the central 
and east -central parts of the state on the rich, black loams of 
the Wisconsin glaciation. The region of heavy corn production 
is almost coincident with the region of highest land values of 

the state, $125 or more 
per acre, according to 
the census of 1910. 

Illinois summer tem- 
peratures are always 
favorable to growth of 
corn, while the amount 
and distribution of rain- 
fall is not uniformly 
favorable. 




CORN CROP OF THE UNITED STATES 
AND OF ILLINOIS 



On the United States map each dot repre- 
sents 100.000 acres; on the Illinois map, 5,000 
acres. More corn is produced in the corn 
belt of the Central States than in the rest of 
the world. Illinois and Iowa compete for first 
place among the states. 



There is sufficient rainfall 
almost every year to produce 
maximum crops. The diffi- 
culty is with its distribution. 
The injury resulting from the 
irregularity in the distribution of the rainfall may be prevented to some 
extent by drainage, tillage, increasing and maintaining the organic matter 
of soils, and keeping the soils well supplied with plant food. 

This uneven distribution of the rainfall is a sufficient incentive to cause 
the farmer to take every precaution for storing and holding the moisture 
in the soil before the crop is planted by preparing a deep, mellow seed bed, 
or for carrying off quickly excessive amounts of rain. Corn should receive 
an average of at least 2.5 inches of rainfall per month during the three 
months of its growth. The effects of rainfall during June, July, and August 
upon corn yields are shown by the records of the old continuous corn plot 
at the University. Corn has been grown on this plot since 1879, but there is 
no record of the yield previous to 1889. 
Summer rainfall 

Less than 7 inches 25.3 bu. per acre ( 8 yr. av.) 

Between 7 and 10 inches 32.4 bu. per acre ( 9 yr. av.) 

Over 10 inches 39.8 bu. per acre (11 yr. av.) 

When the rainfall was less than two inches per month, the yield was 
reduced for a four-year average to 24.4 bushels per acre, and when the rain- 
fall was over thirteen inches, the yield was 45 > 9 bushels per acre for a seven- 
year average. This is a difference of 21 ..5 bushels between yields produced 
with what might be called the maximum rainfall and those produced with the 
minimum at the University of Illinois. It is evident from this that a month 
during which there is less than two inches of rainfall may be regarded as 
a dry month.' 

'J. G. Mosier, Climate of Illinois, Illinois Experiment Station. 



AGRICULTURE 



169 



Importance of corn. — Corn is by far the most important crop of the 
United States. The acreage and also the value of the corn crop are greater 
than that of wheat, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, rice, fruits, and nuts com- 
bined. The geographic conditions which are essential to large yields of corn 
are found in only a few regions of the world, and most extensively in the 
United States. 

Corn is pre-eminently the American crop, grown on three-fourths of all 
the farms of the United States, which produces nearly three-fourths of all 
the com in the world. Within the 
United States three-fourths of all the 
corn produced is grown in the Missis- 
sippi Valley. There are two centers 
of heavy production — one in central 
Illinois and the other in the Mis- 
souri Basin of western Iowa and 
eastern Nebraska. The total corn 
acreage of Illinois in 1909 was 
10,046,000, or 10 per cent of that 
for the country as a whole; Iowa 
had 9,229,000 acres in corn; Kansas, 
8,109,000 acres; Nebraska, 7,226,000 
acres; Missouri, 7,114,000 acres; and 
Indiana, 4,901,000 acres; these six 
states combined having 47 per cent 
of the corn acreage of the United 
States and 57 per cent of the produc- 
tion. In this region of concentrated 
production there has developed a 
system of live-stock farming adapted 
to the utilization of corn. Nearly 
half of the swine of the country are 
in these six states and one-third of 
the beef cattle. 

The acreage devoted to com 
constitutes over 75 per cent of the 
total acreage in crops in some of the 
mountainous counties of eastern 
Kentucky, where a moderately 
dense rural population derives its 
meager livelihood largely from the 
cultivation of small patches of corn, 
averaging from 10 to 15 acres per 
farm. The production of corn is 
small also in Florida and in the 
southern parts of Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi, where most of the land is 

still in forests, yet corn constitutes in this region over 50 per cent of the 
total land in crops. 

Corn is the principal source of food supply of the American people, but 
outside of the South very little of the corn is directly consumed by man. 
Most of the crop is fed to cattle and hogs, and consumed as beef, a pound 
of which represents 10 or 12 pounds of corn, or as pork, to produce a pound of 
which 5 or 6 pounds of corn are required. Much of the corn raised in central 
and northern Illinois, as well as a considerable portion of that grown in 
Iowa, is shipped to Chicago, where it is made into starch, glucose, and corn 
meal, or is exported, but outside a radius of about 200 miles from that city 




T.\LL (,ok\ \ND SUNFLOWER, 
RICHLAND COUNTY 

When the tower leaves of the corn 
begin to change from green to brown, the 
corn is ready to cut and to be placed in 
shocks. This farmer has left an exceed- 
ingly tall stalk of corn uncut. (Copy- 
right by Robert Ridgway.) 



170 



TEE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



the corn is fed to cattle and hogs whose concentrated value can better hear 
the cost of transportation to market. The corn grown in the South is 
practically all consumed at home, being made into "hog, hominy, and 
hoe-cake," the staple food products of that region.' 

Leading corn states. — Illinois and Iowa arc in a class by 
themselves as corn-producing states. They are rivals for 
first place, but they have no rival state for second place. A 
table at the close of this chapter shows, in round numbers, the 
acreage, production, and value of corn, oats, wheat, hay, and 
forage for Illinois, and for the United States for nine years, 
1909 to 1917 inclusive. For these nine years the corn acreage 
of Illinois exceeded that of Iowa each year except 1917, 
and the production of Ilhnois exceeded that of Iowa in 
five years of the nine. These two states with a combined 
area of only 112,000 square miles produce more than one-fourth 

of the corn crop of the 
United States and about 
one-fifth of the world's 
crop. 

One-half of the land 

in Illinois devoted to 

crops is planted to corn, 

and the value of the 

corn is equal to that of 

all other crops of the 

state. Corn is raised in 

every county of Illinois, 

and on 90 per cent of 

all the farms of the 

state. 

Corn production for the ten leading counties in 1909, with 

acreage and average yield per acre, is shown in the table at the 

close of this chapter. The average yield per acre for the state 

was 38 . 8 bushels. 

Oats. — The oat crop occupies more than one-fifth of the 
total crop acreage of Illinois and is second in acreage and value. 
Oats are grown in every county of the state, but the heavy 
production is in the corn belt, where the crop is especially 

_' Finch and Baker, GfOi'ra/'/i;' of Ike World's Agriculture, U.S. Department of 
Agriculture. 




OAT CROP OF THE UNITED STATES 
AND OF ILLINOIS 

On the United States map each dot repre- 
sents 100,000 acres; on the Illinois map, 5,000 
acres. Oats are grown more widely in the 
United States than any other crop except the 
potato. The oat crop stands next to corn in 
Illinois in acreage and value. 



AGRICULTURE 



171 



\\)] 



wtm 



important in crop rotation with corn. Oats are not limited 
in distribution so closely as corn by conditions of soil and 
climate. They grow well on a wide variety of soils, giving 
good yields on rather poor soils if there is abundant moisture. 
They thrive best in a cool, moist climate, but do well in warmer 
regions if the rainfall is 
abundant. In Illinois 
they are sown in the 
early spring before corn- 
planting time, and get a 
good start before the 
season is warm enough 
for the growth of corn. 
They are harvested in 
the summer after the 
corn has been laid by. 
They are commonly sown 
on land which was given 
to corn in the previous 
season. They are a good 
crop with which to sow 
clover or other grass seed 
in the spring. Thus oats 
fit into the crop rotation 
and the seasonal require- 
ments of farm labor of 
the corn belt in a most 
satisfactory way. With 
the common practice of 
raising two crops of corn 
followed by oats, then by clover or other grasses, the acreage 
of the oat crop is about one-half that of corn. 

Oats are more widely grown in the United States than any 
other crop except the potato. They are especially valuable as 
horse feed, and are used locally much more largely than for 
shipment. The oat crop of 1909 occupied one-fifth of the crop 
acreage and produced one-sixth of the total crop values of the 
state. The crop of 1917 exceeded that of 1909 by 15 per cent 
in acreage, 63 per cent in total yield, and 165 per cent in value. 



••«r 



A> r'\S^ 




SPRING PLOWING ON FARM, DUPAGE COUNTY 

A single team of strong horses and the 
"walking plow" are still necessary on Illinois 
farms, especially in small fields. 



172 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



The large yield of 1917 was due to favorable climatic conditions. 
The high valuation is due to the large yield and to the war 
demands of the world for food. 

In oats as in corn, Illinois and Iowa are in a class by them- 
selves. In the nine years 1909 to 1917 inclusive, Illinois pro- 
duced more oats than Iowa in only one season, 1909. In 




OATFIELD, SHOWING THK PRAIRIE 

Illinois ranks first as an agricultural state because of its large proportion of 
level prairie lands with a deep, rich soil. (Copyright by Keystone View Company.) 



each year Iowa had a larger acreage than Illinois. In 1917, 
the banner season for both states, Illinois sowed to oats 
4,700,000 acres and Iowa 5,200,000 acres. Illinois harvested 
244,000,000 bushels and Iowa 246,000,000 bushels. The 
Illinois crop was valued at $158,000,000 and the Iowa crop at 
$155,000,000. These two states produce more than one- 
fourth of the total crop of oats of the United States. 



AGRICULTURE 



173 



1 


^W 


riMr 1 1'i'i 1 


■^EiJ^c 


• '• i 


WHEAT 


'^® 


1 



The average production and average yield per acre for the 
ten leading counties in 1909 is found in the table at the close 
of this chapter. The average yield per acre for the state was 
36 bushels. 

Wheat. — Illinois does not rank so high in wheat production 
as in corn and oats, but wheat is raised in every county, and 
is an important crop in the western, southwestern, and south- 
eastern parts of the 
state. The soils and 
climate of Illinois are 
well adapted to the pro- 
duction of large wheat 
crops, but larger profits 
are obtained from corn 
and oats. lUinois ranks 
seventh among the 
wheat-producing states, 
being exceeded in 1909 
by North Dakota, Kan- 
sas, Minnesota, Ne- 
braska, South Dakota, 

and Washington. In acreage of winter wheat, however, Illinois 
ranked third, Kansas and Nebraska leading. 

Wheat is grown in the United States mostly on silt-loam and clay-loam 
soils and requires less humus than corn. Very little wheat is grown on 
sandy soils, since the yield is generally too small to be profitable. Soil 
has less influence than climate upon the quality and chemical composition 
of wheat, but appears to exert a powerful influence in determining perma- 
nency of production. The sections of the eastern United States where 
wheat has remained an important crop for 50 years — southeastern Penn- 
sylvania, and Shenandoah Valley, western New York, western Ohio, and 
southwestern Illinois — are areas of silty soil, mostly derived from lime- 
stone. Upon such soils wheat probably will retain a place in the rotation 
permanently. • 

The wheat production of Illinois in 1909 was 37,000,000 
bushels. This was 5^ per cent of the total production of the 
United States. The per capita wheat production of Illinois 
was 6.7 bushels; that of the United States, 7.3 bushels. 
St. Clair was the leading county with 2,000,000 bushels. 



WHEAT CROP OF THE UNITED ST.-VTES 
AND OF ILLINOIS 

On the United States map each dot repre- 
sents 100,000 acres; on the Illinois map, 5,000 
acres . 



' Finch and Baker, Geography of the World's Agrkulttire. 



174 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



The acreage, production, and average yield per acre for the 
ten leading counties of Illinois arc shown in the table at 
the close of this chapter. The average yield per acre for the 
state was 17.3 bushels. 




HARVEST SCENE ON ROCK Rl\ ER, NEAR OREGON 

Cultivation of corn is completed about the time that wheat and oats are ready 
to be harvested, thus giving favorable conditions for farm labor. 

The wheat crop of 1917 compared with that of 1909 shows 
a decrease in production of 19 per cent and an increase in 
value of 60 per cent. 

Hay and forage. — Hay and forage rank third among the 
crops of Illinois in acreage and value. Hay and forage include 
those crops, other than grains, used for feed for animals. 
Timothy and clover are the principal hay crops of Illinois. 



AGRICULTURE 



175 



Corn, oats, wheat, rye, and barley, raised for grain, are 
cereal crops; cut green and used for ensilage or for hay they 
become forage crops. Since hay and forage are made up of 
many kinds of plants which thrive under a great variety of soil 
and chmatic conditions, this crop is very widely distributed. 
Its large bulk per value makes trans- 
portation difficult and expensive. It is 
therefore used locally in a very large 
measure. 

The map showing acreage for hay and 
forage indicates a more even distribution 
than for any other crop in Illinois. The 
region of greatest corn and oats acreage 
shows the smallest hay and forage acreage 
in the state. North and west of the heavi- 
est corn acreage the increased hay and 
forage areas correspond to the largest pro- 
duction of cattle for dairy and feeding 
purposes. South of the corn belt the 
increased hay acreage is found on soils 
better suited to hay than to cereals, and 
here large quantities of timothy and other grasses are raised 
for shipment. 

TABLE II 

Hay and Forage of Illinois, Census 1910 




HAY and forage OF 
ILLINOIS 

Each dot represents 
5,000 acres. 



Crops 


Farms 
Reporting 


Acres 


Tons 


Value 


Timothy alone 


109,050 

46,913 

34,037 

3,116 

6,852 

6,631 

6,415 

10,426 

12,230 

34 


1,587,219 

827,625 

427,957 

18,344 

33,968 

128,258 

112,978 

80,226 

132,827 

33 


1,947,572 

1,123,254 

539,790 

52,284 

46,918 

122,888 

128,531 

99,828 

293,108 

293 


$20,028,486 


Timothy and clover mixed 


11,177,121 
4,660,696 


Alfalfa 


583,476 


Millet or Hungarian Grass 
Other tame or cultivated 


346,109 
742,637 


Wild, salt, or prairie grasses 

Grains cut green 

Coarse forage 


891,138 

832,987 

1,295,227 


Root forage 


2,183 






Total for the state.. . 


176,355 


3,349,435 


4,354,466 


$40,560,220 



176 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



In the northern section of Illinois, the dairy district of 
the state, the leading hay crop is timothy and clover mixed. 
Throughout the rest of the state timothy is the chief hay 
crop. In li)()0 timothy constituted one-half and timothy and 
clover mixed one-fourth of the hay and forage crop. 

The relative importance of the various kinds of hay and 
forage plants in Illinois is well shown in Table II. 

The hay and forage crop of 1917 compared with that of 1909 
shows a decrease in acreage of 15 per cent, a decrease in pro- 
duction of 21 per cent, and an increase in value of 41 per cent. 

f - " • 




A PRIMITIVE MOLASSES FACTORY, RICHLAND COUNTY 

The sorghum juice is placed in large kettles over a hot wood fire. Impurities 
are skimmed off as the juice boils. Sorghum molasses is the result. (Copyright by 
Robert Ridgway.) 

Among the four leading crops of Illinois there were substantial 
increases in acreage of corn and oats and important decreases 
in acreage in wheat and hay and forage in 1917 as compared 
with 1909. The farm lands of Illinois are so fuUy occupied 
that the total acreage of crops can be changed but slightly, 
but changes in acreage in various crops may be important 
during a series of years, depending in part on crop yields, crop 
prices, or special demands such as are created by war conditions. 
Sugar crops. — In the early days a large part of the sugar 
used on the farm was produced in the form of molasses made 



AGRICULTURE 



177 




PRIMITIVE CANE-GRINDING MILL FOR MAKING 
SORGHUM MOLASSES, RICHLAND COUNTY 

Sorghum cane is passed between rollers and 
the sweet juice thus pressed out is boiled 
down into molasses. (Copyright by Robert 
Ridgway.) 



from the sorghum plant. The conditions of soil and climate 

required for sorghum production arc identical with those of 

corn, and sorghum is 

still produced to some 

extent all over the state. 

A small amount of sugar 

is produced from the 

sugar maple in the 

wooded parts of the 

state. 

Potatoes and other 

vegetables. — P o t a t o e s 

rank next to wheat in 

acreage, production, and 

value. The crop of 1909 

occupied 6 per cent as 

much land, produced 

32 per cent as many 

bushels, and had 17 per cent of the value of the wheat crop of 

the same year. The potato crop of 1917 occupied 150,000 

acres, yielded 13,000,000 
bushels, and had a value 
of $20,000,000. This 
exceeded the crop of 
1909 by 9 per cent in 
acreage, 11 per cent in 
yield, and 220 per cent 
in value. 

The chief potato re- 
gions of the United 
States are in Maine, 
New York, Michigan, 
and Wisconsin, on 
sandier soils and in a 
cooler climate than in 
Illinois. The Illinois 

product is grown almost wholly for local use. The areas of 

largest acreage lie near Chicago and St. Louis. The bulky 

nature of potatoes per unit of value, the diii&culty in handling 



^ 






Yi^?ii1-' 


1 


,^ 


kH. 


^PS 


ii 




F 


-V. 


MM 1 Ut,t> 





POTATO CROP OF THE UNITED STATES 
AND OF ILLINOIS 

On the United States map each dot repre- 
sents 25,000 acres; on the Illinois map, 2,000 
acres. Potatoes are more widely grown in the 
United States than any other crop. Illinois 
potatoes are grown mainly for local consump- 
tion, with the largest production near Chicago 
and St. Louis. 



178 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



them for shipment, and their universal use as food necessitate 
as wide production as possible. Potatoes are more widely grown 
than any other crop in the United States. The census returns 
show that potatoes were reported from every county east of 
the Mississippi River except one at the southern extremity of 
Florida. West of the Mississippi they were reported from all 
counties except two in Colorado, where the altitude is too great 
for profitable agriculture of any kind, and several counties in 
the semiarid section of Texas. 

Illinois, with 6 per cent of the population of the United 
States, produces but 3 per cent of the potato crop. Chicago 

and other cities are 

readily supplied from 
the commercial potato 
regions of Michigan 
and Wisconsin. Since 
Illinois soils and climate 
are better adapted to 
other crops, the potato 
is not likely to become 
of great commercial im- 
portance. Potatoes 
were grown on 190,000 
farms in Illinois. Corn 
is the only crop reported 
from a larger number of 
farms. 

grown on 20,000 farms 
The crop amounted to 





MAP SHOWING VARIETIES OF VEGETABLES 

1. Acreage for all vegetables; each dot 
represents 500 acres. 2-9. Acreage for se- 
lected vegetables; each dot represents 50 acres. 
2. Asparagus; 3. Muskmelons; 4. Green peas; 
5. Cabbage; 6. Sweet corn; 7. Watermelons; 
8. Tomatoes; 9. Onions.' 



Sweet potatoes and yams were 
mostly in the southern counties. 
1,000,000 bushels with a value of $500,000. 

Vegetables other than potatoes, sweet potatoes, and yams 
play an important part in the food production of Illinois, but 
each kind is not reported separately. This group of food plants 
includes lettuce, radishes, onions, tomatoes, sweet corn, 
asparagus, rhubarb, and numerous other plants common in the 
gardens and on the truck farms of Illinois. The wide distribu- 



' All maps in this volume showing distribution of products by dots are from 
Finch and Baker's Geography nf the WorUVs Agrictilttire, United States Department 
of Agriculture. 



AGRICULTURE 



179 



tioii of vegetable gardens in the state is shown by the fact that 
120,000 acres of these gardens were found on 186,000 farms, 
and that 33,000 additional farms reported small vegetable 
gardens without estimating acreage or value. The product 
of 120,000 acres was valued at $9,400,000, or about $80 per acre. 
About 30 per cent of this acreage belonged to 2,227 farms, each 
of which produced vegetables valued at $500 or more. The 
average acreage of vegetables on these farms was 16.5. These 
farms included the market gardens and truck farms which are 
carefully cultivated for 
profit. Their yield aver- 
aged about $90 per acre. 

Broom corn. — In 
marked contrast to po- 
tatoes and other vege- 
tables, the production 
of broom corn is very 
strongly localized in Illi- 
nois. It is reported in 
the census returns from 
70 counties, but 7 coun- 
ties, lying in the south- 
central part of the state, 
produce 93 per cent of 
the crop. These counties 
in order of production 

are: Coles, Cumberland, Shelby, Moultrie, Douglas, Jasper, 
and Piatt. Illinois produced one-fourth of the broom corn 
of the United States. Oklahoma raised twice as much as 
Illinois, and Kansas about half as much. Coles County alone 
produced 42 per cent of the broom corn of Illinois and 10 per 
cent of that of the United States. 

Fruit-growing. — Apples are the most important of the 
orchard fruits. Apples are grown in all of the 102 counties of 
the state, but the southern part of the state is of more impor- 
tance than the northern in apple production. Apple-growing 
has increased in recent years because of the discovery of 
means of controlling insects and fungous diseases which 
formerly caused great losses. 




A SOUTHERN ILLINOIS RHUBARB FIELD, 
MASSAC COUNTY 

Fresh fuits and vegetables gathered in 
southern lUinois on one day may be marketed 
in Chicago on the following day. (Copyright 
by Keystone View Company.) 



180 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




lARKET GARDENS, COOK COUNTY 



Market gardening requires intensive cultivation of the soil, and is best developed 
on small farms. Cook County, in which market gardening is largely developed, 
has more farms than any other county in Illinois. The number in 1920 was 5,305. 
McLean County stood next with 4,309 farms. (Photograph by W. D. Jones.) 




G.ATHERING KIEFER PE.\RS, OLNEY, RICHLAND COUNTY 

(Copyright by Robert Ridgway) 



AGRICULTURE 



181 



The trees planted in southern lUinois consist mainly of 
summer and early varieties for the more northern markets, 



V^~^. 










MAP SHO\VING PRINCIPAL FRUIT CROPS 

1-3. Each dot represents 500 acres. 1. Apples; 2. Peaches; 3. Plums. 
4-7. Each dot represents 100 acres. 4. Pears; 5. Blackberries and Rasp- 
berries; 6. Strawberries; 7. Cherries. 

while farther north fall and winter apples are grown. The 

largest commercial yield of apples in Illinois was that of 1915, 

amounting to 14,000,000 

bushels. Only four 

states surpassed Illinois 

in apple production in 

that year. The crop of 

1917 was about 40 per 

cent of a maximum crop 

with prices the best 

known for years. A 

three-acre orchard of 

summer varieties yielded 

apples valued at $3,000, 

or $1,000 per acre. 

Other orchard fruits 
raised in Illinois in suffi- 
cient quantities to be 
given in the United 
States Census are 
peaches and nectarines, 
pears, plums and prunes, 
cherries, quinces, apricots, and mulberries. 

Strawberries are the most important crop among the small 
fruits of lUinois. They are found in every county of the state, 
but they are grown for market more extensively in the southern 




STRAWBERRY FIELD TN SOUTHERN ILLINOIS, 
SHOWING PICKERS AT WORK, MASSAC COUNTY 

The longer growing season of southern 
Illinois makes possible the production of small 
fruits and vegetables for an early market. 
(Copyright by Keystone View Company.) 



182 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

than in the northern part of the state. Pulaski, Union, and 
Massac counties produce more than one-third of the com- 
mercial crop of the state. 

Other small fruits of Illinois listed in the United States 
Census are blackberries and dewberries, raspberries and 
loganberries, currants, and cranberries. 

Summary.— Illinois lies in the center of the largest single 
area of fertile farm lands anywhere in the world. A productive 
soil, a favorable climate, and an industrious population have 
made Illinois the foremost agricultural state of the nation. The 
products of Illinois farms contribute largely to the raw mate- 
rials of manufacture. The progressiveness of the farmers of 
Illinois and adjoining regions has made Illinois the world's 
most important region for the manufacture of agricultural 
implements by creating a strong and constant local demand 
for the latest and most improved farm machinery. Factories 
supplying the local needs have naturally extended their markets 
throughout the nation and the world. 

The large production of farm crops and live stock in 
Illinois agriculture has stimulated transportation and trade 
in every part of the state so that all regions are within easy 
access of railroad facilities. 

The agricultural practice of Illinois is influenced in an 
important way by the location and development of cities 
within or near the state. The Illinois corn belt is so near 
the Chicago grain market that a larger proportion of Illinois 
corn is sold as grain than in regions more distant from market. 
This practice requires care in maintaining the fertility of the 
land. Small farms, intensively cultivated, with consequent 
large yield per acre have been developed near the larger cities, 
especially Chicago and St. Louis. Dairy farming has devel- 
oped most within easy shipping distance of Chicago. 

Illinois may maintain its leadership in agricultural 
resources by applying on all farms of the state the principles 
of scientific agriculture which have been fully demonstrated 
by the Agricultural Experiment Station for every type of 
soil within the state. President Draper's words should be 
appreciated and heeded: "The wealth of Illinois is in her 
soil, and her strength lies in its intelligent development." 



AGRICULTURE 



183 



Facts of Illinois Agriculture, Census 1910 



Land area of Illinois 50,043 square miles 

Land area of Illinois 35,867,520 acres 

Land area in farms 32, .522,937 acres 

Land area not in farms 3,344,583 acres 

Percentage of land area in farms 90.7 per cent 

Improved land area in farms 28,048,323 acres 

Woodland and other unimproved lands in 

farms 4,474,614 acres 

Percentage of farm lands improved 86 . 2 per cent 

Percentage of total land area in improved 

farm lands 78.2 per cent 

Number of farms 251,872 

Average size of farms 129 . 1 acres 

Number of farms under 20 acres 20,294 

Number of farms 20 to 260 acres 210,093 

Number of farms over 260 acres 21,485 

Population of Illinois 5,638,591 

Population of state per square mile 100 

Population of state per farm 22 

Land area of state per person 6.3 acres 

Improved farm land per person 5 acres 

Improved farm lands per familv of 5 25 acres 

Total value of all farm property $3,900,000,000 

Average value per farm $15,500 

Percentage of value in land and buildings. ... 90.2 per cent 

Percentage in implements and machinery. ... 1 .9 per cent 

Percentage in live stock 7.9 per cent 

Average value of farm land per acre $95 

Average value of the land and buildings per 

acre $108 

Total value of crops, 1909 $372,000,000 

Total value of live stock on farms, 1910 $308,000,000 

Area of cereals 10,536,457 acres 

Area of hay and forage 3,349,435 acres 

Value of cereals $298,000,000 

Value of hay and forage .$41,000,000 

Value of all other crops .$33,000,000 

Broom corn $1,400,000 

Sugar crops $500,000 

Potatoes $6,400,000 

Sweet potatoes and vams $ 500,000 

Other vegetables . . .' .$9,400,000 

Flowers and plants $3,700,000 

Nursery products $ 800,000 

Orchard fruits $3,800,000 

Small fruits $1,100,000 

Forest products of farms $3,300,000 

Seeds $1,900,000 

Minor crops $200,000 

Percentage of cereals in value 80 per cent 

Percentage of bay and forage 11 per cent 

Percentage of all other crops 9 per cent 



184 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



TABLE IIT 
Selected Crops of Illinois and United States, 1909-17 
(In millions of bushels, tons, acres, and dollars) 





Illinois 


U 


SriTED St.-\tes 


Year 


Acres 


Bushels 


Farm 
\'alues 


Acres 


Bushels 


Farm 
Values 




Corn 


1909 


10 


390 


$198 


98 


2,500 


$1,400 


1910 


10.6 


414 


157 


114 


3,100 


1,500 


1911 


10.1 


335 


181 


105 


2,500 


1,500 


1912 


10.6 


426 


174 


107 


2,100 


1,500 


1913 


10.4 


282 


177 


105 


2.400 


1,600 


1914 


10.3 


300 


1S3 


103 


2,600 


1,700 


1915 


10.4 


376 


203 


108 


3,000 


1,700 


191(5 


10.4 


306 


257 


105 


2,500 


2,300 


1917 


11 


418 


459 


119 


3,100 


4,000 




Oats 


1909 


4.1 


150 


$ 59 


35.1 


1,000 


$ 414 


1910 


4.5 


171 


51 


35.2 


1,100 


384 


1911 


4.2 


121 


51 


37.7 


920 


414 


1912 


4.2 


182 


54 


37.9 


1,400 


452 


1913 


4.3 


104 


39 


38.3 


1,100 


439 


1914 


4.3 


120 


oo 


38.4 


1,100 


499 


1915 


4.8 


195 


68 


40.7 


1,500 


555 


1916 


4.4 


172 


87 


41.5 


1,200 


656 


1917 


4.7 


244 


158 


43.5 


1,500 


4,000 




Wheat 


1909 


2.1 


37 


$ 38 


44 


683 


$ 657 


1910 


2.1 


31 


27 


49 


695 


621 


1911 


2.6 


42 


37 


49 


021 


543 


1912 


1.1 


9.S 


8.6 


45 


730 


555 


1913 


2.2 


41 


36 


50 


703 


610 


1914 


2.5 


46 


46 


53 


891 


878 


1915 


2.8 


53 


53 


59 


1,000 


930 


1910 


1.4 


16 


26 


52 


639 


1,000 


1917 


1,0 


30 


61 


45 


650 


1,300 




Hay and Forage 


1909 


3.3 


4.3 


$ 40 


72 


97 


$ 824 


1910 


2.S 


3.7 


44 


45 


(iO 


747 


1911 


2.3 


1.9 


33 


43 


47 


694 


1912 


2.5 


3.2 


41 


49 


72 


856 


1913 


2.5 


2.4 


34 


48 


64 


797 


1914 


'> •> 


1.9 


27 


49 


70 


779 


1915 


2.4 


3.7 


40 


50 


85 


912 


1916 


3.1 


4.5 


50 


54 


89 


1,000 


1917 


2.7 


3.4 


68 


53 


79 


1,359 



AGRICULTURE 



185 



TABLE IV 

Ten Leading Counties in Corn Production, Census 1910 



Rank 


County 


Acres in 
Corn 


Percentage 

of Total 

Area 


Total 
Bushels 


Bushels 
per Acre 


1 

2 

'^'..'.'.'.'.'. 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 


McLean 

Livingston 

La Salle 

Champaign 

Iroquois 

Vermilion 

Sangamon 

Bureau 

Logan 

Macon 


330,554 
291,296 
270,325 
291.207 
283,806 
218,010 
215,664 
187.086 
172.659 
167,957 


44.4 
33.3 
36.6 
44.0 
40.3 
38.6 
39.9 
34.5 
44.6 
45.2 


16,001,358 

13,452,315 

13,439,327 

12,914,426 

12,679,838 

9,171,678 

9,155,739 

8,575,697 

7,836,703 

7,651,541 


48.4 
46.2 
49.7 
44.3 
44.6 
42.0 
42.4 
45.8 
45.3 
45.5 



TABLE V 
Ten Leading Counties in O.ats Production, Census 1910 



Rank 


County 


Acres in 
Oats 


Percentage 

of Total 

Area 


Total 
Bushels 


Bushels 
per Acre 


1 

o 

I'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

4 

5 



7 

8 

9 

10 


Livingston 

Iroquois 

McLean 

La Salle 

Champaign 

Will 

Vermilion 

Bureau 

Ford 

Kankakee 


216,635 

210,688 

176,769 

155,064 

158,571 

133,065 

120,913 

97,970 

91,220 

98,762 


32.1 
29.9 
23.8 
21.0 
24.6 
24.5 
21.4 
18.1 
24.6 
22.7 


9,205,001 
7,839,046 
7,363,942 
6.879,858 
5,885,152 
5,121.244 
4,405,782 
3,969,757 
3,836,545 
3,710,003 


42.5 
37.2 
41.6 
44.4 
37.1 
38.5 
38.1 
40.5 
42.1 
37.6 



TABLE VI 

Ten Leading Counties in Wheat Production, Census 1910 



Rank 


County 


Acres in 
Wheat 


Percentage 

of Total 

Area 


Total 
Bushels 


Bushels 
per Acre 


1 

2 

'i.'.'.'.'.'.. 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 


St. Clair 

Madison 

Washington 

Monroe 

Pike 

Clinton 

Macoupin 

Fulton 

Sangamon 

Christian 


114,907 
106,658 
89,493 
71,790 
63,859 
65,852 
63,688 
53,082 
47,441 
46,002 


26.4 
22.5 
25.1 
29.5 
13.2 
21.1 
11.1 
9.6 
8.5 
10.2 


2,021,081 
1,911,497 
1,181,765 
1,136,207 
1,112,347 
1,109,405 
1,097,472 
1,061,610 
984,456 
931,938 


18.4 
17.9 
13.2 
15.0 
17.4 
16.9 
17.2 
■ 20.0 
20.8 
20.3 



CHAPTER XII 
ANIMAL INDUSTRIES 

Illinois animals. — The farmers of Illinois are interested in 
the raising of animals as definitely as in the raising of crops. 
The animal industries are a part of the agricultural operations 
of the state. The large crop production per man of Illinois 
farms is possible only because of the large amount of animal 
power used per farm. A very large proportion of the crops of the 
state is used as feed for the work animals and the food-producing 
animals, thus leading to the consumption of crops on the 
farms where they are grown. The farmer thus markets much 
of his farm produce in the form of animals or animal products. 

The following facts of 1910 are significant of the importance 
of the animal industries of the state: value of all crops raised, 
$372,000,000; value of all domestic animals, $331,000,000 
number of horses, 1,600,000; value of horses, $192,000,000 
average value of horses, $113; number of mules, 158,000 
value of mules, $19,000,000; average value of mules, $123 
number of asses and burros, 3,200; number of cattle, 2,500,000 
value of cattle, $76,000,000; average value of cattle, $30 
numberof hogs, 4,700,000; value of hogs, $37,000,000; average 
value of hogs, $7.80; number of sheep, 1.000,000; value of 
sheep, $5,000,000; average value of sheep, $5; number of 
goats, 14,335; area of Illinois, 56,000 square miles; domestic 
animals per square mile, horses 30, mules 3, cattle 45, hogs 85, 
sheep 19; domestic animals per family of five persons, horses 
1 .5, cattle 2, hogs 4. sheep 1; number of dairy cows, included 
above, 1,000,000; amount of milk reported, 320,000,000 
gallons; value of milk sold, $18,000,000; butter made on 
farms, 46,000,000 pounds; value of butter made on farms. 
$10,000,000; number of poultry, 32,000,000; value of poultry 
$15,000,000; eggs produced, 100,000,000 dozens; number of 
eggs per person, 212; value of eggs, $18,000,000; number of 
colonies of bees, 155,000; production of honey, 1,428,000 
pounds; value of honey, $196,000. 

180 



ANIMAL INDUSTRIES 



187 



The following comparison of values for the United States 
from the census of 1910 and from the government estimate for 
1917 shows the trend of crop values. The differences, it must 
be remembered, are not due to greatly increased production but 
to the influence of war-time prices. 



TABLE I 



United States 


1910 


1917 


Value of crops 

Value of animals and animal products 


$5,487,000,000 
3,071,000,000 


$13,610 000,000 
5,833.000,000 


Total value of all farm products. 


$8,558,000,000 


$19,443,000,000 



These figures show that the value of crops of 1917 exceeded 
the value of crops as reported in the census of 1910 by 148 per 
cent; the value of animals and animal products had increased 
90 per cen-t; and the total value of all farm products 127 per 
cent. 

Horses and mules. — The 1,600,000 horses of Illinois are dis- 
tributed throughout the state with an evenness not approached 








DISTRIBUTION MAP OF PRINCIP.\L y^NIMALS IN ILLINOIS 

Each Hot represents: 1. Horses, 2,000; 2. Mules, 1,000; 3. Sheep, 10,000; 
4. Swine, 5,000; 5. Poultry, 20,000. 



by any other farm product, plant. or animal. The slight 
decrease in the number of horses in the southern part of the 
state as shown on the map is accounted for by the number of 
mules found there. This even distribution of the number of 



188 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



horses and mules over the entire state is due to the fact that good 
farm land is found in every county, and that the general farm- 
ing operations require about the same number of draft animals 
per unit of area, even though there be important differences in 
the character of the soil, the value of the land, and the kind of 
crops cultivated. The cities and villages contained 234,000 
horses, or 13 per cent of the total number. 




:,.-./ jii''- '■^(C^ 



i.^:: '^:^'^:^^^.^f^\i^' '. 



ANIMAL-HUSBANDRY CLASS JUDGING PERCHERON HORSES, UNIV^ERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

Students in animal husbandry learn the qualities of various breeds of animals 
by scoring animals selected from the fine stock on the University farm. (Copyright 
by Keystone View Company.) 



The principal breeds of draft horses in Illinois are the 
Percheron, Clydesdale, Shire, and Belgian. 

Since mules are adapted to a warmer climate than horses, 
they are found chiefly in the southern part of the state. Their 
sureness of foot and their ability to thrive on coarser feed than 
horses make them especially valuable for farm work among the 
Ozark Hills. The average value of mules is higher than that 



ANIMAL INDUSTRIES 



189 



of horses. In recent years mules are being used more widely 
than formerly. 

The wide distribution and great usefulness of horses and 
mules in the United States are indicated by the census returns 
of 1910, in which horses were reported from every county in 
the country, and only twenty-three counties reported no mules. 
The ratio of mules to horses in Illinois is that of 1 to 10; the 
ratio for the United States is about 1 to 5. 




PLOWING Willi l'ri;i 111 RON HORSES, NORMAL UNIX ERSITY FARM, m'LEAN COUNTY 

Modern machinery and strong horses enable one man to do much more farm 
work than in pioneer days. (Copyright by Keystone View Company.) 



There are 15 acres of improved land per horse or mule in 
Illinois and one horse or mule for every three people. For the 
United States the ratio is about 20 acres of improved land 
per horse or mule and one horse or mule to every four people. 
A larger proportion of horses is required in the corn belt 
than elsewhere because of the frequent cultivation required 
for corn. 



190 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Cattle. — The number of cattle in Illinois in 1910 exceeded 
the number of horses and mules by 36 per cent, while the 
value of all cattle was but 36 per cent of the value of horses and 
mules. The distribution of cattle, as clearly shown on the map, 
is not so even as that of horses. The dairy interests of the 

extreme northern coun- 
ties and the cattle feed- 
ing carried on in some 
of the western counties 
lead to a density of dis- 
tribution along the 
northern and northwest- 
ern borders of the state 
which extends beyond 
Illinois into the great 
cattle districts of Wis- 
consin and Iowa. This 
area of larger cattle in- 
terests in Illinois lies, 
for the most part, north 
of a line drawn from 
Chicago to Keokuk. 
Iowa. South of this Hne 
the cattle are distrib- 
uted with an evenness 
similar to that of horses 
for the entire state. 
Here cattle raising is 
not a specialty but it is 
important in the general 
farming practice of the 
state. 
The region of heaviest corn production in Illinois does not 
have large numbers of cattle, while the state of Iowa, with 
about the same production of corn as Illinois, has 83 per cent 
more cattle than Illinois. The Illinois corn belt is so near to 
Chicago, the chief market for this grain, that a very large pro- 
portion of the Illinois crop is sold as grain. The farmers of 
western lUinois and of Iowa find it more profitable to feed their 




MAP SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF CATTLE IN 
ILLINOIS AND IN THE UNITED STATES 

Each dot represents: 1. All cattle. 5,000; 
2. Dairy cows. 2,000; 3. All cattle in United 
States, 100,000; 4. Steers and bulls, 2,000; 
5. Creameries, one creamerj'l 6. Cheese factories, 
one cheese factory; 7. Dairy products, $100,000. 



ANIMAL INDUSTRIES 



191 



corn and market the live stock on which the transportation 
charges are not so high per unit of value. Pasture land in 
western Illinois and in Iowa is more extensive than in the chief 
corn-belt region of east-central Illinois. This is due partly to 
the topography and partly to the requirements of the animal 
industries. 

The city of Chicago contains two-fifths of the population 
of the state. Its need for a large supply of fresh milk is met 
by the great develop- 
ment of the dairy in- , 
dustry in northeastern 
Illinois and southeastern 
Wisconsin. This region 
has the heaviest distri- 
bution of dairy cattle to 
be found anywhere in 
the United States. Not 
only does this dairy 
region supply Chicago 
and other cities with 
fresh milk, but butter 
and cheese and con- 
densed milk are also 
produced. 

The principal breeds 
of dairy cattle in IlHnois 
are the Holstein, Jersey, 
Guernsey, and Ayrshire. 

The production of 
beef cattle depends on a 
supply of pasture, hay, and grain rather than on nearness to 
market. Beef cattle in lUinois are of most importance in the 
western part of the state and along the southern edge of the 
corn belt where the distance to the Chicago markets for fresh 
milk and for grain is sufficiently great to induce the farmer to 
market his corn in the form of beef, butter, and cheese rather 
than as grain or fresh milk. 

The chief breeds of beef cattle in Illinois are the Shorthorn, 
Hereford, and Angus. 




DAIRY CATTLE, HOGS, AND DAIRY BARNS OF 

ILLINOIS STATE NORMAL UNIVERSITY FARM, 

m'lEAN COUNTY 

This 90-acre farm, equipped with modern 
buildings, and stocked with Holstein cattle, 
Duroc- Jersey hoRs, and poultry, furnishes supe- 
rior farm conditions for observation and study 
by the students of agriculture. (Copyright by 
Keystone View Company.) 



192 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Hogs. — The distribution of hogs in Illinois is very similar 



to the distribution of beef cattle. 




JERSEY COW AND CALF NEAR ALFA, HENRY COUNTY 

The Holstein, Jersey, Guernsey, and Ayrshire 
are the principal breeds of dairy cattle in Illinois. 



The largest number of 
hogs are found along the 
western part of the state 
and along the southern 
edge of the corn belt. 
As in the case of beef 
cattle this region of 
denser distribution ex- 
tends across into the 
corn-belt districts of 
Iowa and northern Mis- 
souri. Iowa has 60 per 
cent more hogs than Illi- 
nois. The farm price of 
corn in Illinois averages 



about 5 cents per bushel 
higher than in Iowa and 
northern Missouri. 

The principal breeds 
of hogs in Illinois are the 
Duroc-Jersey, Poland 
China, Chester White, 
Berkshire, Hampshire, 
Yorkshire, and Tam- 
worth. 

Sheep . — Illinois 
raises 15 per cent of 
the corn of the United 
States; 8 per cent of the 
hogs; 7 per cent of the 
horses; 4 per cent of 
the cattle; but only 2 per 
cent of the sheep. The 
1,000,000 sheep of the 
state are not strongly 
localized. Sheep are re- 
ported from every county. Only one county reported fewer 
than 1,000, and four reported more than 30,000 each. 




HEREFORD CALVES, DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL 
HUSBANDRY, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

Shorthorn, Hereford, and Angus are the 
chief breeds of beef cattle in Illinois. The 
Hereford fattens readily and is suited for the 
less favorable conditions on the ranges. The 
white face is characteristic of this breed. 
(Copyright by Keystone View Company.) 



ANIMAL INDUSTRIES 



193 



Among the leading ten sheep-producing states of the United 
States, only three, Ohio, Michigan, and Missouri, lie east of the 
one-hundredth meridian. The ability of the sheep to thrive 
in rough regions with scant pasturage has carried the sheep- 
raising industry to the arid lands of the West, with Montana 
and Wyoming each raising 10 per cent of the total. Millions 
of sheep cross Illinois each year on the journey to the Chicago 
market. Feeding and shearing sheds are maintained at various 
railroad stations outside of Chicago where as many as 2,000 
sheep are sheared in a single day by power-driven shears. 
The wool for manuf ac 
ture and the sheep for 
mutton are then mar- 
keted separately. 

The principal breeds 
of sheep in Illinois are 
the Shropshire, Hamp- 
shire, Southdown, and 
Oxford. 

Poultry. — The rais- 
ing of poultry and the 
production of eggs is 
an important branch of 
Illinois agriculture re- 
ported from 94 per cent 
of all the farms of the 
state. Chickens constitute 96 per cent of the total number 
of fowls. Other fowls reported were turkeys, ducks, geese, 
guinea fowls, pigeons, peafowls, and pheasants. The value of 
the poultry raised and the eggs produced during the year 1909 
was $34,000,000, one-fourth the value of all domestic animals 
sold and slaughtered in Illinois, five times the value of the entire 
potato crop of the state, 90 per cent of the value of the wheat 
crop, and nine times the value of the orchard fruits of the state. 
The map on page 187 shows that poultry are rather evenly dis- 
tributed throughout Illinois with a slight increase in density 
in a belt extending across the south-central part of the state. 

Numerous breeds of chickens are found in Illinois, among 
them the White Wyandotte, Speckled Wyandotte, Barred 




YORKSHIRE HOGS, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

The Yorkshire is one of the best types of 
"Ijacon hogs." (Copyright by Keystone View 
Company.) 



194 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




PRIZE HOLSTEINS, SHOWING IDEAL WATERING PLACE. BARNS, AND SILOS, NEAR QUINCY 

Holsteins are larger milk producers than other breeds of dairy cattle. This 
fine herd is on the farm of the Illinois Soldiers' and Sailors' Home. (Copyright by 
Keystone \'iew Company.) 




SHEEP NEAR TOULON, STARK COUNTY 



A NIMA L IND US TRIES 



195 



Plymoutli Rock, While riymouth Rock, Buff Cochin, White 
Orpington, Buff Orpington, and White Brahma. The Pekin 
duck, Indian Runner duck, and Wliitc Toulouse goose are 
favorite breeds of ducks and geese. 




SHEARING SHEEP WITH POWER-DRI\'EN SHEARS, KIRKLAND, DE KALB COUNTY 

Sheep, shipped from the far West, are unloaded and fed at Kirkland, then 
sheared before being sent to the Chicago stockyards. (Copyright by Keystone 
View Company.) 



Production by counties. — A comparison of farm crops and 
domestic animals by counties does not give a correct idea of the 
relative importance of the products within the counties, because 
of the varying sizes of counties. The largest county of the 
state has an area more than six times as large as the smallest. 
The larger counties appear in such lists oftener than the 



19G 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



TABLE 11 

NuMBKR OF Animals on Farms in Leading Counties of Illinois 



Rank 


County 


Number 


Rank County 


Number 


Horses 


Mules 


1 . . 


McLean 


40,208 


1... 


St. Clair 


4,911 


2 


La Salle 


36,569 


2 


Madison 


4,354 


3... 


Livingston 


34,302 


3. . 


Christian 


3,758 


4... 


Iroquois 


33,436 


4... 


Sangamon 


3,612 


5... 


Champaign 


30,926 


0. . . 


Jefferson 


3,403 


6... 


Bureau 


26.549 


6.. . 


Montgomcr\- 


3,375 


7... 


Sangamon 


26,099 


/ . . . 


Williamson 


3,281 


8.. . 


Vermilion 


26,021 


<s 


Jackson 


3,280 


9. . . 


Fulton 


25,993 


9... 


Saline 


3,090 


10... 


Henry 
State total. . . 


24,753 


10... 


Macoupin 
State total 


2.934 




1,687,516 


138,671 


All Cattle 


Hogs 


1. .. 


McHenrv 


77,477 


1. .. 


Fulton 


153,253 


2 


Ogle 


57,736 


2 


Henry 


149.967 


3... 


W'hiteside 


57,663 


3... 


Adams 


131,528 


4. .. 


Henrv 


57.438 


4... 


Mercer 


116,884 


o. . . 


Kane 


57,030 


0. . . 


Knox 


109,678 


6. .. 


Jo Daviess 


55,625 


6 . . . 


Bureau 


108,297 


/ . . . 


Stephenson 


54,323 


/ . . . 


McDonough 


105,079 


8.. . 


Bureau 


53,210 


8. . . 


Sangamon 


105,064 


9... 


Lee 


48,490 


9.. . 


Pike 


104,952 


10... 


Fulton 
State total. . . 


47,293 


10. . . 


Warren 

State total 


103,695 




2,517,832 


4,757,335 


Sheep 


Poultry 


1. .. 


Macoupin 


42,266 


1. . . 


Livingston 


403,624 


2 


Pike 


39,344 


2 


Macoupin 


39fS,602 


3... 


Jo Daviess 


32,520 


3... 


Iroquois 


388,432 


4... 


Adams 


31,223 


4... 


McLean 


386,048 


5... 


Wayne 


26,591 


5. . . 


Madison 


3S4,.559 


6... 


Shelbv 


25,816 


6... 


La Salle 


3S0,779 


7. . . 


McLean 


22,972 


7... 


Favette 


373.854 


S. . . 


Sangamon 


21,941 


8.. . 


Shelby 


348.875 


9. . . 


Stephenson 


21,621 


9. . . 


Wayne 


348,488 


10... 


Hancock 
State total. . . 


20,939 


10... 


Montgomery 
State total 


347,674 




1,090,915 


21,409,835 



ANIMAL INDUSTRIES 197 

importance of the product in that county warrants, and the 
smaller counties do not appear at all, although the proportion 
of land devoted to the product and the yield per acre or per 
square mile may be very large. Such a list is of interest, how- 
ever. The counties are given in the foregoing table in 
the order of the number of animals on farms according to the 
census returns of 1910. The table also gives a summary for the 
state, including the animals on farms and not on farms. 

Summary. — The distribution of the animal industries of 
Illinois is a response to topography, soil, chmate, crops, and 
distance to markets. The fact that topography, soil, and 
climate favor development of general farming throughout the 
state leads to a state-wide production of staple crops. This in 
turn requires the raising of domestic animals for the purpose of 
both the production and the consumption of these crops. 
This again leads to an evenness of distribution of all the 
domestic animals not to be found in a state with great con- 
trasts of topography, rainfall, and temperature. Distance 
from the great market at Chicago for crops, animals, and 
animal products leads to interesting variations in the distribu- 
tion of live stock and live-stock products which have already 
been pointed out. 



CHAPTER XIII 
MINERAL RESOURCES 

Minerals of Illinois. — Somewhat more than a thousand min- 
erals make up the rocks of the world, about one hundred forming 
the larger part of the common rocks. Ninety-one of these min- 
erals have been found in larger or smaller amounts in the solid 




HUNDREDS OF TONS OF COAL READY FOR SHIPMENT, HARRISBURG, SALINE COUNTY 

Southern Illinois coal is of excellent quality and usually sells for a somewhat 
higher price than coal produced farther north in the state. (Copyright by Keystone 
View Company.) 

rocks and glacial drift of Illinois. Specimens of nearly all of 
these Illinois minerals are displayed in the State Museum at 
Springfield. About a dozen of these minerals are found in the 
rocks of Illinois in commercial quantities and constitute the 
valuable mineral resources of the state. The value of these 
minerals produced in 1917 ranged from $162,000,000 for coal 
to $5,900 for silver, with a total value of $238,000,000. 

Importance of mineral resources. — Illinois ranks third 
among the states in the value of annual mineral production. 
The following table is based on mineral values for 1915: 

198 



MINERAL RESOURCES 



199 



TABLE I 

Pennsylvania $ 460,000,000 

West Virginia 135,000,000 

Illinois 115,000,000 

Ohio 105,000,000 

California 97,000,000 

Total for the leading five states $ 912,000,000 

Total for the United States 2,400,000,000 

Thus Illinois produces about 5 per cent of the total mineral 
values of the United States. The value of the mineral products 
of Illinois in 1915 was three times the value of the total silver 

TABLE II 

Mineral Production of Illinois, 1915 



Product 



Quantity 



Value 



1 . Coal 

2. Pig iron 

3. Petroleum 

4. Clay products (manufactured). 
4a. Clay (raw) 

5. Coke 

6. Cement 

7. Stone 

8. Sulphuric acid 

9. Sand and gravel 

10. Zinc 

11. Asphalt 

12. Tripoli 

13. Fluor spar (1914) 

14. Lime 

15. Natural gas 

16. Lead .' 

17. Mineral water 

18. Pyrite 

19. Silver 

20. Miscellaneous 



58,829,576 tons 
2,455,894 tons 
19,041,695 bbls. 



163,904 tons 
1,686,998 tons 
5,553.164 bbls. 



7,708,012 tons 

5,534 tons 

188,575 tons 

23,756 tons 

73,811 tons 

88,604 tons 



954 tons 
1,559,489 gals. 
14,849 tons 
3,864 oz. 



Total value, omitting pig iron, 
coke, and all duplications. . . 



64,622,471 

34,207,901 

18,6.55,850 

14,791,938 

169,320 

7,016,635 

4,928,679 

2,907,410 

2,046,311 

1,984,569 

1,372,432 

1,041,378 

502,937 

426,063 

352,954 

350,371 

89,676 

75,290 

22,476 

1,959 

2,261,215 



$114,704,587 



production of the United States; it exceeded the gold output of 
the United States, including Alaska, by $14,000,000; it was 
greater than the total value of the mineral products of 21 states 



200 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLIXOIS 



having the smaller output of minerals. Minerals are the most 
valuable of the primary resources of Illinois except the products 
of the soil. 

The foregoing table (II) of the mineral products of Illinois 
for 1915 shows the variety, amount, and value of the minerals 

TABLE III 

Mineral Production of Illinois, 1917 



Product 



Quantity 



Value 



Coal 

Pig iron 

Petroleum 

Clay products (manufactured) , 

Clay (raw) 

Coke 

Cement 

Stone 

Sulphuric acid 

Sand and gravel 

Zinc 

Asphalt 

Tripoli 

Fluor spar 

Lime 

Natural gas 

Natural-gas gasoline 

Lead 

Mineral water 

Pyrite 

Silver 

Quartz (Silica) 

Mineral paints 

Miscellaneous 



Total value, omitting pig iron 

coke, and all duplications 

Increase over 1915 

Increase (per cent) 



86.199.387 tons 
.3.458.126 tons 
15,776.860 bbls. 



188,616 tons 
2,289,833 tons 
4,378,233 bbls. 



9,120.698 tons 

4.267 tons 

110,756 tons 

16,1.33 tons 

156,676 tons 

83,409 tons 



4,9.34.009 gals. 

1,4.39 tons 

1,370,461 gals. 

24.596 tons 

7.186 fine oz 

.386,866 tons 



.$162,281,822 

91,094,541 

31, .358,069 

19,565,420 

632,383 

14,455,539 

6,090,158 

3,-322.041 

3,902,831 

3,658,799 

870,468 

1,317,855 

31,3.38 

1.373.3.33 

529.451 

479.072 

866.033 

247,508 

66,042 

89,998 

5,931 

630,256 

9,465,176 

867,892 



.1238,186,690 

$124,482,103 

108 



of the State. The table for 1917 shows, in comparison with 
1915, the influence of war activities on production and value 
of important minerals. 

Coal. — The first discovery of coal in the United States was 
made in Illinois near Ottawa, La Salle County, by Father 
Hennepin, one of the early explorers, in 1679. Coal was first 




MAP SHOWING COAL FIELDS OF ILLINOIS 

Two-thirds of Illinois is underlain by coal. The amount^of coal in Illinois 
exceeds that of any other state east of the Mississippi. 



202 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLIXOIS 

mined in Illinois for commercial purposes in 1810 along the bluffs 
of the Big Muddy River in Jackson County. This first shipment 
of Illinois coal was made on a ilatboat on the Big Muddy and 
Mississippi rivers to New Orleans. In 1S32 several boat loads 
were shipped to the same market. In 1S33. 6.000 tons of coal 
were mined in St. Clair County and carried by wagons to 
St. Louis. The coal industr\' of St. Clair County induced the 
building of the first railroad in lUinois and the first west of the 
.Allegheny ^Mountains. The cars were drawn by animal 
power. The Anuual Coal Report of the State Department of 
Mines and ^Minerals gives complete data concerning the coal 
industry- of the state. In 1S6-1 the annual output was 1 .000,000 
tons: in 1871 it had reached 3.000.000 tons. This amount was 
doubled ia nine years with a production of 6.000.000 tons in 
1880. The output was again doubled in the short space of three 
years with 12.000.000 tons in 1883. In seven years more the 
annual production was again doubled with 25.000,000 tons 
in 1900. During the next eleven years the doubling process was 
again accomplished with an output of 50.000,000 tons in 1911. 
In the seven years following 1911 the increase has been 80 per 
cent, with a production of 90.000.000 tons in 1918. So marked 
was the influence of war demands on the output of Illinois coal 
that the production for the year ending June 30, 1917, was 
24 per cent greater than that of the previous year, and the 
production for the year ending June 30, 1918, was 11 per cent 
greater than for 1917, an increase of 85 per cent over the output 
of 1910, and 3k times the output of 1900. 

Illinois ranks third among the coal-producing states. 
Pennsylvania ranks first with a production of -46 per cent of the 
total, followed by West Mrginia with 14 per cent. lUinois 
with 11 per cent, and Ohio with 4 per cent of the total. 

Two-thirds of Illinois is underlain bj^ beds or "veins'" or 
"seams" of bituminous coal. The coal area of the state Hes 
south of an east-west hne joining Rock Island and Joliet. and 
is connected with the coal fields of southwestern Indiana and 
western Kentucky. 

It is estimated that the original coal beds of lUinois con- 
tained more than 200.000.000.000 tons of coal. The amount 
mined from 1833 to 1917 is 1,212,000,000 tons. During the 



MINERAL RESOURCES 203 

last 10 years of this period 577,000,000 tons were produced, 
almost as much as during the preceding 75 years. 

About 1 per cent of the total coal supply of the state has 
been exhausted in 85 years, including the coal which could not 
be recovered in the mining. With the tremendous rate of 
increase in output by years and by decades, the coal supply 
will be used much more rapidly in the future than in the past. 
Illinois has a larger known coal reserve than any other state. in 
which the coal fields are well surveyed, probably twice as 
great as that of Pennsylvania, where the present annual output 
of coal is four times that of Illinois. The United States con- 
tains more coal than the rest of the world. Illinois contains 
about 10 per cent of the coal of the United States. Another 
85 years of coal mining in Illinois will develop problems of pro- 
duction and consumption of coal not yet fully appreciated. 

The 79,000,000 tons of coal mined in Illinois in the year 
ending June 30, 1917, came from 51 counties and 810 mines. 
The 324 "shipping" mines produced 98 per cent of the total, 
the remaining 2 per cent coming from 486 "local" mines. 
The average production of the shipping mines was 238,000 tons; 
that of the local mines 3,200 tons. The production of 266 mines 
was under 1,000 tons each; 139 mines each produced more than 
200,000 tons. The coal-mining operations of 1917 required the 
labor of 80,893 men; 96 per cent of these were employed in the 
shipping mines; 70 per cent of aU the men were employed in 
the 139 mines whose production exceeded 200,000 tons each, 
and the output of these 139 mines was 78 per cent of the total 
for the state. 

The production of coal by counties for the year ending 
■ June 30, 1917, is shown on the map (p. 201). The numbers are 
given in thousands of tons and, in reading, three "ciphers" 
(000) must be added to each number. 

Of the 810 coal mines of the state, 480 are shaft mines, 204 
are drift mines, and 126 are slope mines. There are 779 mines 
worked by the "pillar and room" method; 23 by the "long 
wall" method; and 8 by the "strip" method. The electric motor 
is rapidly displacing other methods of underground haulage 
in the large shipping mines. In 1907 underground haulage 
was carried on in 75 shipping mines by motor, 26 by cable, 



204 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




COAL TRANSPORTATION UNDERGROUND BY ELEC- 
TRIC MOTOR, MARION, WILLIAMSON COUNTY 

(Copyright by Keystone \'iew Company) 



503 by mule, and 5 by hand. Ten years later, in 1917, 200 
shipping mines used the electric motor, 51 the cable, 113 the 

mule, and 1 was oper- 
ated by hand. Machine 
mining is also having a 
rapid development. In 
1900, 38 mines were 
operated exclusively and 
29 in part by machines; 
in 1917 these numbers 
had increased to 98 and 
53 respectively. The 
number of machines 
increased during this 
period from 430 to 1,920 
and the amount mined 
by machines from 
5,500,000 tons, or one- 
fifth of the production of 
the state, to 47,000,000 
tons, or three-fifths of 
the total. 

Depth of mine, thick- 
ness of seam, and pro- 
per mine vary 
In the "strip" 
the overlying 
soil is removed and the 
coal taken from the sur- 
face. Drift and slope 
mines may be only a few 
feet below the surface 
of the earth. In Mc- 
Donough County there 
are 48 mines; 10 are 
shaft mines, 4 are slope 
mines, and 34 are drift mines. The depth of coal below 
the surface varies from 22 feet to 70 feet. The thickness 
of the worked coal seams varies from 1 foot 8 inches to 2 feet 



duction 
greatly, 
mines 




STRIPPING COAL, SURFACE MINING WEST OF 
DANVILLE, VERMTLION COUNTY 

Where coal beds lie near the surface, the 
overlying earth is removed, and the coal taken 
out as from an open quarry. (Copyright by 
Keystone View Company.) 



MINERAL RESOURCES 



205 



8 inches. The production per mine varies from 10 tons 
to 2,440 tons. The total output of the 48 mines is 17,600 
tons. Thus while Mc- 
Donough County has 6 
per cent of the mines of 
the state, the coal pro- 
duction is a very small 
fraction of 1 per cent. 
Franklin County has 21 
mines; all are shaft 
mines; the depth of the 
mines varies from 152 
feet to 730 feet; the 
thickness of the worked 
coal seams from 6 feet 
inches to 14 feet; and 
the output per mine from 45,000 tons to 1,093,000 tons. 
Franklin County has 2h per cent of the mines of the state 




COAL MINE, MOUNT OLIVE, MACOUPIN COUNTY 

Coal is lifted in small cars by means of eleva- 
tors to the top of the shafthouse, dumped into 
chutes, and distributed by gravity. 



T.\BLE IV 

Counties Producing More th.\n 1,000,000 Tons of Coal for the Year 
Ending June 30, 1917 



Rank 


County 


1 


Franklin 


2 




3 


Sangamon 


4 


Macoupin 


5 


St. Clair 


6 


Madison 


7 


Saline 


8 


Montgomerv 


9 


Vermilion 


10 


Christian 


11 


Fulton 


12 


Perry 


13 


Peoria 


14 


Clinton 


15 


Bureau 


10 


Randolph 


17 


La Salle 


18 


Marion 



Total, 18 counties. . . 
Total, other counties. 
Total, state 



Tons 



11,317,657 
9,666,302 
6,948,648 
6,590,825 
5,7.55,650 
5,044,261 
4,530,903 
3,641,676 
3,299,419 
2,822,167 
2,739,185 
2,477,561 
1,553,455 
1,426,594 
1,390,552 
1,162,468 
1,134,584 
1,088.619 



72,600,525 

6,383,002 

78,983,527 



Percentage 
of State 



14.30 
12.23 
8.79 
8.34 
7.28 
6.38 
5.73 
4.61 
4.17 
3.57 
3.46 
3.13 
1.96 
1.80 
1.76 
1.47 
1.43 
1.37 



91.78 

8.22 

100.00 



Men 
Employed 



10,511 
9,294 
6,762 
5,384 
5,360 
4,246 
4,817 
3,576 
3,232 
2,750 
3,208 
2,551 
1,700 
1,401 
2,537 
1,275 
2,019 
1,045 



71,468 

9,425 

80,893 



206 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



iiiid produces 14 per cent of the coal. The deepest mine in 
llhnois, 1,004 feet, is at Assumption, Christian County. Five 
counties — Bond, Cass, Jersey, Moultrie, and White — have but 
one mine each. In each of three counties there are more than 
50 mines; Peoria has 60, St. Clair 63, and Fulton 93. The 324 
shipping mines are found in 38 counties. One mine in Peoria 



TABLE V 

CotTNTiES Producing More than 1,000,000 Tons op Coal for the Year 
Ending June 30, 1918 



Rank 


County 


Tons 


Percentage 
of State 


Men 
Employed 


1 


Franklin 


12,007,397 


13.34 


11,618 


9 


Williamson 


11,655,101 


12.95 


9,979 


3 


Sangamon 


8,155,734 


9.06 


7,731 


4 


St. Clair 


7,868,449 


8,75 


6,898 


5 


Macoupin 


7,095,366 


7.89 


5,804 


6 


Saline 


5,670,832 


6. 30 


6,541 


7 


Madison 


5,188,768 


oil 


4,731 


8 


Montgomery 


4,340,()75 


4.,S2 


4,114 


9 


Vermilion 


3,971,330 


4.41 


3,816 


10 


Christian 


3,221,234 


3.58 


3,026 


11 


Perry 


2,937,237 


3.27 


2,937 


12 


Fulton 


2,792,950 


3.11 


3,733 


13 


Randolph 


1,599,718 


1.78 


1,657 


14 


Peoria 


1,483,486 


1.65 


1,724 


15 


Clinton 


1,429,569 


1.60 


1,322 


16 


Bureau 


1,350,890 


1.50 


2,467 


17 


La Salle 


1,198,360 


1.33 


2,056 


18 


Marion 
18 counties 


1,116,289 


1.24 


1,159 


Total, 


83,083,385 


92.35 


81,313 


Total, 


other counties 


6,896,084 


7.65 


10,059 


Total, 


state 


89,979,469 


100.00 


91,372 



County shipped its production of 25,000 tons by boat on the 
Illinois River. The 323 other shipping mines disposed of their 
coal by shipment over 37 different railroads. The Illinois Cen- 
tral served 89 mines in 21 counties, carrying 10,000,000 tons, 
19 per cent of the 53,000,000 tons shipped in the state. 
The Chicago, BurUngton, and Quincy Railroad served 51 mines 
in 11 counties, carrying 9,800,000 tons, or 18 per cent of the 
total. The "Big Four" Railroad served 37 mines in 10 counties 
and carried 12 per cent of the total. The Chicago and Eastern 



MINERAL RESOURCES 



207 



Illinois Railroad served 33 mines in fi counties and carried 
nearly 10 per cent of the total. 

The great coal reserves of Illinois, the developed mines, and 
the central location of the state assure an industrial develop- 
ment in the future not to be surpassed by any other state. 

Tables IV, V, and \T show many facts of interest con- 
cerning the coal production in Illinois. 

TABLE VI 

Coal Production, Five-Year Periods, with Recent Annual 
Production 



Year 


Counties 


Mines 


Number of 
Men 


Tons 


Increase 
Production 
Percentage 


1885 


50 
57 


778 
936 


25,946 

28,574 


11,834,459 
15,274,727 




1890 


29 


1895 


54 


855 


38,630 


17,735,864 


16 


1900 


52 


920 


39,384 


25,153,929 


42 


1905 


56 


990 


59,230 


37,183,374 


48 


1910 


55 


881 


74,634 


48,717,853 


31 


1915 


52 


779 


75,607 


57,601,694 


18 


1916 


51 


803 


75,919 


63,673,530 


10 


1917 


51 


810 


80S93 


78,983,527 


24 


1918 


54 


967 


91,372 


89,979,469 


11 



Petroleum and natural gas. — The Illinois oil fields of Clark, 
Crawford, and Lawrence counties are associated with the 
La Salle anticline, an upward fold of bedrock which crosses 
Illinois from Stephenson County in the northwest to Lawrence 
County in the southeast. The La Salle anticline crosses the 
Illinois River at Split Rock between La Salle and Utica. 
South of La Salle County this rock fold does not appear at the 
surface, but exists deep underground, and in the oil fields it 
forms the cap or covering for the oil-bearing rocks. The 
petroleum has accumulated under the anticlinal fold, and is 
obtained by penetrating the impervious rocks of the anticline 
by deep wells from which the oil is pumped to the surface. 
Small anticlinal folds exist deep underground elsewhere in the 
state, and some of them confine petroleum and natural gas 
beneath. The regions of the state where petroleum and gas 



208 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



have been found are sliown on the accompanying map. The 
important commercial output is in southeastern IlHnois, and 
the total productive area is about 250 square miles, or 160,000 

acres, an area equivalent 
to 1,000 farms of 160 
acres each. 

Prospecting for oil 
began in Clark County 
in 1865, only six years 
after the first successful 
wells of Pennsylvania 
had been opened. Some 
oil was obtained, but not 
enough to induce further 
development at that 
time. Thirty-nine years 
later, in 1904, successful 
wells were drilled, and 
the region which had 
been tested in 1865 was a 
fair producer for several 
years. These were shal- 
low wells having a depth 
between 400 and 600 feet. 
In 1906 the Crawford 
County field was opened, 
and the oil industry of 




Illinois took on large pro- 
portions immediately. 
The oil in this field is 
found at depths of 750 
to 1,000 feet. 

In 1907 the Lawrence 
County field was opened, 
the oil being procured at depths of 800 to 1,900 feet. 

Table VH shows the progress of the oil-producing industry 
of Illinois. 

Production increased rapidly from 1904 to 1908 and it has 
declined slowly since 1911. The oil industry has aided in the 



PETROLEUM FIELDS AND PIPE LINES OF ILLINOIS 

The productive area of petroleum in Illinois 
amounts to about 250 square miles or less than 
5 of 1 per cent of the area of the state. Two 
pipe lines cross the state from the oil fields of 
Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas to refineries 
farther east than Illinois. \A'hitin);, Indiana, is 
an important refining center for the northern line, 
and Wood River. Illinois, for the southern line. 



MINERAL RESOURCES 



209 



development of a number of cities in the district, among which 
are Robinson and Oblong in Crawford County, Lawrenceville 

TABLE VII 
Production of Petroleum, Illinois and United States 



Rank of 


Year 


Barrels of 


42 Gallons 


Illinois 


Illinois 


Illinois 


United States 


Percentage 




Prior to 
1905 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 


6,576 
181,084 
4,397,050 
24,281,973 
33,686,238 
30,898,339 
33,143,362 
31,317,038 
28,601,308 
23,893,899 
21,919,749 
19,041,695 
17,714,235 


429,301,612 
134,717,580 
126,493,936 
166,095,335 
178,527,355 
183,170,874 
209.557,248 
220,449,391 
222,935,044 
248,446,230 
265,762,535 
231,104,104 
300,767,158 






0.1 




3.4 


3 


14.6 


3 


18.8 


3 


16.8 


3 


15.8 


3 


14.2 


3 

3 


12.8 
9.6 


3 


8 2 


4 


6.7 


4 


5.8 






Total . 




269,082,546 


3,917,328,402 


6 8 









and Bridgeport in Lawrence 
County. A large refinery 
has been established at Law- 
renceville. Owners of some 
farms have been enriched by 
many times the original 
value of their holdings. 

Natural gas has been 
found in limited quantities 
in connection with petro- 
leum. Small quantities of 
gas have been found where 
the oil was not obtained in 
commercial quantities, and 
in some places where no oil 
appeared. Usable quanti- 
ties of natural gas have been 

found in the glacial drift where gas had accumulated under 
impervious layers of clay. Gas wells have usually given out 




production of petroleum in ILLINOIS 

Production is indicated in barrels 



210 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




IRON-ORE DOCK AND STORAGE, CALUMET 
HARBOR, CHICAGO 

More than seven million tons of iron ore are 
received annually at Calumet Harbor. 



after producing for six or seven years. The small local sup- 
plies have fref|ucnlly been used on the farms on which pro- 
duced. Cias has been 
found chiefly in Mont- 
gomery, Pike, Randolph, 
and Macoupin counties. 
Pig iron and coke. — 
Pig iron and coke are 
mineral products of 
great value in Illinois. 
They do not figure in 
the value of mineral 
products of the state, 
however, as pig iron is 
made from iron ore 
shipped in from other 
states, and coke is made 
from coal, which is a primary mineral resource. The steel 
plants at South Chicago and Joliet produce the pig iron of the 
state. Coke is pro- 
duced as a by-product 
in gas -manufacturing 
plants in various cities. 
It is also manufactured 
in the coke ovens of 
the steel plants to be 
used in the manufac- 
ture of steel. 

Clay products. — 
Throughout the gla- 
ciated regions of Illi- 
nois, clay suitable for 
making brick and tile 
is found. Clays suit- 
able for pottery and 
sewer pipe are found in 
more restricted areas. Brick and tile factories are therefore 
widely scattered throughout the state in order to avoid high 
transportation charges. Whitehall in Greene County, Macomb 




GLAZING-ROOM OF WESTERN STONEWARE 
COMPANY, MACOMB, m'dONOUGH COUNTY 

In the glazing-room the various pottery prod- 
ucts are dipped into a special liquid prepara- 
tion which gives the smooth, shiny surface to 
the article. The glaze is applied just before 
the pottery is placed in the kilns for firing. 
(Copyright by Keystone \'iew Company.) 



MINERAL RESOURCES 



211 



in McDonough County, and Monmouth in Warren County are 
important centers for pottery and sewer pipe. Brick and 
tile constitute 93 per cent of the clay manufactures of the state 
and pottery 7 per cent. Cook County makes more common 
brick than any other county of the United States, producing 
three-fourths of the brick of Illinois. Knox County leads in 
the manufacture of vitrified brick for paving purposes, with 
Livingston County second. \>rmilion County leads in the 
production of front brick, and Kankakee is the only county pro- 
ducing enameled brick. 

La Salle County 
leads in the produc- 
tion of draintile, fire- 
proofing, and fire brick. 
Cook County is the 
largest producer of 
terra cotta. Mc- 
Donough County is 
the leading county in 
the production of sewer 
pipe. A large variety 
of stoneware consti- 
tutes the chief pottery 
product of the state, 
with Warren and Mc- 
Donough as the leading 
counties. 

Every kind of clay 
product classified in the 

Mineral Resources of the United States is produced in Illinois 
except china. Illinois ranks first among the states in the value 
of common brick; second in the value of paving brick, of terra 
cotta, and stoneware; third in brick and tile products and in 
enameled brick; fourth in the value of all clay products and 
in front brick and draintile; fifth in sewer pipe and fireproofing. 

Cement, stone, sand, and gravel. — Illinois ranks third 
among the states in the production of cement, being surpassed 
by Pennsylvania and Indiana. Prior to 1900 the output of 
natural cement in the United States exceeded that of Portland 




REFINING ROOM, MACOMB, M'DONOUGH COUNTY 

The raw clay is thoroughly washed and 
cleaned of all its impurities in the refining 
process whereby it is prepared for molding 
into pottery. 



212 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



cement. In 1900 the output for each kind of cement was 
8,000,000 barrels. In 1915 the production of natural cement 
had declined to 750,000 barrels and the output of Portland 
cement was 85,000,000 barrels, or ten times as great as in 1900. 
Of the twelve plants still producing natural cement in the United 
States in 1915, one is located in Illinois near Utica in La Salle 
County, where it makes use of the Lower Magnesian Hmestonc, 
the oldest stratified rock outcropping in the state. Important 

centers of Portland- 
cement manufacture are 
Oglesby and La Salle in 
La Salle County, and 
Dixon in Lee County; 
while a new plant has 
been recently erected 
at Golconda in Pope 
County. At these cen- 
ters abundant limestone 
and shale of proper 
quality for cement lie 
near the surface and 
can be readily quarried. 
So abundant and so 
widely distributed are 
the raw materials for 
Portland cement that its 
increased use for struc- 
tural work will tend to 
conserve the more limited supplies of wood and iron. 

Limestone is the chief product of Illinois stone quarries. 
About 75 per cent of the output is used as crushed stone for 
concrete road metal and railroad ballast. Lime used for 
mortar in building operations is made from limestone, and 
increasing quantities of fme-ground limestone are being used 
for soil improvement throughout the state, more especially in 
the southern counties, where the soils are more acid than else- 
where. Illinois limestone is also used as flux in blast furnaces 
for smelting iron, for riprap, rubble, and in a small measure 
for building stone. 




QUARRY AND MILL FOR CRUSHING LIMESTONE, 
THORNTON, COOK COUNTY 

The extensive beds of Illinois limestones 
furnish rock for road metal, railroad ballast, 
fertilizer, and lime. Largre crushers with 
hea\'y machinery are necessary to prepare the 
rock for its various uses. 



MINERAL RESOURCES 213 

Sand and gravel are found in places in the glacial moraines, 
in the valley trains leading out from the moraines, along 
streams, and along the lake shore. The sand produced in 
Illinois is used mainly for building purposes. Other uses are 
for glass manufacture, molding, paving, and for locomotives. 
Glass sand is obtained largely from the St. Peter sandstone 
along the bluffs of the lUinois River in the vicinity of Ottawa. 
It forms the basis of important glass and bottle factories at 
Ottawa and Streator. Gravel is widely used for concrete and 
for road-building. 

Sulphuric acid and pyrite. — The many uses for sulphuric 
acid, especially in the manufacture of munitions of war, has 
led to a rapid expansion of this industry in the years during 
the war. The value of the sulphuric acid manufactured in 
Illinois in 1915 was $2,000,000, or about 7 per cent of the total 
of the United States. The production of 1917 was valued at 
$4,000,000. It is obtained as a by-product in the smelting of 
zinc and lead, or it may be manufactured directly from sulphur 
or from pyrite, which is made up of sulphur and iron. Illinois 
ranks fourth among the states in the amount of pyrite pro- 
duced. Pyrite in Illinois comes from the coal mines. The 
production is made up of small quantities from many mines, 
the chief supply coming from mines in Vermilion and Madison 
counties. 

Zinc, lead, and silver. — The lead and zinc mines near 
Galena, in Jo Daviess County, brought about an earlier settle- 
ment of the northwest corner of the state than any other region 
between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Galena was better 
known to the world for a few years than Chicago. The lead 
and zinc ores, accompanied by minute quantities of silver, come 
from the same ore bodies. At first lead was the important 
product. Now zinc is far more valuable than the lead, and 
the small silver output of the state is a by-product of the zinc 
industry. The production in Illinois and elsewhere has 
been greatly stimulated by the war demands. The zinc mines 
are found in the Driftless Area of Illinois and Wisconsin; the 
Wisconsin product is about 7 times as great as that of Illinois. 
The Illinois product of zinc is about 2 per cent of the total for 
the United States. Missouri leads in output with more than 



214 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



all the other states combined. Illinois produced, in 1915, 
316,000 tons of crude ore from which was made 5,534 tons of 
zinc "spelter," as the refined product is called. 

While lUinois produced only 2 per cent of the 10,000,000 
tons of zinc of the United States as a mine product, the zinc 
smelters of the state turned out 159,058 tons of zinc spelter, 
the largest output of any state, and 33 per cent of the total for 
the United States. One of the first zinc smelters in the United 
Slates was located in 1S5S at La Salle, on the north edge of 
the Illinois coal fields nearest to the Jo Daviess County lead 
and zinc mines, where railroad, canal, and river transportation 
were at hand at that early date. 

It takes so much coal to smelt zinc that it is cheaper to 
ship the zinc ore to the coal fields than to ship the coal to the 

zinc mines. For this 
reason the cheap and 
abundant coal supply 
of Illinois has led to 
the development of zinc 
smelters at La Salle, 
Peru, Depue, Springfield, 
Hillsboro, East St. Louis, 
CoUinsville, Sandoval, 
and Danville. Thus 
Illinois, because of coal 
resources, remains a 
leading state in zinc 
smelting, although long ago the center of ore production 
shifted to other states. The $89,000 worth of lead and the 
nearly $6,000 worth of silver produced by the state are by- 
products of the zinc mines. 

Fluor spar, tripoli, and other mineral products. — Illinois 
produces more than 75 per cent of the fluor spar of the United 
States, and this output comes from the fluor-spar mines of 
Rosiclare, a river port on the Ohio River in Hardin County. 
The ore is sent by boat down the Ohio to Golconda or up the 
Ohio to Shawneetown, where it is loaded on railroad cars and 
shipped widely throughout the country. Fluor spar or "fluor- 
ite" is used as a flux in smelting iron. It is also the source of 




FLUOR-SPAR MINES, ROSICLARE, HARDIN COUNTY 



MINERAL RESOURCES 



215 



hydrofluoric acid, which is employed for etching glass and in 
the manufacture of opalescent glass. 

The material called tripoli is a white, or yellowish, light, 
porous siliceous rock. Illinois produced 77 per cent of the 
tripoli of the United States in 1915. Some tripoli is used as an 
abrasive, but most of it is worked into filter blocks. The 
Illinois tripoli is also used in paint, wood filter, metal polish, 
in soaps, in cleansers, for making glass, tile, and enamel, and 
for facing foundry molds. 

The asphalt produced in Illinois is a by-product of the oil 
refineries. It finds a larger use in street paving than elsewhere. 

The mineral waters 
of Illinois were pro- 
duced from 23 commer- 
cial springs, and sold 
at an average price of 
5 cents per gallon. 
About 93 per cent was 
sold as table waters and 
7 per cent as medicinal 
waters. 

Summary. — The 
coal of Illinois is of 
greater value than all 
other mineral resources combined, and it is likely to remain so. 
In 1915 the value of coal constituted 5G per cent of the total 
value of the mineral output. With the entrance of the United 
States into the world-war and its stimulating effect on produc- 
tion and price of coal, this percentage of value increased to 
68 per cent in 1917. Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are 
the mineral fuels and petroleum is the chief supply of lubricating 
oils. These three mineral products, once used, can never be 
replaced. Since the supply is limited every eft'ort should be 
made to use them to the best advantage and without waste in 
production or consumption. Mineral resources obtained 
from an unlimited supply should be used where they serve as 
well and are as cheap as materials which are limited in amount. 
Limestone and shale, used in the manufacture of Portland 
cement, sand, gravel, and crushed rock, are among the mineral 




ARTESIAN WELL, POTOMAC, VERMILION COUNTY 

Artesian wells of moderate depth furnish 
flowing water on many farms near Potomac. 



216 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



resources of this class. Illinois is fortunate in having so manj^ 
mineral resources in sufficient quantities to supply her own 
needs, and, in some cases, a surplus to send to other states. 
The favorable location of Illinois with reference to the abundant 
iron ore of the Lake Superior district and the lead and zinc ores 
of the Missouri district enables her to build up great industries 
in these fields of manufacture on or near her coal fields. The 
mineral resources of the state have enabled Illinois to take high 
rank among the states in population, manufacturing, trans- 
portation facilities, commerce, and wealth. 



CHAPTER XIV 
MANUFACTURING 

Favorable conditions. — Illinois possesses superior advan- 
tages in the six factors necessary for the successful development 
of manufacturing industries: power, raw materials, capital, 
labor, transportation, markets. 

Abundant and cheap power is necessary for manufacturing 
on a large scale. Although the surface of Illinois is quite 
flat, some valuable water- 
power sites have been .. - 
developed. At Lockport 
the overflow of the Chi- 
cago Drainage Canal is 
utilized for light and 
power for Chicago and 
intermediate cities. The 
dam across the Illinois 
River at Marseilles in 
La Salle County furnishes 
power for a group of 
manufacturing plants 
and for an electric inter- 
urban railroad system. 
The great Keokuk Dam 
is built across the Missis- 
sippi River between Keo- 
kuk, Iowa, and Hamilton, 
Illinois, and a part of its power is available for use in Illinois. 

The flour mill was one of the earliest manufactories to 
be established in Illinois. A miU at Golden, Adams County, 
is still in commercial operation with wind power. Small mills 
built in pioneer days have been kept in good repair and are 
in present use. 

The great source of power, however, for Illinois, for present 
and future generations, is the 200,000,000,000 tons of coal 

217 




POWER DAM, MARSEILLES, LA SALLE COUNTY 

The natural fall in the Illinois River at 
Marseilles of 18 feet in U miles makes this an 
important center of water-power development. 
(Copyright by Keystone View Company.) 



218 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



uiulerlying the central and southern parts of tlie stale. Al- 
though Chicago, the chief center of manufacturing, is situated 
outside the coal-producing region, the distance to abundant coal 
resources is not great enough to interfere with the rapid growth 
of manufacture in this great commercial metropolis. Certain 
manufacturing industries, notably the zinc-smelting plants, 
have been located in the rich Illinois coal fields in order to have 

cheap and abundant fuel 
.__. at their very doors. 

§S:^ Raw materials for the 

P-lj factories of Illinois exist 

I ■ 'i in abundance in regions 

located in all directions 
from the manufacturing 
centers, and they are 
carried promptly and 
cheaply by railroad trains 
and steamship hnes. Illi- 
nois factories draw a large 
amount of raw materials 
from the farms of the 
state; they reach out to 
the forests of the north- 
ern, southern, and 
western states; to the 
iron-ore mines of the 
Lake Superior district ; 
to the grain crops of the 
rich agricultural lands of 
the Mississippi Valley; to 
the live-stock regions of the central and western states. More 
than half the area of the United States makes important con- 
tributions to the raw materials of the factories of Illinois. 

With a wealth estimated at $15,000,000,000, or more than 
$2,500 per capita, Illinois has large sums of money invested 
in profitable manufacturing enterprises, and additional capital 
awaits investment as opportunity affords. 

A large supply of efilicient labor exists in the cities of Illinois 
where, in 1910, 38.5 per cent of the population of the state 




GRIST MILL OPERATED BY WIND I>(lUl:R, 
GOLDEN, ADAMS COUNTY 

This mill is operated at an exceedingly low 
cost for power and upkeep. 



MANUFACTURING 



219 



lived in Chicago alone, 52.3 per cent in the 32 cities having 
a population of 10,000 or more, and 61.6 per cent in the 
144 cities having a population of 2,500 or more. As addi- 
tional labor is needed, the network of railroads radiating 
to all parts of the United States makes it easy for labor 
to reach Illinois from centers where conditions are less satis- 
factory. 

Ilhnois is well situated for transportation on the Great 
Lakes. Large freight boats carry millions of tons annually 
of iron ore, grain, lumber, fruit, and package freight. Im- 
portant lake traffic is carried on at Waukegan. Gary, 
Indiana, within the Chi- 
cago industrial district, 
is making increased use 
of the advantages of 
lake commerce. The 
great transportation fa- 
cilities of Illinois, how- 
ever, consist of numer- 
ous extensive and 
well-arranged railroad 
systems which serve all 
manufacturing centers 
of the state with con- 
nections to all parts pouring zinc spelter, matthiesen & hegeler 
of the country, wher- zinc company, la salle 

ever raw materials or (Copyright by Keystone view Company) 

markets may be found. 

Illinois manufacturing centers are well situated to supply 
all markets. With the center of population for the United 
States in southwestern Indiana, Illinois is exceptionally well 
located to reach nation-wide markets. Lying at the center 
of the rich agricultural lands of the Mississippi Valley, it 
is in the midst of a region of large population, wealth, and 
purchasing power. lUinois and the states touching it have a 
population of 18,000,000 people, or about 20 per cent of the 
population of the United States. 

With these favorable advantages for manufacturing, 
Illinois stands third in output of her factories, being exceeded 




220 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



..i.;' ; 



/>t£A 7- /\t Or/Aft7 / 



Ircc ^D/iy A^/) /HAC/f/f/s-s^op pro/x/lts 






S 



by New York and Pennsylvania, each of which has a larger 

population than Illinois. 

Important industries. — The United States census report 

of manufactures for 1914 shows 121 different lines of industry 

in Illinois, each having 
an output valued at 
more than $1,000,000. 
Twenty-five of these, 
each producing a value 
of more than $20,000,000, 
are shown in the accom- 
panying graph. These 
25 industries employ 66 
per cent of the wage- 
earners of the state en- 
gaged in manufacturing, 
and produce 71 per cent 
of the value of the manu- 



factured products of the 
state. 

Meat-packing is the 
leading industry because 
Illinois, near the center 
of the corn belt, is also 
near the center of live- 
stock production. The 
high value of the product 
of this industry is due 
not so much to the work 
involved, as to the high 
value of the live stock 
which forms the basis, 
or raw material, of the 
industry. Meat-packing 
gave employment in 1914 
to 31,()27 wage-earners. 



/fiCIV AA/O STireL , STSEL Af/LLS 

C/i^5 , 3 re AM RA/L RCAO 

D'S T/L L ED L /QOORS 

FLOOR -/^flL A^O CR/Sr-^/LL PflOD- 

SlECTRfCAL MACf-fl^ERr ETC 

BAKERY PRCDVCrS 

tOAIBER A/VO T/AiBEff rRCOUCTS 

S^EA:^^ R4//.RrAD COMPA/^/£5 

A^AI-r LIQI/aS 

FOR^'^Of^E AAJD REFRiCERATOfifS 



CAS^ fLLUr'' 



A A/ or AC TORES 



/RO',-J AAO STEEi., BLAST rciRAJACES 

COPPER, T/N, AVO 5HEET-/RCAy PRCD 

PA//^T5 A/VD VAR\'/S^E5 

CC^PECT/C/VERy 

COPPEE AAJD SR/CE 

BUTTER, CHEESE. CONDENSED At/L K 



U/OMEAf 5 CLOTA^rf\/0 



CHART SHOWING VALUE IN DOLLARS OF LEAD- 
ING MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES FOR 
ILLINOIS 

The excess of the value of meat-packiiip 
products over other larf;e industries is due to 
the relatively high cost of raw materials rather 
than to the value added by labor. 



6.2 per cent of the total for the state, while the value of the 
products amounted to 21.8 per cent of the total value of 
manufactured products of the state. Chicago produced 84 per 



MANUFACTURING 



221 



cent of the total value. Peoria and East St. Louis are other 
important centers of the industry. 

The numbers of wage-earners engaged in the manufacture of 
foundry and machine-shop products was larger than the number 
engaged in any other industry, constituting a total of 55,261, 
or 10 . 9 per cent of the 506,943 wage-earners of the state. This 
industry produced 6.3 per cent of the total value of the manu- 
factured products of the state, and added to the value of its 
raw materials a larger 
amount than any other 
industry. 

The printing and 
publishing establish- 
ments numbered 2,722, 
a larger number than 
any other industry. 
They employed 32,838 
wage-earners, a larger 
number than were en- 
gaged in meat-packing. 
The volume of the out- 
put of the printing and 
publishing industry 
amounts to about $20 
per capita for the entire 
population of the state. 

The manufacture of 
men's clothing was car- 
ried on in 604 establish- 
ments by 35,119 wage- 
earners, 6.9 per cent of the total for the state, a larger num- 
ber than engaged in any other industry except in the manu- 
facture of foundry and machine-shop products. 

IlHnois is the leading state in the manufacture of agricul- 
tural implements. It produced more than one-third of the 
total value reported for the United States. In the early 
settlement of Illinois the improvement of agricultural machin- 
ery was stimulated by the fertility of the prairies, the difficulty 
of plowing the tough prairie sod, and the flat land inviting the 




COOLING-ROOM, ARMOUR PACKING- 
HOUSE, CHICAGO 

Because meat-packing can be done more 
economically in large packing-houses, the 
industry is concentrated in a relatively few 
large establishments. (Copyright by Key- 
stone View Company.) 



222 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

cultivation of large areas by means of labor-saving machinery. 
Frequent and important improvements led to rapid expansion 
of the industry in Illinois where raw materials were readily 
obtained and where an unlimited market awaited a better 
plow, harrow, cultivator, mower, and harvesting machine. 
The chief centers of manufacture for agricultural implements 
are Chicago, Moline, Rock Island, Peoria, and Canton. 

There were 18,388 manufacturing establishments in Illinois 
in 1914. Four lines of manufacture were each conducted in 
more than 1,000 establishments as follows: printing and pub- 
lishing, 2,722 establishments; bread and other bakery products, 
2,278; tobacco manufacture, 1,622; foundry and machine- 
shop products, 1,371. In marked contrast with these indus- 
tries in number of factories is the leading industry of the state, 
meat-packing, which from 98 establishments turns out one-fifth 
of the value of the manufactured product of the state. Other 
localization of manufactures within the state are shown by the 
following facts: 7 establishments manufactured in one year 
distilled liquors valued at $51,000,000; 5 plants operating 
blast furnaces produced pig iron valued at $25,000,000; 9 
zinc smelters had an output valued at $18,000,000; 9 petroleum 
refineries manufactured $16,000,000 worth of products; 9 estab- 
lishments manufacturing wire produced material valued at 
$15,000,000; 3 coking plants had an output of $7,800,000; 
6 cement factories supplied a product valued at $6,400,000. 

Location of industries. — The requirements of labor and 
transportation facilities led to the concentration of manu- 
facturing in large cities. Chicago, with 38.8 per cent of the 
population of the state in 1910, did 66.8 per cent of the manu- 
facturing; 31 other cities having a population of 10,000 or 
over contained 13.5 per cent of the population and did 16.3 
per cent of the manufacturing. The 112 smaller cities and 
villages of 2,500 or more inhabitants contained 9 . 3 per cent of 
the population of the state. These and still smaller places did 
16.9 per cent of the manufacturing of the state. 

In 1914 the number of cities having a population of 10,000 
or more as estimated by the Census Bureau had increased to 
36. The four cities added to the list were Centralia, Granite 
City, Kewanee, and Pekin. The census reports of 1914, 



MANUFACTURING 



223 



TABLE I 

Manufactures of Thirty-five Illinois Cities, 1914 



City 



Value of Product 



Percentage 
of State 



Average Number 
Wage-Earners 



Chicago 

Peoria 

Joliet 

East St. Louis 

Rockford 

Moline 
Granite City 
Chicago Height; 
Alton 
Waukcgan 

Decatur 

Springfield 

Aurora 

Elgin 

Pekin 

Quincy 
Freeport 
Rock Island 
Belleville 
Kewanee 

Danville 
La Salle 
Blooming ton 
Cairo 
Evanston 

Streator 

Kankakee 

Galesburg 

Canton 

Jacksonville 

Oak Park 

Mattoon 
Champaign 
Centralia 
Lincoln 



$1,483,498,416 
64,689,045 
30,091,415 
26,904.565 
26,371,219 

19,925,106 
17,903,162 
14,485,569 
12,864,532 
12,438,514 

11,957,406 
11,769,969 
]0,7S9,3S3 
10,491,829 
9,609,500 

9,556.918 
7,446,977 
6,487,859 
5,727,269 
5,446,615 

5,291,160 
5,245,780 
4,803,808 
4,583,539 
3,984,824 

3,886,617 
3,193,020 
3,192,129 
2,576,965 
2,355,192 

1,555,083 

1,543,727 

1,244,696 

767,733 

560,637 



Total for 35 cities . . . . 
Total for rest of state . 
Total for state 



$1,843,240,178 

404,082,641 

$2,247,322,819 



66.0 
2.8 
1.3 
1.2 
1.1 

.9 

.8 
.6 
.5 



82.00 

18.00 

100.00 



313,710 

(),2S.j 

4,999 

5,863 

10,472 

5,053 
5,090 
4,288 
2.662 
2,276 

4,003 
4,157 

4,777 

5,529 

634 

3,067 
2.566 
1.837 
2,450 

2,837 

2,109 
1,214 
2,384 
1,522 
924 

1,763 

1,430 

1,362 

920 

932 

268 
735 
382 
237 
239 



408,977 

97,966 

506,943 



224 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

however, could not include statistics for Cicero without dis- 
closing individual operations, and thus the reports were made in 
detail for 35 cities. These 35 cities contained 55 per cent of 
the estimated population of the state in 1914 and reported 
82 per cent of the value of the manufactured products of the 
state. 

The table on page 223 shows the relative importance of 
these 35 cities in manufactuting. The list is arranged in 
order of the value of the product. 

The more important industries of these 35 cities are here 
shown in detail. The manufacture of distilled and malt 
liquors is now prohibited by national law. 

1. Chicago: All the 25 leading industries mentioned on 
the graph, page 220, are largely developed in Chicago. 

2. Peoria: (Distilled liquors); meat-packing; agricultural 
implements; paper and wood pulp; (malt liquors) ; cooperage. 

3. Joliet: Steel works; rolling mills and blast furnaces; 
coke; wire. 

4. East St. Louis: Flour-mill and grist-mill products; 
chemicals; meat-packing; rolling mills; foundry and machine 
shops; paints; railroad repair shops. 

5. Rockford: Furniture; knitting mills; foundry and 
machine shops; agricultural implements; pianos; carriages 
and wagons; saddlery. 

6. Moline: Agricultural implements; automobiles; car- 
riages and wagons. 

7. Granite City: Rolling mills; glucose; babbitt metal 
and solder; stamped and enameled ware; tin plate. 

S. Chicago Heights: Steel works and roUing mills; foundry 
and machine-shop products; railroad car shops; chemicals. 

9. Alton: Flour mills; glass factories; meat-packing. 

10. Waukegan: Rolling mills; preparation of food prod- 
ucts; leather. 

11. Decatur: Railroad repair shop; plumbers' supplies; 
starch. 

12. Springfield: Flour mills; boots and shoes; watches; 
zinc-smelting; agricultural implements; electrical machinery. 

13. Aurora: Railroad repair shops; foundry and machine 
shops; corsets; builders' hardware. 



MANUFACTURING 225 

14. Elgin: Watches; condensed milk. 

15. Pekin: (Distilled liquors) ; glucose and starch; cooper- 
age. 

16. Quincy: Stoves and furnaces; (malt liquors); patent 
medicines; foundry and machine shops. 

17. Freeport: Patent medicines; carriages and wagons; 
windmills; gas and gasoline engines. 

IS. Rock Island: Agricultural implements; lumber and 
planing-mill products. 

19. Belleville: Stoves and furnaces; flour-mill and grist- 
mill products; (malt liquors); steam fittings. 

20. Kewanee: Foundry and machine shops. 

21. Danville: Cars and general shop construction; rail- 
road repair shops. 

22. La Salle: Zinc-smelting; cement. 

23. Bloomington: Cars and general shop construction; 
railroad repair shops. 

24. Cairo: Lumber and timber products. 

25. Evanston: Iron and steel; wrought pipe. 

26. Streator: Glass. 

27. Kankakee: Cotton goods; hosiery and knit goods. 

28. Galesburg: Cars and general shop construction; rail- 
road repair shops; foundry and machine shops. 

29. Canton: Agricultural implements. 

30. Jacksonville: Meat-packing; men's clothing; struc- 
tural iron-work. 

31. Oak Park: Gas, illuminating and heating. 

32. Mattoon: Cars and general shop construction; rail- 
road repair shops. 

33. Champaign: Printing and publishing; gas, illuminat- 
ing and heating. 

34. Centralia: Envelopes. 

35. Lincoln: Undertakers' goods. 

An examination of this list in connection with the list of 
cities arranged in order of population, page 311, reveals the 
fact that the importance of a city as a manufacturing center 
does not necessarily correspond to its population. Granite 
City, a strictly industrial center, ranks seventh in the value 
of manufactures and twenty-sixth in population; Oak Park, a 



226 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




HOME OF A\ERV [U\> \"V^. PEORIA 

The Avery Company sends its tractors to 
all parts of the United States and to many 
foreign countries. Their tractors saw active 
service on the battle fields of the Great War. 



residential suburb of Chicago, ranks thirty-first in value of 
manufactures and sixteenth in population; Moline ranks 

sixth in manufactures 
and fifteenth in popu- 
lation; Pekin ranks 
ninth in manufactures 
and thirty-sixth in 
population. 

While Chicago, be- 
cause of its large popu- 
lation and its great 
commercial interests, is 
]:)redominant in most 
industries of the state 
it holds especially high 
rank in certain local- 
ized industries. Thus, 
in 1914, Chicago manu- 
factured 99.2 per cent of the soap of the state, 94.6 per 
cent of the men's clothing; 93.1 per cent of the paint and 
varnish, 92.6 per cent 
of the confectionery, 
and did 84 per cent of 
the meat-packing. 

When large railroad 
repair shops are located 
in cities of moderate 
size, as at Decatur, Au- 
rora, Danville, Bloom- 
ington, Galesburg, and 
Mattoon, they become 
at once the leading 
manufacturing industry 
of the city. 

Fuel and power. — 
The factories of Illinois 

used as fuel in 1914, 14,500,000 tons of bituminous coal, 
219,000 tons of anthracite coal, 2,600,000 tons of coke, 
4,000,000 barrels of oil and gasoline, and 1,800,000 cubic feet 




ALUMINUM ORE COMPANY, EAST ST. LOUIS 

The location of East St. Louis is favorable 
for the making of aluminum. The raw mate- 
rials used are bauxite, limestone, coal, and 
soda ash. The bauxite comes from Arkansas. 
(Copyright by Keystone \'iew Company.) 



MANUFACTURING 



227 




DRILLING HOLES IN WATCH PLATES, ELGIN 
WATCH COMPANY, ELGIN 

A modern watch factory illustrates, on a 
large scale, division of labor and the extensive 
use of machinery. (Copyright by Keystone 
View Company.) 



of gas. Anthracite coal was used more largely in the smelting 
and refining of zinc than in any other industry. More bitumi- 
nous coal was used in 
the manufacture of coke 
than in any other single 
industry. The coke was 
used especially in blast 
furnaces in the making 
of iron. 

Illinois developed 
1,300,000 primary horse- 
power for operating the 
manufacturing establish- 
ments in 1914. Chicago 
used for manufacturing 
purposes 94,000 tons of 
anthracite coal, 5,200,000 
tons of bituminous coal, 
nearly 2,000,000 tons of 
coke, and developed 

081,000 primary horse-power. Joliet used 950,000 tons of 
bituminous coal and 580,000 tons of coke. Peoria used 422,000 

tons of bituminous coal 
I and East St. Louis 

385,000 tons. 

Summary. — The geo- 
graphic location of Illi- 
nois is exceptionally 
favorable for obtaining 
the raw materials of 
manufacture and for dis- 
tributing the finished 
product. The abun- 
dant coal reserves assure 
a great future industrial 
development. The ex- 
cellent railway lines, leading to distant regions, bring the 
factories of Illinois into direct connection with all parts of 
the country. 




STOVE-MAN'JFACTURING PLANT, QUINCY 



CHAPTER X\' 
TRANSPORTATION 

Development of transportation. — Transportation in Illi- 
nois has undergone all the changes of the world's methods of 
carrying goods and travelers from place to place. The Indian 
canoe of the explorer, the flatboat of the early settler, the 
river steamboat from its earliest development, the sailing 
vessel of explorers on the Great Lakes, the lake steamboat of 
early immigration days, the canal boat which preceded the 
railroad, the Great Lakes freighter and swift passenger boat of 
today, the pleasure yacht, and the gasoline launch have all 
aided in the water-transportation problems of Illinois. 

On land the progressive development of the means of trans- 
port has paralleled and eclipsed that on river, lake, and canal. 
In early days of Illinois' exploration and settlement no small 
amount of traffic required the services of the human porter. 
The pack horse was then brought into use. Wagon roads were 
soon laid out across open prairies and through the forest. 
These converged on the streams at convenient fording places, 
and ferries were established at many points along the large rivers. 

The building of public highways at federal and state 
expense seemed for a time to be the only way of improving 
land transport and of reducing somewhat the excessive cost of 
carrying passengers and freight to all parts of the state and 
nation. Suddenly and unexpectedly the railroad, in only a 
few years, revolutionized transportation problems, not only for 
Illinois, but for the world. Today, at a mere fraction of previ- 
ous cost, and at an incredible saving of time, passengers and 
commodities are transferred safely from any point in the 
United States to any point in Illinois by railroad, a method of 
transportation wholly unknown to the world in the early years 
of Illinois statehood. No point within the state of Illinois is 
more than 15 miles in a direct line from a railroad, and only a 
small fraction of the area of the state lies more than 5 miles 
from a railroad line. 

228 



TRA NSFORTA TION 229 



The remarkable development and universal use of the 
automobile in recent years has again made the improvement of 
the public highways a matter of first importance, and a system 
of state highways in lUinois, consisting of 4,<S00 miles of hard- 
surfaced roads reaching every county and all towns of impor- 
tance, is now in process of construction. 

The most recently developed method of transportation in 
Illinois and the world is that of the airplane, and the rapid 
and progressive development of air transport seems quite 
certain for the future. 

Early transportation. — Long-distance transportation in Illi- 
nois, as elsewhere in the world, developed first on water, then 
on land. Early transportation in Illinois, therefore, consisted 
of the carrying of travelers and goods as far as possible by river, 
or lake, or canal, limiting the land transport to the necessary 
haul by wagon between the local community and river port, 
lake port, or canal port. Illinois, although located far in 
the interior of the continent, is exceptionally well situated for 
water transportation along the borders and centrally across 
the state. Its 60 miles of lake front has three good harbors, 
one at Waukegan and two at Chicago on the Chicago and 
Calumet rivers. This gave Illinois uninterrupted connection 
with all places on the Great Lakes from Buffalo at the foot of 
Lake Erie to Duluth and Superior at the head of Lake Superior. 
The Wabash River with its 200 miles of navigable length along 
the Illinois border, the Ohio with 125 miles, and the Mississippi 
with 615 miles gave easy approach to the state from all direc- 
tions. The navigable Illinois with a good depth of water and 
slight current opened a highway of travel across the state 
278 miles in length from its junction with the Mississippi 
to its source formed by the union of the Kankakee and Des 
Plaines. Supplemented by the Illinois and Michigan Canal, 
100 miles in length, a water highway of commanding importance 
was opened across the entire state, bringing the interior regions 
of the state into easy communication with the East through the 
Great Lakes and with the South through the Mississippi River. 

The earliest explorers and the first settlers entered Illinois 
along river routes. Joliet and Marquette in 1673 traversed 
the full length of the state along the Mississippi, and on their 



230 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

relurn journey later in the same year they crossed the full 
width of the state, through the Illinois Valley and the Chicago 
Outlet to Lake Michigan. La Salle in 1679 first visited 
Illinois, entering the state by way of the Kankakee route, and 
continuing his journey along the Illinois. The first settle- 
ments in Illinois, about the year 1700, at Cahokia and Kaskaskia, 
were made by pioneers who came in boats down the Missis- 
sippi. George Rogers Clark and his company of soldiers in 
1778 were the first to carry the stars and stripes on Illinois 
soil, and their entrance was made near Metropolis in Massac 
County after a journey of hundreds of miles on the Ohio River. 

The canoe was the means of transport of the early explorers 
in Illinois, and it still holds its place among water craft for 
pleasure seekers and fishermen. The flatboat of the pioneer 
quickly gave way to a safer and more rapid method of travel 
W'ith the appearance of the steamboat. La Salle's "Griffin," 
the first lake boat built for carrying on commerce with the Illinois 
country, failed to reach an Illinois port, and more than another 
century elapsed before the sailboat found its way to the 
Chicago River. Soon thereafter the lake steamer put in its 
appearance, and lake transportation has since been an ever- 
increasing factor in the commercial welfare of Illinois. 

River transportation. — The first steamboat on the Ohio 
River was operated in 1811, and steamboat traffic on the Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers became at once an important influence 
on the settlement and development of Illinois. Shawneetown 
on the Ohio, just below the junction with the Wabash, and on 
the northern edge of the Illinois Ozarks, became an important 
port of entry for pioneers whose destination lay north of the 
Ozark Ridge. During the years of Illinois Territory and the 
early years of statehood, Shawneetown, because of its impor- 
tance as a river port, was the leading city in eastern lUinois. 
St. Louis was the chief river port from which the steamboat 
lines proceeded to Illinois towns along the Mississippi and 
Illinois rivers. In the year 1850 the steamboat arrivals at 
St. Louis numbered 2,899. Of this number 788 came from the 
lUinois River, 634 of which were from Peoria. 

The northernmost river port of the state is Galena, at which 
the first steamboat arrived in 1822. Regular traffic was estab- 



TRANSPORTATION 



231 



lished in 1827. The number of steamboat arrivals at Galena 
was 153 in 1835 and 350 in 1837. The arrivals remained near 
this number each year until 1855, at which date the railroad 
reached Galena and the river traffic suffered a sharp and perma- 
nent decline. From the appearance of the first steamboat 
until the arrival of the railroad, the river traffic was supreme 
for all towns along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. 

The first steamboat appeared on the Illinois River in 1828. 
Beardstown was founded in 1829, and by 1831 steamboats were 




RIVER STEAMBOAT AT ROCK ISLAND 



Steamboat traffic in Illinois began in 1811, had its most rapid development 
1835-55, followed by a rapid decline due to railroad development, 1850-70. A few 
large river steamboats, like the one in this scene, still do a thriving business, and 
efforts are being made to increase water transportation on Illinois waterways. 



arriving from St. Louis almost daily. Peoria, which had 
been settled by the French as early as 1725, received its first 
steamboat in 1829. Three steamboats were making regular 
trips to Peoria in 1833; seven in 1834; 44 in 1840; 60 in 
1841; 150 in 1844. After this date the number of arrivals, 
rather than the number of different boats, was reported. 
There were 694 arrivals of steamboats at Peoria in 1845; 



232 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



1,286 in 1850; about 1,800 in 1852. In addition to these there 
were large numbers of canal boats, barges, and flatboats. 

When Peoria was first reached by steamboat, not a town 
had been settled farther up the Illinois River. With the 
new means of transport available, settlements were started 
during the next few years at nearly all the towns of present 
importance between Peoria and the head of easy river naviga- 
tion at La Salle. Settle- 
ments were also established 
at a few sites which were 
later abandoned. 

The twenty years, 1835- 
55, is the period of steam- 
boat supremacy on the Illi- 
nois River. The decline in 
river trafhc was as rapid as 
its rise. In 1870 only four 
steamboats were making 
regular trips between St. 
Louis and Peoria, and only 
one of these went up the 
river to La Salle. In the 
short space of 20 years the 
river and canal boats, as a 
new method of transporta- 
tion for Illinois, had risen 
more rapidly and had be- 
come more effective than an 
RIVER STEAMER LEAVING DOCK AT LA SALLE carlier gBucration iiad sup- 
posed possible. In less than 
another twenty years this new, cheap, rapid, and safe means 
of transportation was all but discarded by the still more rapid 
rise of another and more effective competitor — the railroad. 

Today all large river ports in Illinois have railway con- 
nections. The largest ports without railroads are Nauvoo in 
Hancock County on the Mississippi River, Elizabethtown 
and Rosiclare in Hardin County on the Ohio, and Hardin, 
Calhoun County, on the Illinois. The population of Nauvoo in 
1910 was 1,020, and of each of the others between 600 and 700. 




TRANSPORTATION 



233 



Canals. — The Illinois and Michigan Canal, 100 miles in 
length, constructed from Peru and La Salle along the Illinois 
and Dcs Plaines valleys and across the low divide to the 
South Branch of the Chicago River, was opened in 1858. The 
towns along its course were laid out during the construction 




BRIDGE OVER OHIO RIVER AT METROPOLIS, MASSAC COUNTY 

This view shows the bridge under construction. In the river is a car ferry 
carrying several railroad cars across the Ohio. This is slow work as compared with 
crossing on a railroad bridge. (Copyright by Keystone View Company.) 



period, 1836 to 1848, and had their early growth because of the 
excellent transportation facilities of that day furnished by the 
canal. The canal was a powerful factor in the settlement and 
development of a wide region along its own length and far 
down the Illinois Valley. 



234 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




LOCK AND DAM, HENRY, MARSHALL COUNTY 

The dam and lock at Henry are for the im- 
provement of navigation in the main channel 
of the Illinois River. 



The traffic on the IHinois and Michigan Canal did not 
decline as promptly as that on the rivers. The canal tolls 

increased until the 
middle sixties and the 
tonnage until the early 
eighties. A fair ton- 
nage was maintained 
until 1899, when traffic 
almost disappeared in 
a single year. 

The Illinois and 
Michigan Canal was a 
state enterprise. It 
cost about $6,500,000. 
The receipts for lands 
donated by the federal 
government to the 
state amounted to approximately $6,000,000, and the earn- 
ings during its productive period were about $3,000,000. 

The Illinois and 
Michigan Canal is asso- 
ciated with the period of 
rapid settlement in the 
state. Two other canals 
were built after the 
state was fully occupied. 
These are the Illinois 
and Mississippi Canal, 
usually known as the 
Hennepin Canal, and the 
Chicago Sanitary aiid 
Ship Canal, more com- 
monly referred to as the 
Chicago Drainage Canal. 
The Hennepin Canal 
follows the line of the 

preglacial valley from the Great Bend in the Illinois River at 
Hennepin, 15 miles below the junction of the Illinois and Michi- 
gan Canal with the Illinois River, to the Mississippi River at 




CHICAGO RU'ER, SHOWING BARGES TOWED 
BY TUGBOAT 

Chicago River, originally a shallow stream, 
has been deepened and widened so that large 
lake boats now pass readily to wharves and 
warehouses that line the sides of Chicago River, 
the South Branch and the North Branch. 



TRANSPORTATION 



235 



Rock Island. It follows the valleys of Bureau Creek and Green 
River. It was built by the national government. Construc- 
tion work began in 18!)2, and the canal was opened in 1907. 
The cost was $7,000,000. The canal is supported by the 
federal government, and no tolls are charged. 

The Chicago Drainage Canal is 28 miles in length. Its 
construction began in 1892, and the canal was opened in 1900. 
It joins the South Branch of the Chicago River 6 miles from 
Lake Michigan, and parallels the route of the Illinois and 




LOCKS ON ILLINOIS AND MICHIGAN CANAL, MARSEILLES, LA SALLE COUNTY 

This scene shows the lower level of the canal in the foreground, the lock in the 
middle with both sets of gates closed, and the upper level of the canal stretching 
away in the distance. (Copyright by Keystone View Company.) 



Michigan Canal across the low divide into the Des Plaines 
Valley. At Lockport the Drainage Canal empties into the 
Des Plaines River at the great hydro-electric power plant 
erected to utilize for power the water from the canal. The 
canal is built wide enough and deep enough to carry large 
lake boats, but no trafidc requiring large boats has been devel- 
oped along the canal. The power plant supplies electricity for 
use in Chicago and the cities along the route of the canal. 

A lock more than 40 feet in height has been constructed at 
Lockport. Canal boats now traverse the Chicago Drainage 



236 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Canal between Chicago and Lockport and pass through this 
lock to and ixom tlic old channel of the Illinois and Michigan 
Canal. 

The present traffic on the three canals of Illinois is almost 
negligible in quantity. 

The Chicago Drainage Canal was constructed primarily as 
a sanitary canal with the expectation that it would become a 
part of the "Lakes to Gulf Deep Waterway." As a sanitary 
measure it has fulfilled expectations. Lake Michigan is the 
great reservoir for the water supply of Chicago and other cities 




CHICAGO DRAINAGE CANAL, LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM WILLOW SPRINGS, COOK COUNTY 

In the distance the canal is excavated in the earth; in the foreground it is 
passing from the earth channel to the rock cut. 



on the lake front. With the opening of the Drainage Canal, 
a current of water was set in motion from the lake along the 
Chicago River and the canal, across the low divide and into 
the Illinois River system. This flow of water carries all the 
sewage of Chicago away from the lake, leaving the water supply 
pure. The Chicago Sanitary District has paid for this improve- 
ment with taxes amounting to many millions of dollars. The 
canal, at the time of its opening in 1900, had cost $33,000,000. 
Extensions since that date and expense of operation have added 
many millions more to the cost of providing Chicago and 
vicinity with an inexhaustible supply of pure water. 



TRANSPORTATION 



237 







238 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

The Illinois Waterway. — Recent transportation problems 
have led to renewed interest in the inland waterways of Illinois. 
Plans adopted by the state and approved by the federal 
government are now in progress of development. The project 
is known as the "Illinois Waterway." The construction 
involves the improvement of the Des Plaines River from 
Lockport in Will County to its confluence with the Illinois 
River at Dresden Heights in Grundy County, and the Illinois 
River from that point to La Salle in La Salle County. The 
Illinois River now affords water navigation from La Salle to 
the Mississippi. 

There will be 5 locks and dams: one at Lockport, one at 
Brandon's Road just south of the city hmits at Johet, one in 
the vicinity of Starved Rock Park just south of Utica. The 
locks will be 110 feet wide, 000 feet long, and will permit the 
handling, at a single lockage, of fleets with a cargo capacity of 
7,500 tons. The annual tonnage capacity of the waterway 
will approximate 60,000,000 tons. 

The waterway will have a bottom width of not less than 
150 feet and a surface width of not less than 200 feet, with 
much greater widths at most places. The minimum depth of 
the channel will be 8 feet in earth, 10 feet through rock, and 
14 feet in locks. 

The power plant of the Sanitary District at Lockport now 
develops 25,000 horse-power. The Illinois Waterway will 
have a power development of about 35,000 horse-power. 
This means a saving of about 750,000 tons of coal annually. 
The map on page 237 shows the location of the Illinois 
Waterway, its dams and locks. 

Lake commerce. — Lake trafiic to and from Illinois began 
with the sailing vessels which occasionally arrived at Chicago. 
Navigation on Lake Michigan developed somewhat later than 
on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Only three sailing vessels 
came to Chicago in 1831. The first steamboat arrived in 
1832. By 1836 the number of arrivals had risen to 436. 

Steam railroads. — The motive power used on the first 
railroads of Illinois was animal power. The steam loco- 
motive was soon put into use, and it is now the chief means 
of power. 



TRANSPORTATION 



239 



The beginning of the Ilhnois railroad systems occurred in 
1S37. By 1850 railroads were in operation between Spring- 
field and the Illinois 
River and between 
Chicago and Fox River. 
The rapid development 
of railroads during the 
decade 1850 to 1860 
enabled settlers to reach 
the unoccupied areas of 
Illinois, especially the 
prairies situated at con- 
siderable distances from 
waterways. 




LAKE FRONT, SHOWIN'C, TRACKS OF ILLINOIS 
CENTRAL RAILROAD, CHICAGO 



The location of the IlHnois Central Railroad 
along the lake front in the business part of 
Chicago gives it superior advantages for serving 
south-side suburbs with rapid and frequent 
passenger service. 



The great prairies still 

remained largely unoccupied 

in 1850 as a comparison of 

the woodland and prairie 

map with the population map of 1850 clearly shows. The problem of 

transportation and of markets still prevented their occupation. During 

the decade 1850 to 1860, 
however, their conquest 
, was rapidly accomplished, 

and in the latter year the 
Grand Prairie had every- 
where a population of over 
six to the square mile, and 
the great prairies to the 
north of the Illinois River 
more than eighteen per 
square mile. The popula- 
tion of the state as a whole 
increased over 100 per cent 
in the ten years. This 
extraordinary change was 
made possible by the rapid 
building of railroads. In 
1850 Illinois had only 110 
miles of railroad; in 1860 it 
had 2,867 miles. During 
the decade Illinois built 
more miles of railroad than 
any other state, and more 
than Michigan, Wisconsin, 
and Iowa combined. The 
topography of the state 

made it possible to build railroads rapidly and easily; in the northern 

and eastern parts especially, the railroads were not held to certain 




NETWORK OF MAIN LINK TRACKS AND RELAY 
DEPOT, EAST ST. LOUIS 

East St. Louis ranks next to Chicago as a 
railroad center in lUinois. Four bridges span 
the Mississippi at or near East St. Louis. 
(Copyright by Keystone View Company.) 



240 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLIXOIS 




predetermined courses by relief, Iiut could he built with equal case in 
almost any direction across the llattish surface of the upland prairies. 

The railroads supplied lumlier to the home builder on the Kreat prairies. 
They brought the farms much closer to a market, increasefl greatly the 
value of land in the vicinity, and permitted a rapid growth in agricultural 
products. 

Except along the edges, little of the great prairie tracts in the middle 
valley counties was occupied in 1850. In the decade 1850 to 1860, the 
aggregate population ol the six counties (Bureau, Putnam, Marshall, Wood- 
ford, Peoria, Tazewell) increased 124 per cent. The area of the improved 

land increased 213 per cent, 
and the grain production 
165 per cent in the same 
*-• ..A. MLS time. The relative increase 

+ ^r"'^^^^^^^ '" population in the prairie 

00^^L^ "(i^Si townships back from the 

f * ^^^ SBUy^ ik« ^(b river was much greater, but 

"1 J j^ ^^^YifrfKm M '2-*^i cannot be stated exactly 
tti.. ■'^ -^ ! ' L llroH I • i^^yH^^H outside of Bureau County. 

There the townships of Wal- 
nut and Ohio, largely un- 
occupied in 1850, gained 
respectivelv 1,025 per cent 

TYPICAL KAILKOAn HKI'OT OF A SM.ALL CITY, A ,^^ ■ Kj,, , 

CARROLLTON-, (;REENE couiMTY '?"" 4^.) per ccnt. _ 1 ftc ad- 

jacent inland counties whose 
growth before 1850 had been 
retarded by their distance from the river filled rapidly. The four on the 
north and northwest increased 190 per cent during the decade, while the 
three to the southeast gained 224 per cent. 

At the same time that the railroads were opening up the great prairies, 
improved farming machinery was facilitating their agricultural develop- 
ment. Drills, mowing machines, reapers, threshing machines, and the like 
were coming into general use.' 

The railroad mileage in Illinois by decades is shown in the 
following table: 

TABLE I 

Railro.\d Mileage in Illinois 

Year Miles 

1840 26 

1850 110 

1860 2,867 

1870 4,823 

1880 7,851 

1890 10,213 

1900 11,002 

1910 11,878 

1915 12,406 



These mileage figures include only the actual length of the 
right of way and do not take account of double-track mileage, 



» H. H. Barrows, Geography of the Middle Illinois Valley. 



TRANSPORTATION 



241 



industrial tracks, yard tracks, and sidings. The trackage of 
Illinois railroads for 1915 was as follows: main line and 
branches, 12,406 miles; second main tracks, 2,818; third main 
tracks, 221; fourth main tracks, 124; all other main tracks, 75; 
yard tracks and sidings, 8,254; total — all tracks, 23,898 miles. 

The railroads of Illinois own right of way sufilicient to reach 
across the United States from ocean to ocean five times and a 
total trackage sufficient to cross the continent nine times. 
Illinois has approxi- 
mately 5 per cent of 
the 253,788 miles of the 
railroad mileage of the 
United States and 6 per 
cent of the 394,944 
miles of trackage. Texas 
with 15,831 miles of rail- 
road is the only state 
surpassing Illinois in 
mileage. So thoroughly 
is Illinois supplied with 
railroads that Hardin 
and Calhoun are the 
only counties of Illinois 
without railroads, and 
Nauvoo, a river port in 
Hancock County, is the 
largest town in the state 
without a railroad. The 
largest inland town 

without a railroad is Perry, Pike County, with a population 
of 649 in 1910. 

Electric railroads. — During recent years electric railroads 
have had an important development in Illinois for interurban 
traffic. The street railways of the cities of the state are 
operated entirely by electricity. Electric railroads have usually 
been built between important centers of population already 
connected by steam railroads, and the frequent service and 
central location of passenger terminals have made the electric 
roads a favorite means of travel for short journeys. In a 




THE TOWN ELEVATOR 



The grain elevators of Illinois situated at 
intervals of only a few miles along 13,000 miles 
of railway, bear eloquent testimony to the fer- 
tility and productiveness of Illinois soils. 



242 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



number of instances lines have l)cen established between cities 
without other direct railroad connection with each other, and 
short branch lines have been built to towns having no other 
railroad facilities. The electric railroads of Illinois, including 
elevated railroads, but not street-car hnes, had, in 1914, a 

trackage of 1,912 
miles. 

The horse car, the 
cable car, and the steam 
engine have all dis- 
appeared in city street- 
car systems of the state, 
and electricity has been 
substituted. The cities 
of Illinois had a street- 
railway mileage of 822 
miles in 1914 and a 
trackage of 1,480 miles. 
Public highways^ 
The splendid railway 
systems of Illinois can 
serve the people of the 
state only by having 
direct connection be- 
tween railroad stations 
and farms by means 
of public highways. 
Every bushel of grain, 
every ton of hay, every 
head of hve stock sold 
in Illinois starts to 
market along an ordi- 
nary public highway. I'he food, clothing, building materials, 
machinery, and other necessaries of all the people in city and 
country alike reach the consumer in the last stages of trans- 
portation along public streets and public roads. 

The system of public highways in Illinois has been fully 
laid out and opened to public travel. The entire system 
measures 96,000 miles, eight times the mileage and four times 




TYPICAL COUNTRY ROAD NEAR CKN'ESEO, 
HENRY COUNTY 

The earth roads of Illinois, when properly 
graded, are excellent highways in favorable 
weather, but a comprehensive system of hard- 
surfaced roads is being developed throughout 
the state so that traffic on the principal high- 
ways may move readily in all kinds of weather. 



TRANSPORTATION 



243 



the trackage of the railroads of the state. This system is of 
sufficient length to make forty highways from ocean to ocean 
across the United States. It would reach one-third of the 
distance to the moon. The system needs, not extension, but 
improvement. 

A law was passed in 1917 providing for a state-wide system 
of hard-surfaced roads. Routes were laid out so that this 
system of state highways will reach into every county and to 
cverj' town of 2,000 inhabitants or more. The plan includes 
the construction of 4,800 miles of roads at an estimated cost of 
$60,000,000. The law provides for an increase in the amount 
of motor-vehicle fees. The rates for 1918 were made 50 
per cent higher than in 1917, and for 1919 and thereafter 
double those of 1917. The revenues to be derived from the 
increased fees together with the normal increase in the number 
of motor vehicles have been carefully estimated. It is believed 
that the income from this source alone will be sufficient to 
pay the interest on $60,000,000 worth of bonds, to retire the 
bonds within twenty years, and to furnish a fund sufficient to 
keep the roads always in excellent repair. 

The question of issuing bonds for this enterprise was sub- 
mitted to the voters of the state at the election of November 5, 
1918. It was approved by a large majority, and construction 
began in 1919. 

The following table shows the rapid growth in the use of 
motor vehicles, most of which are automobiles: 

TABLE II 



Year 


Number of 
Licenses 


Fees Collected 


1911 

1912 . 


38,269 
68,012 
94,646 
131,140 
180,832 
248.429 
340,292 
389.761 
478,438 


.$ 105,344.28 
275 716 22 


1913 


507,134.77 
703,403.70 


1914 


1915 


924 905 74 


1916 


1,236,566.35 


1917 


1 58<S,S34 69 


1918 

1919 


2,764,330.28 
3,262,176.57 


Total for 9 years 


1,969,819 


$11,468,412.60 



244 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

The 4,800 miles of highway proposed under the law of 1917 
embraces 5 per cent of the total mileage of the state, and 85 per 
cent of the people of the state live within five miles of these 
roads. It is estimated that with a system of good roads the 
number of motor vehicles will soon increase to 600,000 and the 
annual income from fees to $6,000,000 annually. This will 
be ample to pay the interest and principal of the bonds and to 
keep the roads always in good repair. 

Early stages of state road-building. — The construction of the 
state highway system of hard roads is under the direction of 
the Department of Public Works and Buildings, Division of 
Highways. The roads are of two classes based on the source 
of funds for construction. The Federal Aid Roads, including 
about 800 miles, will be paid for jointly by the state and federal 
governments, and the Stale Aid Roads, 4,000 miles in total 
length, by the state and counties in which the roads are located. 
These two systems are shown on the accompanying map. 
The systems of Federal Aid Roads have been ofificially named as 
follows: Lincoln Highway from Chicago to Clinton, Iowa; 
Chicago-W aukcgan Road from Chicago to Wisconsin state line; 
Chicago- East St. Louis Road from Chicago to East St. Louis 
via Joliet, Ottawa, La Salle, Peoria, Springfield, and Carlinville; 
Dixie Highivay from Chicago to Danville; National Old 
Trails Road from St. Louis to Terre Haute, Indiana. 

During 1919, 575 miles of the Federal Aid Roads were put 
under contract and 170 miles completed; 105 miles of State 
Aid Roads were contracted for and 70 miles completed. These 
contracts were to be completed as early as possible in 1920. 
The contracts of 1920 exceed those of 1919, and year by year 
the system will be rapidly extended to completion. The 
financial and construction plans for this extensive system of 
good roads provide for repair and upkeep, so that excellent 
roads for Illinois seem assured for the future. 

Air transportation. — Heavier-than-air machines were suc- 
cessfully driven through the air over a measured course before 
military authorities by the Wright Brothers in 1908. Steady 
development of the airplane took place until 1914, when, with 
the outbreak of the great world-war, it became a deciding 
factor in military supremacy on the battlefield. On the 



'! BOONE i" 



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246 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



entrance of the United States into the world-war in 1917 
two aviation camps were estabhshed in Illinois: Chanute 
Field at Rantoul, Champaign County, and Scott Field at 
Belleville, St. Clair County. Here hundreds of young men 
received training for service with the American Expeditionary 
Forces on the battle fields of Europe. In their practice flights 
these aviators flew over all parts of the state, and within a 
radius of fifty miles of the aviation camps airplanes were a 
common sight to thousands of spectators. During the world- 
war every effort was put forth to develop the airplane as a 




VIEW OF SPLIT ROCK, NEAR LA SALLE, SHOWING THREE METHODS OF TRANSPORTATION 

The Illinois and Michigan Canal, seen at the right, was first to be constructed; 
then followed the double-tracked railroad one track through a shoit tunnel; and 
finally the electric interurban railroad crossed the scene on a bridge. Split Rock 
is on the crest of the La Salle anticline. (Copyright by Keystone \'iew Company.) 



military machine, and the progress in air navigation has been 
marvelous indeed. With the coming of peace this new method 
of transportation will find a large place in the daily work of 
Illinois and the world. 

A century of transportation. — In the year 1818, when Illinois 
attained statehood, the canoe and the flatboat were in general 
use; the river steamboat traffic was only seven years old on 
western rivers, and the people of the state eagerly forecast 
the wonderful possibihties of the changed conditions of travel. 
In the year 1918, as Illinois was celebrating her first Cen- 
tennial, the inhabitants of the state looked back and considered 



TRA NSPOR TA TION 247 

the story of the rapid rise and more rapid dechne of the river 
steamboat traffic as one of the great chapters in the develop- 
ment of lUinois. We now contemplate the innumerable 
advantages of steam and electric railroads over river and 
canal, and contrast the automobile with the "prairie schooner" 
of pioneer days. We now look forward as eagerly as did our 
forefathers of a century ago to the possibilities of improved 
public highways constructed at state expense. The people 
of 1818 contemplated the future possibilities of steamboat 
navigation on the rivers of the state. We of a century later 
are contemplating the future possibilities of air navigation as 
an everyday method of transportation. 



CHAPTER X\I 
LOCATION AND GROWTH OF CITIES 

Determining factors. — Illinois possesses places which had 
military importance during the periods of exploration, national 
determination, and early settlement. Starved Rock, rising 
abruptly from the Illinois River and the surrounding small 
valleys, was the site of Fort St. Louis, about which La Salle 
and his followers gathered a large Indian population. Fort 
Massac at Metropolis commanded the approach of the Ohio 
River from both directions. Fort Chartres in the northwest 
corner of Randolph County, on the flood plain of the Missis- 
sippi, was once the site of great social and military activity, but 
due to changes in the river channel the remnants of the old 
fort are now more than a mile from the river, and the unin- 
structed traveler along river or highway passes the locality 
unaware of the importance the site had in the early history 
of the lUinois country. Fort Dearborn on the Chicago River 
guarded the Lake Michigan entrance to the Illinois country. 
The sites of three of these military posts are now preserved 
as state parks. They are in the open country. The site of 
Fort Dearborn has become the center of a great commercial 
metropolis, so crowded with mercantile establishments that 
the historic site of the old fort is marked only by a marble 
tablet attached to one of the buildings. Mihtary advan- 
tage alone does not insure the location and growth of a 
great city. 

Political forces have operated in the location and growth 
of Illinois cities to some extent. Congress, at the request of 
the state legislature, granted public land on the Kaskaskia 
River as a site for a new state capital. Vandalia in Fayette 
County was established in 1819 as a result of this legislative 
action. Twenty years later, by vote of the state legislature, 
the capital was removed to Springfield. While Springfield 
was not established by this action, its future importance anrl 
growth were greatly enhanced thereby. 



LOCATION AND GROWTH OF CITIES 249 

The bitter contests waged in a number of Illinois counties, 
sometimes extending over a long period of years, for the pos- 
session of the county seat illustrates the fact that political 
forces operate to mold the development and growth of cities. 
Professor Buck illustrates this point as follows in Illinois in 1818: 

Each of the fifteen counties, with the exception of Franklin, had a 
county seat; but these towns as a rule contained little more than a court- 
house, jail, and tavern, and possibly a general store. That they depended 
for their existence on the county business is evident from the number of 
them which failed to survive the loss of their position as county seat: Pal- 
myra, Brownsville, Covington, Perryville, and even Kaskaskia, are now to 
be found only in the records of the past. 

It does not follow that a place selected as a political center 
has an assured future. 

Religious zeal has been the occasion of the location and 
growth of at least two Illinois cities of importance. Nauvoo, 
Hancock County, on the Mississippi River, was a small village 
of but a few houses prior to 1840. It was then selected by 
the Mormons as a location for a settlement. Within four 
years Nauvoo had a population of 1(3,000. In 1846 the 
Mormons left Nauvoo and migrated to Utah, where they 
founded Salt Lake City. The population of Nauvoo in 1910 
was 1,020. Zion City, Lake County, on the shore of Lake 
Michigan, was founded by John Alexander Dowie and his 
followers in 1902. Its population in 1910 was 4,789. 

While military, political, and religious forces have played 
a part in the location and growth of a few Illinois cities, the 
great compelling factors in the establishment and development 
of centers of population in Illinois, as elsewhere in the world, 
are geographic and economic. These economic forces are 
complex in their nature and operation. They involve oppor- 
tunities for collecting the products of the locality and forward- 
ing them to market; for securing and distributing supplies 
to the community; for obtaining raw materials and fuel or 
power for manufacture; for marketing the manufactured 
product. A simple and comprehensive statement of the opera- 
tion of these economic forces is the following: Population 
and wealth tend to collect wherever there is a break in trans- 
portation} 

' Charles H. Cooley, The Theory of Transportation. 



250 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Breaks in transportation — Cahokia and Kaskaskia, the 
first permanent settlements in Illinois, were made where there 
were breaks in transportation between river and land. Both 
were located so that the pioneers could travel readily either by- 
land or by water. Changes in the river channel wrought impor- 
tant changes for both settlements. Cahokia is now well 
back on the flood plain because of the deposition of sediment. 
Its population in 1910 was 150. The site of Kaskaskia has 
been washed away by the current of the Mississippi. East St. 
Louis, only four miles north of Cahokia, is located at the 
best river crossing from Illinois to St. Louis and it has become 
a flourishing city. Peoria, located at the best place on the 
Illinois River, first for a ford, then for wagon and raflroad 
bridges, led to the convergence of wagon roads and railroads 
from both sides of the river. Peru and La Salle have grown 
up at the break between river and canal transportation of 
pioneer days. Chicago is found at the break between canal 
and lake transportation; between lake and railroad; and 
between railroad and railroad, for not a raflroad passes through 
Chicago; it is the terminus of every railroad that enters. 
It is thus a raflroad focus, rather than simply a railroad center. 

The railroads of Illinois were built to connect centers of 
population already existing, or to connect a center of population 
with a break in transportation. Thus the first railroad con- 
structed from Springfield to the Illinois River aided the inhabit- 
ants of the inland region to reach the river, where steamboat 
accommodations were readily secured. The raflroad built 
between Chicago and Galena connected the two most impor- 
tant cities of northern Illinois at that time. As soon as a rafl- 
road is in operation, it makes numerous breaks in transportation 
between raflroad and wagon road, and the number of possible 
town sites, each located at a break in transportation, is limited 
only by the speculations of the human mind. On many 
hundreds of such locations throughout Illinois, villages, towns, 
and cities have been established. The numerous raflroad 
stations of the state at which the grain elevator is the principal 
place of business speak emphaticafly of agricultural prosperity. 
Every grain elevator of the state marks a break in transporta- 
tion, and their taU, gaunt structures at intervals of only a few 



LOCATION AND GROWTH OF CITIES 251 

miles along every railroad give pleasure to the mind of the 
traveler who interprets them in terms of the productiveness 
and prosperity for which they stand. No village is founded 
at a distance from a railroad, if a railroad location is accessible. 
Many thriving villages of Illinois, established before railroad 
development, have continued as community centers, although 
not reached by a railroad, but they have not grown in popula- 
tion and importance. 

Shifting the break in transportation. — Before the advent 
of the railroad all thriving commercial centers in Illinois were 
river, canal, or lake ports, or within easy wagon haul of a 
port. The railroad system of the state brought about pro- 
found changes in both actual and relative importance of 
previously established town sites. In the days of steamboat 
traffic Oquawka, Henderson County, was a busy shipping 
point on the Mississippi. It was carefully considered as a 
suitable point at which to cross the Mississippi. The decision, 
however, fell to Burlington, Iowa. In 1910 Oquawka had a 
population of 907; Burlington 24,324. Shawneetown, during 
the days of river steamboat traffic, was the most important 
city in southern Illinois. Its importance decreased with the 
decline of river traffic. 

The effect on Illinois towns of shifting the transportation 
break from river ports to railroad centers appeared in a striking 
manner among the river ports of the middle Illinois River. 

The Illinois river towns that obtained good railroad connections did 
not suffer greatly from the decline of river trade. This was especially true 
of Peoria, which became a great railroad center for the same reasons that 
it had before been an important road center, and which also developed 
extensive manufacturing interests. It was true to less extent of Pekin. 
To every other river town within the area considered in the report [Depue to 
Pekin] the passing of the steamboat was a serious blow, and several suffered 
an actual decrease in population. 

Depue had been the great shipping point for an extensive area west of 
the river, and enjoyed a large trade until near the close of the fifties. By 
that time the back country had important railroad lines, and the farmers 
ceased to haul grain to the river with its decreasing shipping facilities. 
The trade of Depue, except from the immediate vicinity, soon ceased. 

Hennepin experienced a decline similar to that of Depue. It had a 
population of 711 in 1857, and a large commerce, but having lost its 
river trade and being without any railroad, each census since 1S60 has 
recorded a decrease in population, that of 19U0 being only 523 [1910, 451]. 

The population statistics of Henry tell of a period of rapid growth under 
the influence of river trade, and one of relative stagnation following the 



252 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

passing of the steamboat. The substantial growth of the place began in 
1844 with the multiplication of steamboats above Peoria. It contained 
400 people in 1850. During the next six years the population increased over 
fourfold, reaching 1,064 in 1S56. Since the loss of its river trade the town 
has been essentially at a standstill, having in 1900 only 1,637 inhabitants 
[1910, 1,687]. The story is again repeated, in principle, in the case of 
Lacon. In the late fifties this place had nearly 2,000 inhabitants, but it was 
nearly stationar\' between 1860 and 1870, and since the latter date it has 
steadily lost [1910, 1,495). Lacon's railroad service is far less satisfactory 
than that of Henry, since it is situated at the end of a branch line. 

The decay of Spring Bay is particularly striking. In its best days, it is 
said to have had eight or nine warehouses to which practically all the farmers 
of Woodford County hauled their grain. In the spring eight or nine steam- 
boats might be seen at the levee at a single time loading for the down-river 
market. The disappearance of the steamboats and the opening of railroads 
to the east of Spring Bay, running parallel to the river, proved a death 
blow to the town. Most of the inhabitants moved away, and the last ware- 
house was destroyed years ago [population 1910, 119]. Chillicothe has had 
a happier history. Like the other river towns mentioned, it suffered from the 
loss of its river grain trade, but it was fortunate in later becoming a junc- 
tion point between two important railroads. Its population accordingly 
increased rapidly between 1880 and 1890, but it has been nearly stationary 
since [population 1910, 1,851].' 

The influence on the towns of the middle IlUnois \'alley 
of the competition of railroad traffic with river transportation 
is typical of changes which took place along other stretches of 
the Illinois River and along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. 
The same forces operated also in the competition between new 
towns established on railroad lines and older towns which had 
flourished on overland wagon routes, but were not favored by a 
railroad. 

Railroad centers. — Along every railroad, towns have been 
established at intervals of a few miles, usually less than ten 
miles. These numerous stations are necessary to reduce the 
amount of wagon haul of bulky products such as grain, lumber, 
and coal, for wagon transport is many times as expensive per 
ton-mile as carriage by railroad. The intersection of two 
railroads is not necessarily marked by an important town, but 
the railroad station is usually there and provision made for 
exchange of passengers and freight between the two railroads. 
A town of importance may develop to serve the surrounding 
community. The transportation facilities are better than when 
only one raflroad is present. The intersection of three or more 
railroads is very likely to give rise to a town of local importance. 

' H. H. Barrows, Geography of Ihc Middle Illinois Valley. 



LOCATION AND GROWTH OF CITIES 253 

Three roads lead out in six directions from the center if all are 
through lines. Quincy is the sixth city of the state and the 
largest with only three railroads. If the attention is centered 
on the railroad lines of a railroad map, the location of the 
important cities will be evident by the convergence of the 
railroads at these cities. As the number of railroads entering 
a city increase, the opportunities for transfer of passengers 
and freight increases; additional areas of production are 
made available for raw materials; markets are brought into 
more direct contact with the manufacturer; and continued 
growth and prosperity are assured. 



CHAPTER X\TI 

CHICAGO AND OTHER CTHES OF THE 
LAKE BASIN 

Plan of treatment. — The United States census of 1910 
gives for Illinois 144 cities having a population of 2,500 or 
more. There are several hundred smaller towns and villages 
with populations between 100 and 2,500. No attempt is here 
made to deal with individual cities in detail, but an effort is 
made to give a bird's-eye view of the cities of the state in their 
geographical setting with reference to each other and to the 
surface features of the state. To this end the cities are grouped 
according to the drainage basins described in chapter iv. 
Within the group the cities are mentioned in an order easily 
followed on the map. A few leading facts are given concerning 
many of the cities. All of the 144 cities having a population 
of 2,500 or more are referred to in the text, and in parentheses 
the population according to the census of 1910 is given. Many 
towns and villages with smaller populations are mentioned 
with census figures inserted. 

A region of urban population. — That part of the land surface 
of Illinois lying in the Lake Michigan Basin has an area of 
722 square miles or 1.3 per cent of that of the state. This 
region comprises portions of Lake, Cook, and Will counties. 
The total area, however, is 211 square miles less than that of 
Cook County alone. The region is 80 miles in its north-south 
extent, and it varies from 4 to 20 miles in width from the lake 
shore. On this area are found 18 of the 144 cities of the state 
large enough to be classified as "urban." The combined popu- 
lation (1910) of these 18 cities is 2,334,967, or 67 per cent of the 
urban population of the state and 41 per cent of the total 
population of the state. In addition to these 18 cities, the 
region contains more than a score of other villages and small 
cities and hundreds of farms. The population of these 
villages and farms probably does not exceed 25,000, or about 
1 per cent of the population of the basin. 



CHAPTER XMI 

CHICAGO AND OTHER CTFIES OF THE 
LAKE BASIN 

Plan of treatment. — The United States census of 1910 
gives for Illinois 144 cities having a population of 2,500 or 
more. There are several hundred smaller towns and villages 
with populations between 100 and 2,500. No attempt is here 
made to deal with individual cities in detail, but an effort is 
made to give a bird's-eye view of the cities of the state in their 
geographical setting with reference to each other and to the 
surface features of the state. To this end the cities are grouped 
according to the drainage basins described in chapter iv. 
Within the group the cities are mentioned in an order easily 
followed on the map. A few leading facts are given concerning 
many of the cities. All of the 144 cities having a population 
of 2,500 or more are referred to in the text, and in parentheses 
the population according to the census of 1910 is given. Many 
towns and villages with smaller populations are mentioned 
with census figures inserted. 

A region of urban population. — That part of the land surface 
of Illinois lying in the Lake Michigan Basin has an area of 
722 square miles or 1.3 per cent of that of the state. This 
region comprises portions of Lake, Cook, and Will counties. 
The total area, however, is 211 square miles less than that of 
Cook County alone. The region is 80 miles in its north-south 
extent, and it varies from 4 to 20 miles in width from the lake 
shore. On this area are found 18 of the 144 cities of the state 
large enough to be classified as "urban." The combined popu- 
lation (1910) of these 18 cities is 2,334,967, or 67 per cent of the 
urban population of the state and 41 per cent of the total 
population of the state. In addition to these 18 cities, the 
region contains more than a score of other villages and small 
cities and hundreds of farms. The population of these 
villages and farms probably does not exceed 25,000, or about 
1 per cent of the population of the basin. 



I^nil-worth 




KILOMETERS 



Ievamstok: 



CHICAGO AND VICINITY, SHOWING THE DRAINAGE CANAL AND THE BELT-LINE RAILWAYS 
The quadrangle represented on this map contains about 4 per cent of the land area and 45 per cent of the population of I|tiii 



CITIES OF THE LAKE BASIN 255 

Chicago alone, with its area of 200 square miles, occupies 
more than one-fourth of the entire Lake Basin in Illinois. 
The population of Chicago (1910) comprises 93 per cent of the 
total of the 18 cities of this region, 63 per cent of the total 
urban population of the state, and 39 per cent of the entire 
population of the state. Chicago has an average of 11,000 per- 
sons per square mile. The average density for the region of 
722 square miles is 3,200 per square mile; for the area outside 
of Chicago 335 per square mile, or only one-half as great as 
the average density of the whole of England. The average 
density of the state as a whole is 100 per square mile; that 
part outside of the Lake Basin has a density of 59 per square 
mile. Thus the Lake Michigan shore of Illinois is pre- 
eminently the urban district of the state, and if the lake shore 
is followed eastward beyond the state line its urban character 
is evidenced by the closely built cities of Lake County, Indiana. 

CHICAGO 
POPULATION 2,701,705 IN 1920 

Location. — Chicago occupies a frontage of 26 miles along 
the southwest shore of Lake Michigan, lying to the west 
rather than to the south of the lake. The distance in a direct 
line from Chicago to New York City is 700 miles; to Jackson- 
ville, Florida, 850 miles; to New Orleans, 800 miles; to San 
Francisco, 1,800 miles; to Denver, 900 miles; to St. Paul 
and Minneapolis, 350 miles; to St. Louis, 260 miles. Railroad 
distances are somewhat greater. 

The central part of the city is in 41° 53' north latitude and 
87° 38' west longitude. The extreme north-south extent of the 
city is 26 miles; the east-west extent, 15 miles. The area 
within the city limits is 200 square miles, or one-fifth of Cook 
County. The Chicago Plain, on which the city is built, was 
once covered by Lake Chicago, the glacial ancestor of Lake 
Michigan. The waters of this ancient lake flowed southwest- 
ward through the Chicago Outlet into the Des Plaines 
Valley, thence into the Illinois Valley. The highest point 
along this outlet is at the village of Summit, only 12 feet above 
the level of Lake Michigan. This outlet furnishes easy 



256 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

passage across the broad, rolling Valparaiso moraine from the 
Lake Michigan Basin to the basin of the Mississippi. Here 
the early explorers and first settlers found a portage. No 
other route was possible for the Illinois and Michigan Canal 
and for the Chicago Drainage Canal. Early railroads and 
more recent electric lines follow the same level pathway. 
Wherever these transportation lines terminate to the westward, 
one terminus is fixed by nature at Chicago on the level plain 
once the bottom of a glacial lake. 




TALL BUILDINGS ON MICHIGAN AVENUE 

111 the foreground is a portion of the "outer harbor," along the shore 
is this row of tall buildintcs along Michigan Avenue, includ- 

The exact location of early settlements in Chicago was 
determined by the Chicago River, then a small stream less 
than two miles in length formed by the junction of the North 
Branch and the South Branch of the Chicago River. The city 
has expanded so that within its limits are now included all of 
the Chicago River, all of the South Branch, much of the North 
Branch, and the mouth of the Calumet River, 12 miles south 
of the Chicago River. The shallow and sluggish streams which 
furnished safe retreat for the canoes of the explorers and early 
traders have been deepened and widened into the extensive 
harbors of a great port where land and water transportation 
meet to give Chicago its pre-eminence among the cities of the 
Great Central Plain. 



CITIES OF THE LAKE BASIN 257 

Influence of waterways. — The position and extent of the 
Great Lakes, more than any other natural factors, contribute 
to the rapid and substantial growth of Chicago. Without the 
Great Lakes, Chicago would have no advantage of position 
over many other cities located on the Central Plain. If the 
area of the Great Lakes were fertile plains, St. Louis, Indian- 
apolis, and other inland cities would have better locations 
within the Great Plain than Chicago. Lake Michigan, more 
than 300 miles in length, with a width of 50 to SO miles, imposes 



FROM THE BREAKWATER, CHICAGO 

are the Illinois Central Railroad tracks, then Grant Park, beyond which 
ing some of Chicago's largest hotels and business houses 

an impassable barrier to land transportation along the shortest 
routes from the East to the Far West and Northwest, thus 
forcing all railroad transportation for these regions around the 
southern tip of the lake to Chicago. The Lake Michigan 
barrier to land transport is continued northward by the Straits, 
Lake Huron, and Lake Superior to the northern shore of 
Lake Superior, a distance of 500 miles from the southern shore 
of Lake Michigan. 

The Great Lakes serve Chicago not only by compelling 
railroad lines to focus here, but also by placing at the door of the 
city, free of charge, the most extensive inland deep-waterway 
system in the world. Thus from earliest times Chicago has had 
an open road of 800 miles to Duluth at the head of Lake 



258 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 





BASCULE BRIDGE, CHICAGO RIVKR 

The continuous street traffic across the 
Chicafio River requires that bridges be opened 
and closed for vessels as quickly as possible. 
The bascule bridge meets this need. 



Superior and 900 miles to Buffalo at the foot of Lake Erie. 
By the construction of canals without special expense to 

Chicago these water 
routes have been ex- 
tended across Illinois to 
the streams of the Missis- 
sippi Basin; across New 
York state to the Hudson 
River and the Atlantic; 
across Canada to Lake 
Ontario, the St. Lawrence, 
and the ocean. The 
Great Lakes have made 
Chicago the greatest rail- 
way focus and the great- 
est inland port of the 
world. The accompany- 
ing table reveals inter- 
esting contrasts between the commerce of the two Chicago 
harbors. For example, all iron ore and all wheat received enter 
Calumet River, but Chi- 
cago River sliips by lake 
one-half as much wheat 
as Calumet River. All 
lumber, railroad ties, and 
sugar were received at 
Chicago River. The 
number of vessels enter- 
ing and clearing at Calu- 
met River is only 27 per 
cent of the total number 
for the two harbors, 
while the registered ton- 
nage of the vessels en- 
tering and clearing at 
Calumet River is GO per 
cent of the total tonnage 
of the port. The larger boats are used for the bulky freight 
entering the Calumet River. 




ELEVATOR ON SOUTH BRANCH OF CHICAGO RIVER 

Huge grain elevators are built at important 
grain markets. This elevator is so located 
that grain may be received from railroad cars 
and shipped avvav by lake boats. (Photograph 
by VV. D. Jones.) 



CITIES OF THE LAKE BASIN 



259 



TABLE I 
Lake Commerce of Chicago, 1917 
(From Report of Collector of Customs) 



Commodity 


In 


Chicago 
River 


Calumet 
River 


Total 




Receipts in Tons 


Coal, hard 

Coal, soft 

Iron ore 


Tons 

Tons 

Tons 

Tons 

Tons 

M feet 

Pieces 

Tons 

Bushels 

Bushels 

Tons 


452,885 
4,340 


192,580 

796,237 

7,227,770 

3,000 

200 


645,465 

800.577 

7,227,770* 


Salt 

Iron, manufactured 


101,675 
633 

87,886 
49,635 
13,830 


104,675 
833 

87,886 






49,635 


Sugar 

Wheat 




13,830 


349,390 


349,390 




546,661 

577,702 


546,661 


Unclassified 


1,010,061 


1,587,763 








Shipments in Tons 


Flour 

Wheat 


Tons 

Bushels 

Bushels 

Bushels 

Tons 

Tons 

Barrels 

Tons 

Barrelst 


44,483 

923,053 

575,808 

1,300,036 

16,863 

1,661 

200 

428,419 


25 
1,976,355 
1,701,715 
4,040,781 


44,508 
2,899,408 
2,277,523 


Oats 


5,340,817 


Mill stuff. 


16,863 






1,661 


Pork 


525 


200 


Unclassified 


428,944 


Oil 













* This is exclusive of 3,801,585 tons at Gary and 910,876 tons at Indiana 
Harbor. 

t 1,853,750 barrels of oil were shipped from Indiana Harbor, Ind. 



TABLE II 

Number of Vessels Which Entered and Cleared at the Port of 
Chicago during the Year 1917, and Their Registered Tonnage 

Entrances, Chicago River, 3,089 vessels, registered tonnage, 2,999,044 
Entrances, Calumet River, 1,153 vessels, registered tonnage, 4,635,525 



Total . 



4,242 7,634,569 



Clearances, Chicago River, 3,112 vessels, registered tonnage, 3,044,332 
Clearances, Calumet River, 1,186 vessels, registered tonnage, 4,729,253 



Total . 



4,298 7,773,585 



200 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



The service of the railway. — The coming of the railroad 
added to Chicago's imiwrlancc as a hike port. The topography 

of the Great PLiin per- 
mitted the building of 
railroads in all direc- 
tions. Chicago, be- 
cause of its superior 
water transportation, 
became the focus of all 
railroads of the region. 
By having one termi- 
nus at Chicago and 
radiating north, west, 
south, and east the rail- 
roads bound the terri- 
tory into which they 
penetrated, all the more 
closely to this center. 
The lakes brought from 
the older East the im- 




LIGHTHOUSE, CHICAGO 

The national government began the im- 
provement of the "outer harbor" in 1833. 
The river mouth is protected from the silting 
shore currents by breakwaters. The lighthouse 
enables ships to enter the harbor safely at night. 




plements and the manu- 
factures needed beyond 
Chicago. As the radiat- 
ing lines of railroad 
rapidly grew in number 
and in length, larger 
areas were readily fur- 
nished with settlers and 
goods from the East. 
These pioneers at once 
produced surplus crops 
which the railroads 
promptly landed at Chi- 
cago for transshipment 
by water. 

Chicago's industrial 
and commercial influ- 
ence thus increased with the extension of the radiating railroad 
lines. The period of most rapid railroad development was from 



iHAI.NI ICLI';\A1( 



HICAGO RIVER, CHICAGO 



Grain elevators are located up the river 
beyond the regions of congested railroad and 
harbor traffic, thus making transfer from 
railroad to lake steamer less difficult. 



CITIES OF THE LAKE BASIN 261 

1850, when Illinois had IK) miles of railroad, to ISSO, when 
7,851 miles, 60 per cent of the present total mileage of the 
state, had been completed. The establishment of through 
railroad service to the East increased greatly the rapidity with 
which passengers and goods could be carried between the 
East and the West. Although the freight rates favored, and 
still favor, the water route, the railroad because of its extension 
to all productive regions and its rapid and frequent service 
at moderate cost has become the leading transportation factor 
in the development of Chicago. The ever-present choice, 
however, between water transport and railroad served to 
give Chicago the best possible rates; while the necessity for 
the cheapest possible freight rates on commodities of great 
bulk per unit of value, such as coal, lumber, and iron ore, led 
to steady and permanent growth in lake traffic. 

Chicago is now the terminus of 22 great railroad systems 
and of 17 smaller railroads; 40 per cent of the railway mileage 
of the United States, more than 100,000 miles, terminates at 
Chicago. The railroad belt lines encircling the city total 1,400 
miles, one-third of the belt-line mileage of the United States. 
The outer belt line extends from Waukegan through Elgin, 
Aurora, Joliet, and Chicago Heights, to Gary, Indiana. 

The magnitude of Chicago's railroad service to the nation 
is suggested by the following facts of 1919: More than 100 
railway yards are established for the receipt, transfer, and dis- 
patch of freight shipments; 315 freight-receiving stations are 
located at convenient points throughout the city; 2,500 
through package cars leave Chicago daily for 1,800 shipping 
points in 44 states; more than 17,000,000 head of live stock 
are received at Chicago in a year; 1,339 passenger trains and 
192,000 passengers arrive and depart from Chicago railway 
stations daily, the equivalent of 70,000,000 railroad journeys 
per year, or 25 trips annually for every inhabitant of Chicago. 
The position of Chicago as the focus of competitive railroad 
systems reaching to all parts of the continent and as the chief 
lake port of the Great Lakes gives the city commercial su- 
premacy because it has the choice of transportation by rail- 
road or by water. This privilege of choice on the part of 
Chicago shippers gives the best obtainable freight rates by both 



2G2 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

land and water and reacts favorably on the growth of the city 
by attracting additional factories, wholesale houses, business 
offices, and transportation lines with their army of workers. 

Tributary regions. — A city develops only as it can draw 
from accessible regions raw materials for manufacture and sale 
and send into surrounding areas manufactured articles and 
other commodities brought from distant regions. With its 
extensive water routes, and especially with its network of 
railroads spreading out like a spider's web over the United 
States, Canada, and Mexico, Chicago lays tribute on all the 
regions of the continent, and through the ports of the Atlantic, 
Pacific, and the Gulf on all the regions of the world. The 
Great Central Plain is her favored area with its wealth of coal 
in Illinois, Indiana, and other states; of lead and zinc in 
Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma; of forests in the lake region 
and in the southern states; and especially with the abundance 
of cereals and live stock throughout the vast area of the 
Central Plain, the most extensive agricultural region of the 
world. These materials, produced from mine and forest, 
farm and ranch, find their way to Chicago in larger quantities 
than to any other city. Here they may be transshipped 
to more distant markets, or they may be manufactured into 
more valuable products for later shipment. 

But the transportation lines centering at Chicago reach 
westward far beyond the limits of the Great Central Plain and 
carry mineral products and live stock from the Plateau states; 
lumber, fruit, and fish from the Pacific Coast states; lish, furs, 
and minerals from Alaska; silk, tea, and other products from 
the Orient. A larger number of railroad and steamship lines 
reach eastward carrying vast stores of the western products for 
use in regions of the East and in Europe, and bringing back to 
Chicago anthracite coal and bituminous coking coal from 
Pennsylvania, and manufactured goods froni the East and from 
other continents. Chicago is thus the complex product of the 
interplay of economic forces centered most largely in the Great 
Central Plain, but reaching out to the most distant regions of 
North America and the world. 

A world-mart. — With the world's richest agricultural area 
at one door, the world's finest and most extensive inland 



CITIES OF THE LAKE BASIN 



263 



waterway at the other, and with superior railroad and steam- 
ship connections with all the world, Chicago may rightly claim 
the title frequently given, "The Great Central Market." Here 
the raw materials of manufacture, whether from farm, ranch, 
mine, or forest, are readily assembled, and two-thirds of the 




A BUSY DAY IN SOUTH WATER STREET PRODUCE MARKET, CHICAGO 

South Water Street, the first street south of ChicaKo River and parallel with it, 
is one of the greatest wholesale centers in the world for food products. It is about a 
half-mile in length. Grocers from all parts of Chicago come here daily to replenish 
their stocks. (Copyright by Keystone View Company.) 



manufacturing of Illinois is carried on in this central workshop. 
The manufactured products, whatever their weight or their 
size, find transportation facilities ever ready to carry them 
promptly and cheaply to the most distant markets of our own 



264 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



and other lands. The value of Chicago's manufactures for 
1918, a year of war-time production, was $4,300,000,000. The 
value for a normal year is about $3,000,000,000. 




HA-VMARKET SQUARE, CHICAGO 

Haymarket Square is a West Side market. Provision was made for it by 
widening West Randolph Street between Jefferson and North Halsted streets. 




CHU \< II il\l r<iK \ND WAREHOUSES 

The Chicago River and its two branches, widened and deepened, form the 
"inner harbor" where the actual loading and unloading of ships take place. (Photo- 
graph by Eugene J. Hall.) 

But Chicago's distribution of products is not limited to 
those of her own making. Her world-transportation service 
invites the jobber and the wholesale merchant to seek this 



CITIES OF THE LAKE BASIN 265 

Great Central Market as a center for gathering the world's 
products in numerous and extensive warehouses for re- 
distribution to thousands of smaller cities and villages through- 
out our own land and beyond the seas. The food merchant 
of Chicago thus brings together every variety of food product 
for which there is a demand — brcadstuffs, vegetables, nuts, 
fruits, spices, sea foods, and delicacies of every kind. The 
clothing merchant provides the widest possible choice of 
fabrics and furs, both domestic and foreign. The merchants 
in various building materials carry immense stocks of lumber 
and other building supplies ready for immediate delivery 
wherever needed. The wholesale trade of Chicago in 1918 
was $3,300,000,000. 

Thus the favorable location of Chicago and the enterprise 
of her merchants have extended her commercial activities to 
all lands of the earth, making the city a market for articles of 
commerce of every kind from every land. 

An educational center. — Chicago has obtained and main- 
tained her position as a great city not only through natural 
advantages and commercial enterprise, but the people of the 
city have realized that permanent growth and progress can 
be secured only by a broad and sound educational system 
of schools of all grades. Educational advantages of the most 
varied sort are therefore awaiting the student of the immediate 
locality or of more distant regions. 

The public schools alone, supported wholly by taxation, 
have buildings, grounds, and equipment valued at $6,000,000. 
There are 300 elementary schools, 21 high schools, a normal 
school, and two corrective schools for boys. The public 
schools employ 8,000 teachers and enrol 350,000 pupils. 
The annual expenditures for public-school education passed 
the $20,000,000 mark in 1918. Free evening schools invite 
thousands of workers to continue their education. The public 
schools co-operate with the Small Parks Commission in pro- 
viding recreation grounds for the public after school hours. 

Higher education is provided by various institutions. 
The University of Chicago within the city and Northwestern 
University at Evanston are among the great universities of the 
nation, and they attract students from distant regions and 



266 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



from foreign lands. De Paul University, Loyola University, 
the Art Institute, Armour Institute of Technology, and Lewis 
Institute are important educational institutions. The educa- 
tional facilities of the Young ]\Ien's Christian Association 
furnish opportunities to large numbers. The conservatories 
of music are widely known. The city is a center for schools of 
law, theology, medicine, pharmacy, and dentistry. Business 
schools and trade schools enable students to obtain instruction 
in many specialized fields. The development of educational 




SCENE IN DOUGLAS PARK PLAYGROUND, CHICAGO 

Douglas Park, on the West Side, is one of Chicago's fourteen large parks. 
Well-equipped playgrounds make the parks attractive places for children. 



opportunities has kept pace with rapidly growing commercial 
and industrial activities. 

Chicago today. — In 1850 the population of Chicago num- 
bered 30.000; in 1910, 2,100,000; and in 1920, 2,700,000. The 
city limits have expanded from 10 square miles, when the city 
was incorporated in 1837, to 200 square miles at present. 

Within the city there are l-i large parks, 193 small parks 
and playgrounds, and 70 miles of boulevards. The parks 
and boulevards include 5,000 acres of land. The animals of 
Lincoln Park, the extensive flower displays in many parks, the 
landscape architecture of parks and boulevards, the bathing 



CITIES OF THE LAKE BASIN 



267 



beaches and natatoriums, provide attractive places for rest, 
recreation, and driving. The total attendance at parks and 
playgrounds in a single year numbers 36,000,000, or 14 times 




NORTH SHORE BATHING BEACH, CHICAGO 

In the summer the bathing beaches vie with the parks as centers of recreation and sport 




LAKE SHORE DRIVE, CHICAGO, LOOKING NORTH 

Lake Shore Drive parallels the shore of Lake Michigan from the business 
district of Chicago to Lincoln Park. North of Lincoln Park, Sheridan Road follows 
the lake shore. 



268 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



llie poi)ulali<)n of the city. Local transportation is furnished 
by more than 1, ()()() miles of street railways and by four ele- 
vated railways. The number of cash and transfer rides daily 
exceeds the total poi)ulation of the city. More people arrive 
and depart daily from the passenger depots of Chicago than 
the combined population of the two largest Illinois cities outside 
of Chicago. The buildings for schools, churches, Hbraries, and 
museums are among the best of their kind. A half-million 
workers find employment in factories, stores, transportation, 
and other pursuits. The downtown shopping district displays 

the wares of the world 
in artistic fashion. The 
combined deposits of 
130 banks amount to 
$1,500,000,000, more 
than $500 per person. 
The bank clearances for 
a single year amount 
to $36,000,000,000, an 
amount greater than 
that spent by any one 
nation in the world-war. 
A daily water supply of 
671,000,000 gallons is 
pumped through 3,871 
miles of water pipes. 
The annual receipts of the Chicago post-oflice have passed 
the $30,000,000 mark, a sum 50 per cent greater than the 
generous expenditure for public schools. The post-office 
handles in one year 1,700,000,000 pieces of mail, the equivalent 
of one letter or package for every inhabitant of the globe. 
Within the span of a single lifetime 200 square miles of open 
prairie land, much of it made up of marshes and swamps, has 
been transformed into the fourth city of the world with an 
economic, educational, and spiritual foundation which insures 
future progressive development. 

A visit to the metropolis. — Whether a visitor is to spend a 
day or a week or a month in Chicago, it is possible for him to 
get such first-hand knowledge of the city that it will guide him 




TENNIS COURTS IN lHjI.jL\b P\KK, CHICAGO 

Tennis courts and baseball diamonds are 
provided for the use of those who enjoy out- 
door sports. 



CITIES OF THE LAKE BASIN 



269 



in his future reading and study about the city. Even if alone 
and a stranger, the visitor need lose no time in getting person- 
ally acquainted with the important landmarks of the city. 
The Chicago River and its two tributaries, the North Branch 
and the South Branch, divide the city into three parts: North 
Side, South Side, and West Side. The center of business 
activity from which radiate the street-car lines and elevated 




STATE STREET, CHICAGO 



The total length of State Street is 17 miles, 
found the greatest shopping district of Chicago. 



Along one mile of this distance is 



railways to the three divisions of the city is commonly known 
as the "downtown district" or the "loop district." The trains 
on all elevated railways use a common "loop" on Lake Street, 
Wells Street, Van Buren Street, and Wabash Avenue for the 
handling of trains and the transfer of passengers. From the 
loop district, surface cars and elevated trains carry pas- 
sengers to every part of the city by direct route or easy 
transfer. All central passenger depots are in or near the loop 
district. 



270 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

The visitor will find within the loop, or within easy walking 
distance, a number of places which will interest him and give 
him valuable first-hand knowledge of the city. Within or 
near the "loop" are the leading hotels and theaters; the county 
courthouse and city hall; the city library; the Art Institute; 
Field Museum of Natural History; State Street shopping 
district; and South Water Street, a world-famous market for 
produce. The North Side street-car lines enable the visitor to 




LOOKING NORTH FROM CORNER OF JACKSON BOULEVARD AND 
DEARBORN STREET, CHICAGO 

The striking difiference in heights of buildings is evident when seen from above. 
A crowded business district finds more space by tearing down old, low structures and 
erecting modern skyscrapers. 

reach the Newberry Library, Chicago Historical Library, 
Lincoln Park, Evanston, and Northwestern University. West 
Side transportation lines may be taken to Douglas, Garfield, 
and Humboldt parks, to Oak Park, Riverside, and other 
suburban towns. South Side lines give ready access to the 
stockyards and packing houses; to Washington and Jackson 
parks, the University of Chicago, and South Side suburbs. 
Electric interurban trains or frequent suburban service on the 



CITIES OF THE LAKE BASIN 



271 



steam railroads makes it possible for the visitor to spend a day 
ill any of the interesting suburbs or larger cities within the 
radius of Waukegan, Elgin, Aurora, Joliet, and Chicago 
Heights in Illinois, and Hammond, Gary, and Michigan City, 
Indiana. During the summer season lake excursions may be 
taken along the lake front within the city limits to Michigan 
City, Indiana, St. Joseph, Benton Harbor, and Grand Haven, 
Michigan, and to Milwaukee, the metropolis of Wisconsin. 



!i!i';«1 




STATE STREET, CHICAGO, LOOKING NORTH FROM VAN BUREN STREET 

The broad street and wide sidewalks make it possible to accommodate the 
throngs of people who daily visit State Street's famous shopping district. 



Whether the visitor plans to stay in Chicago for a few days 
only, or for a more extended visit, a working knowledge of the 
geography of the city and the local transportation facilities 
may be gained by brief visits to a few of the places of general 
interest in each of the larger divisions of the city. 

The outlook. — The rapid growth of Chicago from the time 
of its earliest settlement to a city of first rank has never been 
equaled by any other city. Incorporated in 1837, it reached 



272 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

the 100,000 class of cities in 1860, the 1,000,000 group in 1890, 
the 2,000,000 group in 1910. London, New York, and Paris 
arc the only larger centers of population today. These three 
larger cities had centuries of growth to their credit before the 
white man built his first cabin within the present city limits 
of Chicago. The problems of development which now confront 
Chicago are no longer those of pioneer days, but the problems 
which come to well-established cities of centuries of growth 
as commercial and industrial centers. Within its area of 200 
square miles there is still ample room for growth in all lines of 
city development. Wise administration of the city govern- 
ment, co-operation among the moral and industrial forces of 
the city, organization for genuine service to the vast tributary 
regions, cordial helpfulness to the thousands of visitors, and 
the individual enterprise of her citizens will give to Chicago as 
remarkable achievement during the second century of Illinois 
statehood as during the first. 

OTHER CITIES OF THE LAKE BASIN 

Along the North Shore. — The distance from the Illinois- 
Wisconsin boundary line to the city limits of Chicago is 35 miles. 
The distance between railroad stations along the lake front 
averages less than two miles. Eight cities along this route 
had, in 1910, populations varying from 3,168 to 24,978 with 
a total of 65,000. Smaller communities contained a total 
permanent population of about 10,000. The next census 
returns will doubtless show a large increase in the number of 
people living under the favorable conditions of North Shore 
cities. The military and naval population of 1918 under the 
pressure of Great War activities at the Great Lakes Naval 
Training Station and at Fort Sheridan probably equaled the 
total permanent population of the North Shore. 

Zion City (4,789) is located within three miles of the state 
line. Founded in 1900, and incorporated in 1902 by John 
Alexander Dowie and his religious followers, the open country 
became a thriving city in a remarkably short time. Its most 
important industry is a lace factory, established at the time 
the city was founded. 



CITIES OF THE LAKE BASIN 



273 



Waukegan (16,069) is the county scat and largest city of 
Lake County, containing more than one-fourth of the popula- 
tion of the county. Waukegan is served mainly Ijy railroads, 
but some commerce is carried on by lake. 

North Chicago (3,306) adjoins Waukegan on the south and 
is an extension of the 
Waukegan industrial 
district. Its population 
is growing rapidly. 

Great Lakes, just 
to the south of North 
Chicago, is the site of 
the Great Lakes Naval 
Training Station. The 
following statements 
written in the latter 
part of 1917 show how, 
through active warfare. 
Great Lakes became a 
great center of training: 




SHILOH TABERNACLE, ZION CITY, 
LAKE COUNTY 

Zion City was founded in 1900 by John 
Alexander Dowie and his religious followers. 
This tabernacle is large enough to seat almost 
the entire population of the city. 



The history of the Great Lakes Naval Training Station falls naturally 
into two epochs — the period embraced before the declaration of war and 
that subsequent. 

The station was established by an act of Congress approved April 27, 
1904, and ground was broken the following year. In 1911 there were 23 
buildings on the station. From a hamlet with 1,500 inhabitants, to a 
bustling city of more than 15,000 men, has been the growth of Great Lakes 
since 1916. During the summer months there were about 5,000 tents in the 
camp, but with the wintry blasts of November the boys were tucked away in 
the new quarters where 25,000 youngsters can be accommodated com- 
fortably. 

Great Lakes today prides itself on being the largest university in the 
world. Here there is a larger enrollment, more subjects taught, and more 
faculty experts, than in any other institution of leariiing on the educational 
lists. 

Great Lakes has the largest single radio district in the United States, 
and one of the best schools. The communication radius of the station is 
approximately 2,000 miles, with records of messages as far as Japan, Ger- 
many, and Honolulu. 

Great Lakes in 1917 became the base of a fleet of training ships which 
plied the inland seas all summer, taking new crews on practically every 
trip. More than 50,000 men have been graduated to battleships after 
receiving their preliminary training at Great Lakes.' 



' Souvenir History, U.S. Naval Training Station, Great Lakes. 



274 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



The high level of Great Lakes Naval Training Station 
was reached in August, 191S, when 50,000 men were in training 
at one time. A total of more than 200,000 received training here 
during the period of the war. In addition to training seamen, 
three special schools are organized at the Station: Aviation 
Mechanics School, United States Naval Radio School, Hospital 
Corps Training School. 

Lake Bluff (726) is a village just south of Great Lakes 
Naval Training Station. 

Lake Forest (3,349) 
is the seat of Lake 
Forest University. 

Fort Sheridan is a 
United States reserva- 
tion on the lake shore 
formerly used for train- 
ing men for the United 
States Army. Soon 
after the United States 
entered the great world- 
war on April 6, 1917, 
Fort Sheridan was se- 
lected as one of the 
places to train oflficers 
for the United States 
Army. Many thou- 
sands of officers have 
been given their preliminary training here. Since the close of 
the war, Fort Sheridan has been transformed into a military 
hospital. 

Highwood (1,219) is just south of Fort Sheridan. 
Highland Park (4,209) is the southernmost of the lake- 
shore cities in Lake County. 

Glencoe (1,899), Winnetka (3,168), Kenilworth (881), and 
Wilmette (4,943) are residential suburbs on the lake shore in 
Cook County. 

Evanston (24,978), situated on the lake shore just north 
of the city limits of Chicago, is the largest of the North Shore 
cities of lUinois. It is the seat of Northwestern University. 




RESERVE officers' TRAINING SCHOOL, FORT 
SHERIDAN, LAKE COUNTY 



CITIES OF THE LAKE BASIN 



275 



The 26 miles of lake shore from Evanston to the Indiana 
state line is occupied by the city of Chicago. In the enlarge- 
ment of its city limits Chicago has absorbed numerous villages 
and cities which hadtheir early growth as independent munici- 
palities. After becoming a part of Chicago, the original name 
still designates the locality, and, in some instances, the name 
is applied to a branch of the Chicago post-ofhce. Thus the 
names Rogers Park, Austin, Englewood, Hyde Park, South 




OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES SCHOOL, OAK PARK 

The thriving suburban cities of Chicago make liberal provision for well- 
appointed school buildings and spacious school grounds. 



Chicago, and many others refer to portions of Chicago which 
have been annexed from time to time with the growth of 
the city. 

Along the Indiana shore. — East of Chicago, in Indiana, along 
the south shore of Lake Michigan, are found Whiting (6,587), 
Hammond (20,925), East Chicago (19,098), Gary (16,804), 
all within 12 miles of the city limits of Chicago; and Michigan 
City (19,207), 25 miles beyond Gary. Among these cities 
Gary has had the most remarkable development and growth. 
In 1906 the site of Gary was a series of sand dunes along the 
lake shore. The land had been purchased by the United 
States Steel Corporation, and building operations were begun 



276 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



in 1906. A safe, deep, and commodious harbor was con- 
structed; wide streets were laid out; water, gas, and sewer 
systems were installed; streets and sidewalks were paved in 
the most modern fashion; l)last furnaces and steel mills were 
pushed to completion; and a great industrial city with iron 
and steel works as its chief corner stone was established as 
rapidly as human hands could build it. By 1910 Gary had a 
population of 16,S04, but its growth had hardly begun. Its 
population in 1920 was 55,000. 




HIGH SCHOOL, OAK PARK 

This is a township high school supported by Oak Park and River Forest 



Cities west of the lake shore. — All cities of Illinois thus 
far mentioned are on the lake front. West of these, and still 
in the Lake Michigan Basin, or on the divide between the lake 
and the Des Plaines River, are found several other cities of 
some note, all in Cook County. Most of these are close 
enough to the outskirts of Chicago to appear to be subject to 
annexation in the future. 

Park Ridge (2,009) is at the extreme northwest corner of 
Chicago. 



CITIES OF TIfE LAKE BASIN 277 

Oak Park (19,444) is a residential suburb adjoining Chicago 
on the west. It is nearer the business district of Chicago 
than are the northern or southern extremities of the city. 

Forest Park (6,594) lies directly south of Oak Park. 

Cicero (14,557) is a rapidly developing industrial city 
adjoining Chicago on the west. 

Berwyn (5,481) is between Cicero and Riverside. 

Morgan Park (3,694) was annexed to Chicago in 1914. 

Blue Island (8,043) is on the Little Calumet River. 

Harvey (7,227) is a manufacturing city, also on the Little 
Calumet. 

West Hammond (4,948) is near the Indiana state line. 

Chicago Heights (14,525) is a manufacturing city 10 miles 
south of the city limits of Chicago. 

A substantial increase in population has taken place in a 
number of these suburban cities since 1910. The 17 leading 
cities of the Lake Basin outside of Chicago had in 1910 a 
population of 150,000; 65,000 were in the 8 cities of the North 
Shore, and 85,000 in the 9 cities away from the shore, but 
nearer Chicago in most cases than the lake-shore cities. Only 
a slight extension of the city limits of Chicago would be required 
to include 80,000 of the population of these suburban cities. 

The predominance of urban conditions in the Lake Basin 
is due wholly to the development of Chicago as a great com- 
mercial and manufacturing center. 



CHAPTER XVIII 
CITIES OF THE ILLINOIS BASIN 

Divisions of the basin. — The Illinois River Basin occupies 
a broad belt extending entirely across the state in a northeast- 
southwest direction. In the lake region the basin is divided into 
two narrower belts; one, occupied by the Des Plaines and 
Fox river basins, reaching northward into Wisconsin; the 
other, occupied by the Kankakee Basin, extending eastward 
into Indiana. These two extensions of the Illinois Basin 
embrace between them the narrow, populous Lake Michigan 
Basin of Illinois. The Illinois River Basin comprises 24,040 
square miles, or 43 per cent of the area of the state within which 
are found 49 of the 144 cities of Illinois having a population 
of 2,500 or more. The cities of the Illinois River Basin may 
be considered geographically under five divisions: (1) cities 
of the Des Plaines and Fox river basins; (2) cities of the 
Kankakee Basin; (3) cities along the Illinois River; (4) cities 
north and west of the Illinois River; (5) cities south and east 
of the Illinois River. 

Cities of the Des Plaines and Fox river basins. — The 
largest village in Lake County, not located on the lake front, is 
Libertyville (1,724). \'illages near the numerous lakes of the 
county not only serve the rural communities, but they are 
sought as summer resorts by many people from Chicago and 
other cities. Antioch (682), Grays Lake (603), Fox Lake (400), 
Lake Zurich (304), are among the principal villages of the 
district. 

In northern Cook County are found Barrington (1,444), 
Palatine (1,144), and Arlington Heights (1,943). 

In Cook County, along the Des Plaines River, there are a 
number of residential suburbs with excellent rapid-transit lines 
to Chicago. Des Plaines (2,348) is within five miles of the 
city limits of Chicago. River Forest (2,456) adjoins Oak 
Park on the west and is situated on the east bank of the Des 
Plaines; Melrose Park (4,806) and Maywood (8,033) are 

278 



CITIES OF THE ILLINOIS BASIN 



279 



immediately west of the river beyond River Forest. Oak Park 
and these three other suburbs form a compact area wholly 
tributary to the city of Chicago, and well favored with steam, 
electric, and elevated railroads. A few miles farther south 
is Riverside (1,073), just west of which hes La Grange (5,282). 
At the western border of Cook County is Lemont (2,284). 

To the west of the Des Plaines River, but within the Des 
Plaines Basin, a number of attractive cities are to be found in 
Dupage County. All are located where good railroad service 
is provided, and all are within the suburban influence of the 
metropolis on the lake shore. Among these the more impor- 
tant are: Glen Ellyn (1,763), Elmhurst (2,360), Wheaton 
3,423), the county seat 
of Dupage County and 
the seat of Wheaton 
College, West Chi- 
cago (2,378), Hinsdale 
(2,451), Downers Grove 
(2,601), and Naperville 
(3,449). More than one- 
half of the population of 
Dupage County resides 
in these seven cities. 

On the Des Plaines 
River in Will County 
are Lockport (2,555) and 
Joliet (34,670). The 
first locks in the Illinois and Michigan Canal are at Lockport, 
28 miles from the junction of the canal with the South Branch 
of the Chicago River. Here, also, are the controlling works 
and the hydroelectric power plant of the Chicago Drainage 
Canal. 

Joliet, 40 miles southwest of Chicago, is the seventh city 
in the state in population. More than 40 per cent of the 
people of Will County live in this one city. Here are the 
extensive works of the Illinois Steel Company. The northern 
Illinois State Penitentiary is located here. A dam across the 
Des Plaines River provides water-power. The outer belt 
railroad of Chicago encircles that city from the lake at 




ILLINOIb STLEL LOMP\N\ S WORKS, JOLIET 

The four blast furnaces of this plant have a 
total daily capacity of 2,000 tons of pig iron. 



280 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILUXOIS 



W'aukegaii througli Jolict to the lake again at Gary, Indiana, 
ihus crossing every railroad that enters Chicago. 

The important cities of the Fox River Basin are in Kane 
County situated in the immediate vicinity of the river along 
25 miles of its course, a distance somewhat less than the north- 
south extent of Chicago. In order from north to south, these 
cities are: Elgin (25,976), St. Charles (4,046), Geneva (2,451), 
Batavia (4,436), and Aurora (29,807). Elgin is eleventh and 
Aurora is ninth in population among the cities of Illinois. 
The 60,716 inhabitants of these five cities comprise 72 per 
cent of the popidation of Kane County. They are about 40 
miles distant from Chicago, and, with Joliet and Chicago 
Heights, they mark the outer limit of definite suburban influ- 
ence of the great metropolis. Although local interests and 
local industries are stronger than Chicago influences on this 
outer circle of cities, yet hundreds of persons who reside in 
these cities go daily to their work in the busy mart forty miles 
away. 

Elgin is the seat of one of the state hospitals. The exten- 
sive factories of the Elgin National Watch Company are in 
Elgin. The school for delinquent boys is located at St. Charles, 
and the school for delinquent girls at Geneva. Geneva, the 
smallest of the five cities, is centrally located along the valley 
in Kane County, and it is the county seat. Aurora has 
important railroad shops and numerous factories. 

Only one other city in the Fox River Basin, Sandwich 
(2,557), DeKalb County, has a population of more than 
2,500. Yorkville (431), Kendall County, is the smallest 
county seat in Illinois. Numerous villages along the railroads 
and a number situated a few miles from a railroad, serve the 
commercial needs of the farming communities in which they 
are located. 

Cities of the Kankakee Basin. — The Kankakee River rises 
near South Bend, Indiana, and enters Illinois in Kankakee 
County. Along the Kankakee in Illinois are: Momence 
(2,201), Kankakee (13,986), and Wilmington (1,450). On 
the Iroquois River, a southern tributary of the Kankakee, is 
Watseka (2,476), the county seat of Iroquois County. Near 
Momence is one of the noted agricultural experiment fields 



CITIES OF THE ILLINOIS BASIN 281 

wlierc scientific soil treatment changed the corn yield from less 
than 4 bushels per acre to more than 70 bushels. Kankakee 
is the county seat of Kankakee County. One of the state 
hospitals is located here. A dam across the Kankakee River 
furnishes water-power. Just north of Kankakee is Bradley 
(1,942), an industrial suburb, and a mile or so beyond Bradley 
is Bourbonnais (611). A denominational college has been 
established here. 

Cities along the Illinois River. — The lUinois River and the 
Illinois Valley may be divided into three portions: (1) the 
Upper Illinois extending from the confluence of the Kankakee 
and Des Plaines rivers to the Great Bend at Hennepin, a 
distance of 63 miles; (2) the Middle Illinois from the Great 
Bend to Pekin, 56 miles; and (3) the Lower Illinois from Pekin 
to the Mississippi, 159 miles. 

Seven cities, each having a population of 2,500 or more, 
and a combined population, in 1910, of 47,139, are located 
along the Upper Illinois; three such cities with a total of 
79,515 inhabitants are situated along the Middle Illinois; 
and two along the Lower Illinois comprising a population 
of 9,032. The total population of these 12 cities in 1910 was 
136,286, with 49 per cent of this number in the single city of 
Peoria. Seventeen villages having populations between 450 
and 1,600, with a total population of 18,794, are found along the 
Illinois River. The location of these cities and villages was 
determined by the presence of river terraces high enough to 
avoid disastrous floods and at such places that the wagon roads 
from the uplands could find an approach to the river front. 

In the Upper Illinois Valley the river is paralleled on the 
north side by the Illinois and IVIichigan Canal, and settlements 
were readily established along the canal at frequent intervals. 

About 10 miles below the junction of the Des Plaines and 
Kankakee rivers is Morris (4,563), the county seat of Grundy 
County. 

In La Salle County settlements are numerous along the 
valley. Near the eastern edge of the county is Seneca (1,120). 
At Marseilles (3,291), where the fall in the river is 18 feet in 
1^ miles, there has been built a dam for water-power. This 
power is used in operating factories and in generating electricity 



282 



THE GEOGRAPHY OP ILLIXOIS 



for an electric railroad. Ottawa (9,536) is the county seat of 
La Salle County. Plate-glass and clay products are among its 
manufactures. Utica (1,250) has one of the few natural cement 
factories in the United Slates. 

La Salle (11,537), Peru (7,984), and Oglesby (3,194) in the 
western part of La Salle County are known as the "tri-cities." 
La Salle and Peru are on the north side of the river at the ter- 
minus of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. Oglesby is on the 
- -^jsai^m^^^ " south side of the Illinois 

X'^^^H^RyHS&^UH in the valley of the Ver- 
milion River. Oglesby 
is the name of the post- 
office and railroad sta- 
tion, although the city 
is incorporated under 
the name of Portland. 
Portland cement is 
the chief manufactured 
product. Zinc-smelting 
is the important indus- 
try of La Salle and 
Peru. A large Portland- 
cement factory is in 
operation in La Salle. 
Several coal mines are 
operated in the vicinity 
of the tri-cities. The 
cities and villages of the 
Illinois Valley in La 
Salle County contain 42 per cent of the population of the 
county. If to these we add Streator and Mendota we find 
t)2 per cent of the population of the county living in cities. 

Spring Valley (7,035) is a coal-mining center and the largest 
city in Bureau County. Depue (1,339) has recently estab- 
lished a zinc smelter, and is therefore growing in population. 

Along the Middle Illinois are found Hennepin (451), Henry 
(1,657), Lacon (1,495), Chillicothe (1,851), Peoria Heights 
(583), Averyville (2,668), Peoria (66,950), East Peoria (1,493), 
Bartonville (1,536), and Pekin (9,897). Five of these— Chilli- 




BIG BEN TIMING-ROOM, WESTERN CLOCK 
COMPANY, PERU, LA SALLE COUNTY 

"Big Ben," an alarm clock of moderate 
price, has found its way into all parts of the 
United States and to many foreign countries. 
In the ''timing-room" the clocks are given 
their final tests before placing them on the 
market. (Copyright by Keystone \ie\v 
Company.) 



282 



THE GEOGRAPHY OP ILLINOIS 



for an electric railroad. Ottawa (9,535) is the county seat of 
La Salle County. Plate-glass and clay products are among its 
manufactures. Utica (1,250) has one of the few natural cement 
factories in the United Slates. 

La Salle (11,537), Peru (7,984), and Oglesby (3,194) in the 
western part of La Salle County are known as the "tri-cities." 
La Salle and Peru are on the north side of the river at the ter- 
minus of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. Oglesby is on the 

south side of the Illinois 
in the valley of the Ver- 
milion River. Oglesby 
is the name of the post- 
office and railroad sta- 
tion, although the city 
is incorporated under 
the name of Portland. 
Portland cement is 
the chief manufactured 
product. Zinc-smelting 
is the important indus- 
try of La Salle and 
Peru. A large Portland- 
cement factory is in 
operation in La Salle. 
Several coal mines are 
operated in the vicinity 
of the tri-cities. The 
cities and villages of the 
Illinois \'alley in La 
Salle County contain 42 per cent of the population of the 
county. If to these we add Streator and Mendota we find 
02 per cent of the population of the county living in cities. 

Spring Valley (7,035) is a coal-mining center and the largest 
city in Bureau County. Depue (1,339) has recently estab- 
lished a zinc smelter, and is therefore growing in population. 

Along the Middle Illinois are found Hennepin (451), Henry 
(1,657), Lacon (1,495), Chillicothe (1,851), Peoria Heights 
(583), Averyville (2,668), Peoria (66,950), East Peoria (1,493), 
Bartonville (1,536), and Pekin (9,897). Five of these— Chilli- 




BIG BEN TIMING-ROOM, WESTERN CLOCK 

COMPANY, PERU, L.\ S.-U-LE COUNTY 

"Big Ben," an alarm clock of moderate 
price, has found its way into all parts of the 
United States and to many foreign countries. 
In the "timing-room'' the clocks are given 
their final tests before placing them on the 
market. (Copyright by Keystone View 
Company.) 




MAP OF ILLINOIS RIVER VALLEY, OTTAWA TO PERU 
The valleys of the Illinois River and its tributaries ate here bordered by steep bluffs of St. Peter sandstone. Beyond the bluffs are the level prairie lands characteristic of the region 



CITIES OF THE ILLINOIS BASIN 



283 




MAP SHOWTNG PEORIA, BLOOMINGTON, DECATUR, AND SPRINGFIELD 

The quadrangle here represented is about 50 miles by 75 miles in size. It 
contains 5 per cent of the land area of the state. Its four larger cities are con- 
nected by the Illinois Traction System, the Peoria-Springfield line passing through 
Lincoln and extending beyond the limits of the map to St. Louis. 



284 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



cothe, Peoria Heights, Averyville, Peoria, and Bartonville — 
are in Peoria County, and their combined population consti- 
tutes 73 per cent of the population of the county. Peoria 
Heights, Averyville, Peoria, and Bartonville form a single 
urban area on the west side of the river, and Peoria street-car 
service extends to East Peoria on the east side of the river. 
These five cities form a single industrial community and their 
combined population comprises 4S per cent of the total popula- 
tion of 29 cities and villages, each with a population of more 
than 450, along the 278 miles of the Illinois River. Pekin is on 
the east side of the river ten miles below Peoria. The transport 

service between Pekin 
and Peoria brings Pekin 
within the Peoria indus- 
trial district. With this 
added population, 54 
per cent of the inhab- 
itants of the cities and 
villages of the Illinois 
Valley are to be found 
in the Peoria district, 
extending along the 
course of the river for a 
distance of about 15 
miles. 

Peoria has been, from 
the earliest settlement 
of the Illinois X'alley, the most important city in it. Natural 
conditions provided at Peoria favorable opportunity for crossing 
a wide river. Farm Creek, entering the river opposite Peoria, 
with its swift current in flood times, carried great loads of sedi- 
ment from the hills of the Bloomington terminal moraine into 
the sluggish waters of the Illinois River. This sediment accu- 
mulated in the form of an alluvial fan on the east side of the 
river. The building of this fan made the river narrow at this 
point, and by partially damming the river, Lake Peoria was 
formed as a widened portion of the river, extending upstream 
to Chillicothe, a distance of 20 miles. Below Peoria the river 
is everywhere wider and more diftkult to cross than at Peoria. 




UPPER ENTRANCE TO GLEN OAK PARK, PEORIA 

Glen Oak Park on the bluffs of the Illinois 
Valley and Bradley Park along Dry Run are 
the two large parks of Peoria. Grand X'iew 
Drive passes through Glen Oak Park. 



CITIES OF THE ILLINOIS BASIN 



285 



Opposite the Farm Creek fan is an extensive river terrace, 
easy of access from the river front, and well above serious flood 
dangers. Upon this terrace Peoria was established. As the 
city grew the terrace was fully occupied. Now it extends up 
the "West Bluff's" and spreads out on the extensive upland 
beyond. In pioneer days a river ferry at Peoria marked a 
very important break in transportation. A ferry is more easily 




COURTHOUSE AND PRINCIPAL BUSINESS STREET OF PEORIA 

Peoria's largest business houses are around or near the courthouse square 



estabHshed and more readily maintained where the stream is 
narrow. No other point along the Illinois River for a distance 
of more than 200 miles offered a crossing as favorable as the one 
at Peoria. Wagon bridges and railroad bridges could span 
the river more readily at Peoria than elsewhere below the 
Great Bend. The coming of the railroad, therefore, increased 
Peoria's importance, and it became the chief railroad center 
of the interior of the state, surpassed only by Chicago on the 



286 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



lake and East St. Louis, the front door of St. Louis, on the 
Mississippi. Peoria is the home of Bradley Institute, one of 
the important schools of the state for technical training. 

Along the Lower Illinois are found Havana (3,525), county 
seat of Mason County, Bath (475), Beardstown (6,107), the 
largest city of Cass County, Meredosia (951), Naples (457), 
Pearl (842), Kampsville (506), Hardin (654), county seat of 
Calhoun County, and Grafton (1,116), located 24 miles above 
St. Louis at the junction of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. 
Fishing is an important industry along the middle and lower 
portions of the Illinois River. The principal fish markets are 
Peoria, Pekin, Havana, and Beardstown, but important 

fishing operations are 
also carried on from 
the villages along the 
river. 

Cities north and 
west of the Illinois 
River. — The location of 
cities on the level up- 
lands of Illinois is deter- 
mined by railroad facili- 
ties. The cities and 
villages have many 
things in common. 
Each is a railroad sta- 
tion with one or more 
grain elevators and with commercial houses to care for the local 
trade in staple articles of food, clothing, fuel, building materials, 
farm machinery, and repair work. Prosperous villages are 
found in which no important manufacturing is carried on. 
The establishment of factories leads to increased population 
and business activity in general. Radiating railroads make 
possible the development of the wholesale business in various 
lines of merchandise, especially in staple articles of food. 

The region north and west of the Illinois River has seven 
cities with populations of 2,500 or more, and numerous other 
smaller cities and villages of great importance to their immedi- 
ate locaUties. Mendota (3,804) has three important railroads. 




RAILROAD STATION, TOULON, STARK COUNTY 

The passenger station at the right and the 
freight depot and grain elevator at the left indi- 
cate a thriving town and a prosperous agri- 
cultural region. 



CITIES OF THE ILLINOIS BASIN 



287 



Princeton (4,131), the county seat of Bureau County, with 
but one steam railroad, is connected with the cities of the 
Upper Illinois Valley by an electric railroad. 

Kewanee (9,307) and Galva (2,498) are very near the 
divide between the Illinois and the Mississippi rivers. They 
are connected by an electric railroad. Kewanee has one of the 
largest tube works in the country. 

Toulon (1,208) is the county seat and Wyoming (1,506) the 
largest city of Stark County. 

Galesburg (22,089), the county seat of Knox County, is the 
largest city and most important railroad center of the uplands 
between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. It has railroad 
shops and is the seat of 
Knox College and Lom- 
bard College. Almost 
one-half of the popu- 
lation of Knox County 
live in Galesburg. 
Abingdon (2,464) is the 
seat of Abingdon Col- 
lege and Hedding 
College. Farmington 
(2,421) is a coal-mining 
center. 

Canton (10,453) 
manufactures agricul- 
tural implements extensively, 
seat of Fulton County. 

Macomb (5,774), the county seat of McDonough County, 
is the seat of the Western Illinois State Normal School. Bush- 
nell (2,619) is an important railroad center. 

Carthage (2,373), the county seat of Hancock County, is 
located near the westernmost part of the Illinois River Basin. 
Rushville (2,422), the county seat of Schuyler County, is the 
terminus of a railroad branch line. Mount Sterling (1,986) is 
the county seat of Brown County. 

Cities south and east of the Illinois River.^Since the 
Illinois River lies nearer the northern and western edge of its 
basin, the area now to be considered is larger in extent than 




CHRISTIAN CHURCH, MINIER, TAZEWELL 
COUNTY 

The churches are among the attractive pub- 
lic buildings in all Illinois villages and cities. 



Lewistown (2,312) is the county 



288 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



the one previously discussed. The favorable surface for the 
building of railroads in any desired direction, the high fertility 
and consequent large crops of the farm lands, the abundance of 
coal, the favorable conditions for manufacturing, and the ease 
of transportation across the low divides to and from the basins 
to the cast and south arc factors which have operated to give 
this region a large number of villages and first-class cities. The 

region contains 16 cities, 
each having a population , 
in 1910, of 2,500 or more. 
Six of these have a total 
population of 149,057, 
and the 16 cities a total 
of 18S.50S. Numerous 
smaller cities with popu- 
lations of 1,000 to 2,500 
are found within the 
area. 

Braidwood (1,958), in 
Will County, and Coal 
City (2,667), in Grundy 
County, are near the 
northern margin of Illi- 
nois coal fields. Dwight 
(2,156), in Livingston 
County, has been widely 
known as the seat of the 
Keeley Institute for the 
cure of alcoholism. 
The divide between the two \'ermilion River basins, the 
Illinois-Vermilion and the Wabash-X'crmilion, is in the southern 
edge of Livingston County. Along the Illinois-Vermilion are 
Fairbury (2,505), Pontiac (6,090), Streator (14,253), and near 
its junction with the Illinois, Oglesby, already mentioned 
among the cities along the Illinois River. Pontiac is the seat 
of the Illinois State Reformatory. Streator is important as a 
coal-mining and glass -manufacturing center. 

The principal cities in Woodford County are Minonk (2,070), 
which has important coal mines, El Paso (1,470), and Eureka 




<* 



COURTHOUSE, BLOOMI.\(/K IX, M LKAN COUNTY 



CITIES OF THE ILLINOIS BASIN 



289 



(1,526), the county seat, at which Eureka College is located. 
Washington (1,530) is in Tazewell County. 

Bloomington (25,768) and Normal (4,024) are the largest 
cities in McLean County. Bloomington has large railroad 
shops and a coal mine. It is the seat of the Illinois Wesleyan 
University. Normal is the seat of the Illinois State Normal 
University and of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home. Other cities 
in the same covmty are 



/ 






Chenoa (1,314), Lexing- 
ton (1,318). and Le Roy 
(1,702). Gibson City 
(2,086) is in Ford 
County. 

Clinton (5,165), the 
county seat of Dewitt 
County, is an important 
railroad center. 

Lincoln (10,892), the 
county seat of Logan 
County, has important 
coal mines. It is the 
seat of the state school 
for feeble-minded chil- 
dren. The Odd Fellows 
Orphans' Home is lo- 
cated here. 

Mason City (1,842) 
in Mason County, Mount 
Pulaski (1,511) in Logan 
County, Monticello 

(1,981), the county seat of Piatt County, and Bement (1,530) 
are important trading points for their various communities. 

The Sangamon River Basin is an important part of the 
region under discussion. A number of the cities already 
mentioned are within the basin. Along or near the course of 
the main stream are Decatur, Springfield, and Petersburg. 

Decatur (31,140) is the county seat of Macon County. 
It has important coal mines and railroad shops, and is the 
seat of the James Millikin University. 




COURTHOUSE, FORMER STATE CAPITOL, SPRING- 
FIELD, SANGAMON COUNTY 

This building, erected and used as the state 
Capitol, when outgrown for state purposes be- 
came the county courthouse. It is located in 
the center of the business distiict. 



290 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




LINCOLN S HOME, SPRINGFIELD 

This home was purchased by Mr. Lincoln 
in 1844. In 1887 it was presented to the state 
by his son, Robert Lincoln. It is open to 
visitors. 



world as the home and 
burial place of Abraham 
Lincoln. The only resi- 
dence ever owned by 
Abraham Lincoln is in 
Springfield at the corner 
of Eighth and Jackson 
streets. He purchased it 
in 1844. In L887, after 
the death of Mrs. Lincoln, 
Robert Lincoln, the son, 
presented the home to 
the state to be kept as 
a memorial of Abraham 
Lincoln. More than 
30,000 persons visit this 
home annually. 

President Lincoln was 
assassinated April 14, 
1865, and died on the 
following day. His re- 
mains were brought to 
Springfield. The Lincoln 
monument stands on an 



Springfield (51,678) is 

the capital of Illinois and 
the county seat of Sanga- 
mon County. It ranks 
fourth in population 
among the cities of the 
state, being exceeded by 
Chicago, Peoria, and 
East St. Louis. It is an 
important railroad, coal- 
mining, and manufactur- 
ing center. The State 
Fair Grounds are located 
here. Springfield is 
known throughout the 




LINCOLN MONUMENT, SPRINGFIELD 

This monument was erected by contribu- 
tions from individuals and organizations 
throughout the United States. It is now in 
the custody of the state. Within the base is a 
large room known as Memorial Hall which 
contains many articles associated with the life 
of Lincoln. A custodian is always present to 
explain the exhibits to visitors. 



CITIES OF THE ILLINOIS BASIN 



291 




eminence in Oak Ridge Cemetery. It was begun in 1869 and 
dedicated in 1874. Built l^y popular subscription, the monu- 
ment and grounds have been presented to the state for per- 
manent care and custody. 

On May 7, 1917, one month after the United States had 
entered the world-war, the French Commission to the United 
States visited Lincoln's tomb, and Marshal Joffre, the hero of 
the Marne, laid a bronze wreath, the gift of the French people, 
on Lincoln's tomb. 

Petersburg (2,587) is the county seat of Menard County, 
and Virginia (1,501) is 
the county seat of Cass 
County. 

Jacksonville (15,326), 
the county seat of 
Morgan County, is the 
seat of Illinois College 
and Illinois Woman's 
College. Three state 
charitable institutions 
are located at Jackson- 
ville: the Illinois School 
for the Deaf, the Insti- 
tution for the Blind, 

and a state hospital. Winchester (1,639) is the county seat 
of Scott County. 

Taylorville (5,446), the county seat of Christian County, is 
widely known as the home of the School News, an educational 
magazine. 

Virden (4,000) is an important coal-mining center. Carlin- 
ville (3,616), the county seat of Macoupin County, has coal 
mines, and it is the seat of Blackburn College. 

Roodhouse (2,171) has coal mines. "Whitehall (2,864) is 
an important center for the manufacture of pottery and sewer 
pipe. Carrollton (2,323) is the county seat of Greene County. 
Jerseyville (4,113) is the county seat of Jersey County. 

Summary. — The greater number of villages and cities in 
the Illinois River Basin are located with reference to the 
needs of the rural population in their immediate vicinities. 



BUSINESS SQUARE, WINCHESTER, SCOTT COUNTY 

In the county seats of Illinois the most 
important business houses are usually located 
"on the square" surrounding the county 
courthouse. 



292 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

Coal-mining adds to the importance of a number of the cities, 
but the chief centers of coal production in Illinois lie south of 
the Illinois Basin. A few of the larger cities of the region 
with good transportation facilities have estabhshed wholesale 
houses and important factories. The cities of the Illinois 
River Basin are dependent largely on the agricultural activities 
of the area, while the cities of the Lake Michigan Basin are 
almost wholly dependent on the commercial and industrial 
activities of the region. 



CHAPTER XIX 
OTHER CITIES OF ILLINOIS 



The area and its divisions. — The cities of the state not 
treated in previous chapters will be included in this chapter. 
The region includes 
those portions of the **.:.' 
state bordering on the 
Mississippi, Ohio, and 
Wabash rivers, and 
extending back to the 
divides between these 
basins and the Illinois 
Basin. 

It comprises the 
drainage basins of the 
Rock, Kaskaskia, Big 
Muddy, Ohio, and 
Wabash rivers, and also 
the minor basins of the 
Mississippi. The total 
area is 31,238 square 
miles, or about 56 per 
cent of the area of the 
state. 

Cities of northwest- 
ern Illinois. — The 
northwestern part of 
the state, between the 
Rock River Basin and 
the Mississippi River, 
is drained directly into 
the Mississippi through 
small streams, the Galena River being most important. 

Galena (4,835), the county seat of Jo Daviess County, is 
the largest city of this area. It is the center of the lead- and 

293 




GIANT S TABLE. MOUNT CARROLL, CARROLL COUNTY 

The rugged regions in the Driftless Area of 
northwestern Illinois are similar in general topog- 
raphy to the Ozarks of southern Illinois. 



294 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




TENTH AVENUE FROM FIFTH STREET, FULTON, 
WHITESIDE COUNTY 

The well-shaded streets of Illinois towns, 
large and small, show that the soil and climate 
of the Prairie State are favorable for rapid 
growth of forest trees. 



zinc-mining of Illinois. Savanna (3,691), the largest city of 
Carroll County, is situated on the Mississippi River. Mount 

Carroll (1,759) is the 
county seat of Car- 
roll County. Fulton 
(2,174), in Whiteside 
County, is on the Mis- 
sissippi opposite Clin- 
ton, Iowa (25,577). 

Cities of the Rock 
River Basin. — The 
Rock River Basin in 
Illinois contains 5,310 
square miles, or nearly 
10 per cent of the area 
of the state. Twelve 
cities having a popula- 
tion of 2,500 or more are located within the basin and three 
others are situated 
at the edge of the 
basin on the Missis- 
sippi River. The total 
population of these fif- 
teen cities in 1910 was 
1(34,058, and important 
increases have taken 
place since that date. 

Freeport (17,567), 
the county seat of 
Stephenson County, is 
located on the Peca- 
tonica River, a tribu- 
tary of Rock River. It 
is an important railroad 
and manufacturing cen- 
ter with 48 per cent of 
the population of Stephenson County. 

Rockford (45,401), the county seat of Winnebago County, 
is on the Rock River. It is the fifth city in the state in popu- 




BRIDGE OVER MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT FULTON, 
WHITESIDE COUNTY 

Railroad bridges across the Mississippi River 
are common above St. Louis, while below St. 
Louis, where the river and flood plain are wider, 
there are but few bridges. 



OTHER CITIES OF ILLINOIS 



295 



lation, and 72 'per cent of the people of Winnebago County 
live in Rockford. 

Camp Grant was established on the east side of Rock River 
just below Rockford soon after the United States entered the 
world-war against Germany. In a few weeks' time a military 
city was constructed capable of housing a population equal 
to that of the city of Rockford. From September, 1917, when 
the cantonment was first 
opened, to the close of 
the war, Camp Grant 
was the busiest center of 
activity in Rock River 
Basin. Here the soldiers 
were given the intensive 
training • necessary to 
make them the best 
fighters of modern war- 
fare. The topography 
of the region of Camp 
Grant presents features 
of some military impor- 
tance. 

If the area is looked upon 
from the point of view of mili- 
tary operations, there are 
some significant features, 
though none of a command- 
ing character. 

The Rock, the Peca- 
tonica, the Kishwaukee, and 
the Sugar rivers all are large 
enough to interfere with the crossing of men or wheels, except where 
they are bridged. Bridges are destroyed easily, so that problems of stream 
crossings are serious, as the Austrians found in their early attempts (1914) 
to cross the Save and the Danube, into Serbia. The Rock, though a small 
stream as compared with some of those which have played an important part 
in the European conflict, is too large in most places to be forded at any 
time. 

The valleys of some of the larger rivers of western France, as the 
Somme, have low flood plains which offer problems similar to those of the 
Pecatonica. 

The Kishwaukee and Rock rivers afford opportunity for the study of 
problems in crossing streams where bridges are wanting, but where the 
bottom is firm. The valley of the Pecatonica offers excellent opportunity for 
the study of the many problems which armies might encounter in the field, 




SCENE IN PARK, GENESEO, 'HENRY COUNTY 



296 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



in crossing wet, marshy and flooded tracts, and in crossing streams with 
soft, muddy bottoms. 

The utihzation of steep slopes can be studied to good advantage along 
the Kishwaukee above Camp, and along the Rock below the Kishwaukee. 

If this region were the scene of such conflicts as northern France, one 
of the great and immediate problems would be the construction of roads — 
roads which would be serviceable in all sorts of weather, for all sorts of traffic. 
Fortunately material for the betterment of the roads is at hand. Lime- 
stone underlies most of the region, and limestone, crushed and properly 
applied, makes excellent road metal. 




ROCK RIVER, NE.'kR OREGON, OGLE COUNTY 

The scenery along Rock River in Ogle County is similar to that along the 
Illinois River in La Salle County. In both regions the streams have cut their valleys 
into St. Peter sandstone, and similar topographic forms have resulted. 

Trenches could be made in some of the mantle rock easily and in some 
of it only with more or less difficulty. Trenches in some sorts of material 
would drain readily, while in some drainage would need to be provided with 
much care. Trench walls would stand much better in some sorts of material 
than in others. Problems involving these elements can be studied to good 
advantage close to Camp. 

Tunneling and mining have been important in some places in the 
European battle-fields, both in Italy and France. The steep slopes of the 
Rock below the Kishwaukee afford opportunity for practice in tunneling in 
rock which is excavated rather easily. Problems in the timbering of tunnels 
or other excavations also could be studied. ' 

' R. D. Salisbury and H. H. Barrows, The Environment of Camp Grant, Bulletin 
No. 39, State Geological Survey. 



OTHER CITIES OF ILLINOIS 



297 



The Kishwaukee River Basin occupies that part of the 
liock River Basin lying east of Rockford, extending from the 
state line to DeKalb. The principal cities within this area 
are Harvard (3,008), Woodstock (4,331), Marengo (1,934), 
Belvidere (7,253), Sycamore (3,926), and DeKalb (8,102). 
Woodstock is on the divide between the Rock and the Fox 
river basins. Belvidere is the county seat of Boone County, 




MAP OF ROCK ISLAND DISTRICT 



Rock Island, Moline, and Davenport form an industrial center known as the 
"tri-cities." A United States arsenal is located on the island in the Mississippi 
River between Rock Island and Davenport. (Scale 1 inch to 8 miles.) 



and Sycamore of DeKalb County. DeKalb is the seat of the 
Northern Illinois State Normal School. 

Rochelle (2,732) is the largest city in Ogle County, and 
Oregon, on Rock River, is the county seat. 

Dixon (7,216), on Rock River, is the county seat and 
largest city in Lee County. Amboy (1,749) is located near the 
center of Lee County. 



298 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




BIRD S-E\E \IEW OF ROCK ISI.AN'D 



Rock Island is one of the important manufaclurinf; cities of Illinois. Looking 
east from Seventh Street and Second Avenue one sees tliis view. The dome of the 
courthouse is to the right and the government bridge from Rock Island Arsenal 
to Davenport is to the left. 



^,^j^,,^g^^*sfjw^^i-^s^;i^^-" 




VIEW ACROSS MISSISSIPPI RIVER FROM ROCK ISLAND PLOW WORKS 

The Mississippi River flows westward past Rock Island. Thus Davenport, 
which can be seen across the river, lies north of Rock Island. The bluffs, lying 
within a half-mile of the water's edge, can be seen in the distance. 



OTHER CITIES OF ILLINOIS 



299 



Sterling (7,467) and Rock Falls (2,657) are located on 
opposite sides of Rock River in the eastern part of Whiteside 
County. Water-power has been developed here. Morrison 
(2,410) is the county seat of Whiteside County. 

Rock Island (24,335), Moline (24,199), and East Moline 
(2,665) form a compact urban district located on the Missis- 
sippi River just above 
the mouth of Rock 
River. With Daven- 
port, Iowa (43,028), on 
the opposite bank of the 
Mississippi, this urban 
district has a popula- 
tion of nearly 100,000. 
The United States 
Arsenal is located on 
an island in the river 
at this point. Rock 
Island is the county 
seat of Rock Island 
County. Rock Island 
and Moline manufac- 
ture agricultural imple- 
ments on a large scale. 
The combined popula- 
tion of Rock Island, 
Moline, and East Mo- 
line comprises 70 per 
cent of the population 
of the county. 

A state hospital is 
located at Watertown 
(525), a village on the Mississippi just above East Moline. 

Cities between Rock and Illinois rivers. — The strip of land 
along the Mississippi between the mouth of Rock River and 
the mouth of the Illinois, including about one-half of the length 
of the state, and extending eastward to the divide between 
the Mississippi and the Illinois, is a narrow irregular strip 
varying from about two miles in width in Calhoun County 




FORT ARMSTRONG BLOCKHOUSE 

Old Fort Armstrong is situated on an island 
in the Mississippi River between Rock Island 
and Davenport. It was built in 1816 and 
named for the then Secretary of War. The 
fort shown here is a reproduction of the earlier 
one. It was built in 1916, the centennial 
year of the founding of the fort. 



300 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



to sixty miles in Mercer and Henry counties. In Hancock 
County the divide approaches within eight miles of the Missis- 
sippi. This area contains two cities of considerable size, Quincy 
and Monmouth, while Galesburg and Galva are situated on the 
divide. Along this stretch of the Mississippi are found three 
important cities in Iowa: Burlington (24,324), Fort Madison 
(8,900), and Keokuk (14,088); also Hannibal (18,341) and 
Louisiana (4,454) in JNIissouri. 

Aledo (2,144), the county seat, and Keithsburg (1,515), on 
the Mississippi, are the principal towns in Mercer county. 
Oquawka (907) , the county seat of Henderson County, is a river 
port. 

Monmouth (9,128), the county seat of Warren County, is an 

important railroad cen- 
ter and manufactures 
pottery. 

Nauvoo (1,020), on 
the Mississippi in Han- 
cock County, is the 
largest river port in Illi- 
nois without a railroad. 
In 184-i, at the height 
of Mormon prosperity in 
Illinois, Nauvoo was a 
city of 16,000 inhabit- 
ants. 

Carthage, the county 
seat of Hancock County, 
although only 12 miles from the Mississippi, lies in the Illinois 
River Basin. Hamilton (1,627) is on the Mississippi directly 
west of Carthage and opposite Keokuk, Iowa. It lies at the 
Illinois end of the great water-power dam built across the 
Mississippi between Hamilton and Keokuk. Below Hamilton, 
lUinois lies opposite Missouri. Warsaw (2,254) is on the 
Mississippi 3 miles below Hamilton. 

Quincy (36,589), the county seat of Adams County and 
sixth city of the state, is next to Peoria and East St. Louis in 
population among the river ports of Illinois. It contains 56 
per cent of the population of Adams County. Stoves and 




A WELL-SHADED STREET, PITTSFIELD, 
PIKE COUNTY 

This scene shows the luxuriant growth of 
trees commonly found along the streets and in 
the parks of Illinois cities. 



OTHER CITIES OF ILLINOIS 



301 



furnaces arc among its leading manufactures. It is the scat 
of the Illinois State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home. 

Pittsfield (2,095) is the county seat of Pike County. It is 
the terminus of a branch line of railroad. 

Cities between the Illinois and Kaskaskia rivers. — Of the 
numerous small streams flowing directly into the Mississippi 
between the Illinois and Kaskaskia, the most important is 
Cahokia Creek, whose basin includes portions of Macoupin, 
Madison, and St. Clair counties. In the upper part of its basin 




VIEW ALONG PAINTER CREEK, PITTSFIELD, PIKE COUNTY 

A typical scene along a creek in level country. Cutting of banks is going on 
at one place, deposits are made at another, and the influence of vegetation in retarding 
erosion is also shown. 

are three important mining centers of Macoupin County: 
Gillespie (2,241), Benld (1,912), and Staunton (5,048). 

Edwardsville (5,014), the county seat of Madison County, 
is on the middle portion of Cahokia Creek. It was one of the 
most important settlements in the early history of the state. 

Alton (17,528) is located on the Mississippi about midway 
between the mouth of the Illinois River and East St. Louis. 
It is the largest city of Madison County. It has numerous 
railroads and is an important manufacturing center. Upper 
Alton (2,918) is directly east of Alton, and was annexed to 
Alton in 1911. It is the seat of Shurtleff College and of the 



302 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Western Military Academy. East Alton (584) adjoins Alton, 
and during the war built extensive munition works. 

Wood River, about 3 miles below Alton, was a village 
of less than one hundred in 1910. The establishment of an 
oil refinery has increased its population to more than three 
thousand. 

Granite City (9,903), Madison (5,046), and Venice (3,718) 
in Madison County form a compact industrial area. Collins- 

ville (7,478) has zinc 
smelters. Highland 
(2,675), in the eastern 
part of the county, is in 
the Kaskaskia Basin. 
Sixty per cent of the 
population of Madison 
County live in these 
eight cities having popu- 
lations of 2,500 or more. 
East St. Louis (58,547) 
is in the northwest corner 
of St. Clair County, just 
opposite St. Louis, Mis- 
souri (687,029). The 
transportation facilities 
of East St. Louis are so 
excellent that this city 
no longer serves only as 
a front door to St. Louis, 
but it has made rapid 
progress in developing important industries of its own. It 
stands second only to Chicago in its importance as a railroad 
center in Illinois. Its growth since 1910 has been marked. 
Cahokia Creek joins the Mississippi at East St. Louis. 

Belleville (21,122), the county seat of St. Clair County, is 
located near the divide between the Mississippi and Kaskaskia 
rivers. It is an important coal-mining and manufacturing 
center. Scott Aviation Field, at which hundreds of aviators 
received their training during the world-war, is located at 
Belleville. 




WORK ON THE DIKES, EAST ST. LOUIS 

The river floods of 1903 required that the 
dikes at East St. Louis be quickly raised by 
means of thousands of bags of sand. Perma- 
nent improvements now make the dikes 
stronger. (Copyright by Keystone \iew 
Company.) 



302 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Western Military Academy. East Alton (584) adjoins Alton, 
and during the war built extensive munition works. 

Wood River, about 3 miles l)eIow Alton, was a village 
of less than one hundred in 1!)10. The establishment of an 
oil refinery has increased its population to more than three 
thousand. 

Granite City (9,903), Madison (5,046), and Venice (3,718) 
in Madison County form a compact industrial area. Collins- 

ville (7,478) has zinc 
smelters. Highland 
(2,675), in the eastern 
part of the county, is in 
the Kaskaskia Basin. 
Sixty per cent of the 
population of Madison 
County live in these 
eight cities having popu- 
lations of 2,500 or more. 
East St. Louis (58,547) 
is in the northwest corner 
of St. Clair County, just 
opposite St. Louis, Mis- 
souri (687,029). The 
transportation facilities 
of East St. Louis are so 
excellent that this city 
no longer serves only as 
a front door to St. Louis, 
but it has made rapid 
progress in developing important industries of its own. It 
stands second only to Chicago in its importance as a railroad 
center in Illinois. Its growth since 1910 has been marked. 
Cahokia Creek joins the Mississippi at East St. Louis. 

Belleville (21,122), the county seat of St. Clair County, is 
located near the divide between the Mississippi and Kaskaskia 
rivers. It is an important coal-mining and manufacturing 
center. Scott Aviation Field, at which hundreds of aviators 
received their training during the world-war, is located at 
Belleville. 




WukK UN iHli DIKES, EAST ST. LOUIS 

The river floods of 1903 required that the 
dikes at East St. Louis be quickly raised by 
means of thousands of bags of sand. Perma- 
nent improvements now make the dikes 
stronger. (Copyright by Keystone \'iew 
Company.) 




This map (scale 1 inch to 8 miles) represents t 
Lotus and St. Louis indicate the control which river 



ST. LOUIS, EAST ST. LOUIS, AND VICINITY 
I 60 miles by 40 miles, the southwest portion o£ which is in Missouri. The convergence of railroad lines on East St. 
3 and suitable river crossings have on transportation lines. 



OTHER CITIES OF ILLINOIS 303 

St. Clair County stands next to Cook County in population. 
Two-thirds of the people of the county live in the tv/o cities of 
East St. Louis and Belleville. Smaller cities of the county 
contain more than 10 per cent of the population of the county. 
The western portions of Madison and St. Clair counties from 
Alton to Belleville, a distance of 30 miles, form an urban 
district of the St. Louis region, much as the cities of north- 
eastern Illinois form an urban district in the Chicago region. 

Columbia (2,076), and Waterloo (2,091), the county seat, 
are the principal towns of Monroe County. 

Cities of the Kaskaskia Basin. — The Kaskaskia River Basin 
is nearly 200 miles in length with an average width of about 
30 miles. It lies in a northeast-southwest direction, extending 
from Champaign County to Randolph County, approaching 
within 40 miles of the Indiana state line. It has an area of 
5,710 square miles, or one-tenth of the area of the state. 
Champaign and Urbana are on the divide between the Kas- 
kaskia and Wabash basins and will be included with the 
cities of the Wabash Basin. 

Sullivan (2,621) is the county seat of Moultrie County, and 
Shelbyville (3,590) of Shelby County. 

Pana (6,055), in the southeast corner of Christian County, 
is an important coal-mining center. 

In Montgomery County are found Nokomis (1,872), 
Witt (2,170), Hillsboro (3,424), the county seat, and Litchfield 
(5,971). Coal-mining is important at these cities. 

Mount Olive (3,501) is in the southeast corner of Macoupin 
County on the western margin of the Kaskaskia Basin. It lies 
in the rich coal district, and is only a few miles from Gillespie, 
Benld, and Staunton. 

Vandalia (2,974), the county seat of Fayette County, was 
the state capital for twenty years, 1819 to 1839. The old 
capitol is now the county courthouse. 

Greenville (3,178) is the county seat of Bond County. 

Carlyle (1,982) is the county seat of Clinton County. 
Breese (2,128) is in the same county. 

In that portion of St. Clair County included in the Kaskaskia 
Basin are O'Fallon (2,018), Lebanon (1,907), Mascoutah (2,081), 
Millstadt (1,140), New Athens (1,131), and Marissa (2,004). 



304 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

Salem (2,669) is the county seat of Marion County. Near 
Odin (1,400) is found one of the state agricultural experiment 
fields. 

Centralia (9,680), at the western margin of Marion County, 
is a coal-mining center. It is the most important railroad 
center and the largest city located within the borders of the 
Kaskaskia Basin. Belleville and Champaign, on the edges of 
the basin, are larger than Centralia. 

Nashville (2,135) is the county seat of Washington County. 

Sparta (3,081) is the largest city in Randolph County. 

Chester (2,747), the county seat of Randolph County, is the 
scat of the Southern Illinois State Penitentiary and of a state 
hospital. Chester is located on the Mississippi about 10 
miles below the present junction of the Kaskaskia with the 
Mississippi. Before the cut-ofT was made forming Kaskaskia 
Island, the Kaskaskia River joined the Mississippi just above 
Chester. The Mississippi at present occupies, for a distance 
of about 10 miles, the former lower course of the Kaskaskia. 

Kaskaskia (142), or New Kaskaskia, as it is called to dis- 
tinguish it from the noted settlement of colonial days, is a 
village located on Kaskaskia Island. It is an Illinois village 
located west of the Mississippi River. 

Cities of the Big Muddy Basin. — The Big Muddy River 
Basin has an area of 2,230 square miles, or 4 per cent of the 
area of the state. It contains ten cities having populations 
of 2,500 or more, and numerous smaller cities and villages. 
No other part of the state except the urban districts of Chicago 
and St. Louis has so many cities of more than 2,500 inhabitants 
in so small an area. None of these ten cities had a population 
of 10,000 in 1910. The basin contains the most productive coal 
district of the state, Williamson and Franklin counties alone 
producing about one-fourth of the output of the state. Coal 
mines are found near each of the ten cities except Mount Vernon. 

Mount Vernon (8,007), the county seat of Jefferson County, 
was the largest of the cities of the Big Muddy Basin in 1910. 
It is an important railroad center. 

Pinckneyville (2,722) is the county seat and Duquoin 
(5,454) the largest city in Perry County. Benton (2,675) is 
the county seat of Franklin County. 



OTHER CITIES OF ILLINOIS 305 

Murphysboro (7,485) is the county seat of Jackson County. 
Carbondale (5,411) is the scat of the Southern IHinois State 
Normal University. 

Johnston City (3,248), Herrin (6,861), Carterville (2,971), 
and Marion (7,093) are in Williamson County, the most impor- 
tant coal-producing county of the state, furnishing about 
one-sixth of the total for the state. These four cities have 
45 per cent of the population of the county. Marion is the 
county seat. 

Cities of the Saline Basin. — The Saline River and its tribu- 
taries drain an area of considerable extent lying east of the 
Big Muddy Basin and north of the Ozark Ridge. The Saline 
River empties into the Ohio about 15 miles below the mouth 
of the Wabash. 

Harrisburg (5,309), county seat of Sahne County, is the larg- 
est city of the Saline Basin. Eldorado (3,366) is the second city 
of the county. Carrier Mills (1,558) at the foot of the Ozark 
Ridge has the southernmost coal mines of the state. The coal- 
bearing rocks are absent from the Ozarks. Saline County ranks 
high in coal production with twenty or more shipping mines. 

Equality (1,180), in Gallatin County, was noted for its 
salt works in the days of early settlement in Illinois. 

Shawneetown (1,863), county seat of Gallatin County, 
located on the Ohio River, six miles below the mouth of the 
Wabash, was the leading city of southeastern Illinois in the 
pioneer days when travel and commerce were largely carried on 
by river. 

Cities of the Ozark region. — The Ozark Plateau and its 
spurs occupy the southernmost seven counties of Illinois. 
These seven counties have four cities with populations of 
2,500 or more, only one of which is on the Ozark uplands, the 
other three being ports on the Ohio River. 

Jonesboro (1,169) is the county seat of Union County. 
Anna (2,809) is the seat of a state hospital. 

Vienna (1,124) is the county seat of Johnson County. 

Golconda (1,088), the county seat of Pope County, is 
located on the Ohio River, and it is the terminus of a railroad 
branch line. Fluor spar from the mines of Rosiclare is here 
transferred from the river to the railroad. 



306 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Rosiclare (609), in Hardin County, has the largest fluor-spar 
mines in the world. A railroad about one mile in length 
brings the fluor spar from the mines to the wharf, where it is 
loaded on boats and taken downstream to Golconda or up- 
stream to Shawneetown for transshipment by railroad. 

Elizabethtown (633), the county seat of Hardin County j is 
known everywhere throughout southern Illinois as E-town. 

Thebes (717), in Alexander County, is at the lUinois end 
of a railroad bridge, the only Illinois bridge across the Missis- 
sippi south of St. Louis. 

Cairo (14,548), the county seat of Alexander County, is 
located at the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers 

with its wharves on the 
Ohio River front. A 
railroad bridge crosses 
the Ohio River here. 
Cairo is the metropolis 
of southern lUinois. It 
is the largest city in 
Illinois south of Belle- 
ville, 120 miles away. 
No city so large as 
Cairo is found to the 
north and east until 
we reach Springfield or 
Decatur, 200 miles to the north, or Danville, 250 miles to the 
northeast, in each case more than half the distance from Cairo 
to Chicago. Cairo has important commercial and manufac- 
turing interests. 

Mound City (2,837), the county seat of Pulaski County, is a 
river port on the Ohio, 7 miles upstream, almost due north 
from Cairo. It has important lumber industries. Mounds 
(1,686), 3 miles from Mound City, is an important railroad 
junction. 

Joppa (734), in Massac County, is a river port, a railroad 
terminus, and an important center for truck farming for 
northern markets. 

Metropolis (4,655), the county seat of Massac County, is 
an important river port, and the site of a new railroad bridge 




MAIN STREET, ELIZABETHTOWN, HARDIN COUNTY 

'"E-town" is a county seat and a river port 
without a railroad. The Ohio River is seen at 
the foot of Main Street. 



OTHER CITIES OF ILLINOIS 



307 



across the Ohio, the only one in Illinois above Cairo. The 
Fort Massac State Park, near which George Rogers Clark 
entered Illinois, is located at Metropolis. It contains a monu- 
ment to George Rogers Clark. 

Brookport (1,443), six miles up the Ohio from Metropolis, 
is the terminus of a railroad branch line. Brookport is oppo- 
site Paducah, Kentucky 
(22,760), with which it 
is connected by a car 
ferry. 

Cities of the Wabash 
Basin . — T h e Wa bash 
River Basin in Illinois ex- 
tends from Ford County 
on the north to Gallatin 
County on the south. 
Its north-south length is 
about 200 miles and its 
width varies from 40 to 
60 miles. Its area is 
8,770 miles, or 15 percent 
of the area of the state. 
In this area there are 18 
cities having a popula- 
tion of 2,500 or more. 
The northern part of the 
basin is drained by the 
Vermilion River, a tribu- 
tary which joins the 
Wabash in Indiana. This stream is sometimes designated as 
the Wabash-Vermilion to distinguish it from the Illinois- 
Vermilion, which flows to the northwest and joins the Illinois 
River in La Salle County. 

Paxton (2,912) is the county seat of Ford County. 

Rantoul (1,384) is in Champaign County, 15 miles north of 
Champaign. Shortly after the United States entered the 
world-war the citizens of Rantoul and vicinity secured 
the location of an aviation training camp at Rantoul. The 
camp is knowm as Chanute Aviation Field. The field occupies 




FORT MASSAC AND MONUMENT TO GEORGE ROGERS 
CLARK, METROPOLIS, MASSAC COUNTY 

George Rogers Clark and his company of 
soldiers carried the first American flag into 
the Illinois country in 1778, entering Illinois 
from the Ohio River near this scene. 



308 TEE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

one square mile of very level land. More than a thousand 
men were engaged here as mechanics, instructors, and cadets, 
large classes graduating at frequent intervals and other candi- 
dates taking their places. 

Champaign (12,421) and Urbana (8,245) arc adjoining 
cities, the seat of the University of Illinois. The campus 
with its numerous buildings is in Urbana, extending along the 
street which forms the boundary line between the two cities. 
The two cities form a compact urban area. Urbana was 
founded earlier than Champaign and before railroads were 
built. The survey for the Illinois Central Railroad carried 
the line 2 miles west of Urbana across the open prairie. A 
settlement was then started at Champaign. The "Big Four" 
Railroad passes through both cities. All Chicago traffic, 
however, is carried on through Champaign. Both cities 
have built good business establishments and excellent resi- 
dential districts. Champaign has developed the more exten- 
sive business district and has the larger population. The 
two cities furnish homes for 40 per cent of the people of Cham- 
paign County. Urbana is the county seat. 

Hoopeston (4,698), in the northern part of Vermilion 
County, has important corn-canning factories. 

Danville (27,871), the county seat of Vermilion County, is 
an important coal-mining center. Westville (2,607) and 
Georgetown (2,307), south of Danville, have coal mines. 
These four cities contain 48 per cent of the population of 
Vermilion County. 

Tuscola (2,453), the county seat, and Areola (2,100) are 
the principal cities of Douglas County. 

Mattoon (11,456), the largest city between Cairo and 
Champaign, is an important railroad center in the western 
part of Coles County. It is a great broom-corn market, 
as broom corn is raised extensively in Coles and adjoining 
counties. 

Charleston (5,884), the county seat of Coles County, is the 
seat of the Eastern Illinois State Normal School. 

Paris (7,664), the county seat of Edgar County, is a good 
railroad center. An electric line connects Paris and Terre 
Haute, Indiana. 



OTHER CITIES OF ILLINOIS 309 

Marshall (2,569), the county seat, and Casey (2,157) are 
the principal cities of Clark County. 

Toledo (900), the county seat, Neoga (1,074), and Greenup 
(1,224) are the principal towns of Cumberland County. 

Effingham (3,898), the county seat of Effingham County, 
is the seat of a school of photography. 

Newton (2,108) is the county seat of Jasper County. 

Robinson (3,863), the county seat of Crawford County, 
is in the oil-producing district. It has an oil refinery and 
manufactures oil-well supplies. Oblong (1,482) is also in the 
oil region of Crawford County. 

Lawrenceville (3,235), the county seat, and Bridgeport 
(2,703) are in the rich oil fields of Lawrence County. Lawrence- 
ville has two oil refineries and an asphalt factory. Sumner 
(1,413) is in the western part of Lawrence County. 

Olney (5,011) is the county seat of Lawrence County. 
"Larchmound," the country home of Robert Ridgway, Amer- 
ica's noted ornithologist, and "Bird Haven," a tract of native 
woodland owned and set aside by Mr. Ridgway as a natural 
breeding-place for birds, are located near Olney. 

Louisville (670) is the county seat and Flora (2,704) the 
largest city of Clay County. 

Fairfield (2,479) is the county seat of Wayne County. An 
agricultural experiment field is located near Fairfield. 

Albion (1,281), the county seat of Edwards County, was 
laid out in October, 1818, in the center of the English settle- 
ment which was made under the leadership of George Flower 
and Morris Birbeck. The settlement was made famous 
throughout the world through the notes, pamphlets, and 
letters of the founders and by published reports of foreign 
travelers who visited the settlement in its early years. These 
reports stimulated immigration to Illinois from other states and 
from abroad. The first public library in Illinois was founded 
at Albion in 1818. The home built by Mr. Flower in 1819 
was said to be in its day the finest residence west of the 
Allegheny Mountains. 

Mount Carmel (6,934), the county seat of Wabash County, 
is the largest city in Illinois located on the Wabash River. 
A ferry runs between Mount Carmel and the Indiana shore. 



310 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

Grayville (1,940) is in the northeast corner of White 
County on the Wabash. Carmi (2,833), the county seat, is 
near the center of the county. 

Growth of Illinois Cities. — In the foregoing chapters no 
effort has been made to take account of the changes in popula- 
tion of Illinois cities since 1910. From the official figures given 
in these pages, and a knowledge of local conditions at present, 
the reader will be able to arrive at correct conclusions con- 
cerning increase of population during recent years in his own 
locality. The larger cities with good commercial locations 
have grown in population; many of the smaller cities which 
have secured industrial plants have made important increases 
in population. 

In 1915 the U.S. Census Bureau made careful estimates of 
the population of the large cities of the United States. The 
total estimated population of the 38 cities of Illinois having 
10,000 or more inhabitants in 1915 was 3,383,407. 

The total population of the 112 cities having populations 
between 2,500 and 10,000 in 1910 was 525,966, or 9 per cent of 
the population of the state. The total population of the 144 
cities having 2,500 or more inhabitants was 3,476,929, or 61 
per cent of the population of the state. 

A complete list of all villages, cities, and railroad stations 
includes more than 4,000 names. 

In the accompanying tables the 144 cities of Illinois are 
listed in the order of population in 1910, and 38 are also listed 
in the order of estimated population in 1915. 

Conclusion. — Although Illinois is the leading state in agri- 
culture, there is a notable concentration of the population in 
cities. The smaller cities serve the commercial needs of the 
farming communities in which they are located. Others of 
the smaller and moderate-sized cities are located in coal-mining 
districts. Other larger cities have profited by the location of 
large commercial houses and manufacturing plants. Chicago, 
the metropolis of the state, contains 1 . 6 times as great a popu- 
lation as the next 143 cities of the state combined. It is 
Chicago and suburbs that give Illinois the appearance of an 
urban rather than an agricultural state. Outside the Chicago 
district the urban population of the state is well developed, 



OTHER CITIES OF ILLINOIS 



311 



but not predominant for a thriving agricultural and coal- 
producing state. 

TABLE I 

CtTiES OF Illinois, Population 10,000 or More, 1910 and 1915 



Rank 


City 


Population 


Rank 


City 


Population 


1910 


1910 


1915 


1915 


1... 


Chicago 


2,185.283 


1.. 


Chicago 


2,447,045 


2 




Peoria 


66,950 


2 


East St. Louis 


72,105 


3; 




East St. Louis 


58,547 


3^; 


Peoria 


70,732 


4. 




Springfield 


51,678 


4. . 


Springfield 


59,468 


5. 




Rockford 


45,401 


5.. 


Rockford 


53,761 


6. 




Quincy 


36,587 


6. . 


Decatur 


38,526 


7. 




Joliet 


34,670 


7. . 


Joliet 


37,472 


8. 




Decatur 


31,140 


S. . 


Quincy 


36,764 


9. 




Aurora 


29.807 


9.. 


Aurora 


33,613 


10. 




Danville 


27,871 


10.. 


Danville 


31,554 


11. 




Elgin 


25,976 


11.. 


Evanston 


28,312 


12. 




Bloomington 


25,768 


12.. 


Rock Island 


27,961 


13. 




Evanston 


24,978 


13. . 


Elgin 


27,844 


14, 




Rock Island 


24,335 


14.. 


Bloomington 


27,054 


15. 




Moline 


24,199 


15.. 


Moline 


26,927 


16. 




(lalesburg 


22,089 


16.. 


Oak Park 


25,492 


17. 




Belleville 


21,122 


17.. 


Galesburg 


23,923 


18. 




Oak Park 


19,444 


18.. 


Alton 


22,483 


19. 




Freeport 


17,567 


19.. 


Belleville 


21,144 


20. 




Alton 


17,528 


20.. 


Chicago Heights 


20,626 


21. 




Waukegan 


16,069 


21.. 


Waukegan 


19,571 


92 




Jacksonville 


15,326 


22. 


Freeport 


19,293 


23' 




Cicero 


14,557 


23'! 


Cicero 


19,102 


24. 




Cairo 


14,548 


24.. 


Cairo 


15,593 


25. 




Chicago Heights 


14.525 


25. . 


Jacksonville 


15,456 


26. 




Streator 


14,253 


26.. 


Granite City 


14,394 


27. 




Kankakee 


13,986 


27.. 


Streator 


14,295 


28. 




Champaign 


12,421 


28.. 


Kankakee 


14,190 


29. 




La Salle 


11,537 


29.. 


Champaign 


14,171 


30. 




Mattoon 


11,456 


30. . 


Kewanee 


13,517 


31. 




Lincoln 


10,892 


31.. 


Canton 


12,850 


32. 




Canton 


10,453 


32.. 


Mattoon 


12,400 








33.. 


La Salle 


12,110 








34.. 


Lincoln 


11,685 








35.. 


Centralia 


11,238 








36.. 


Pekin 


10,673 








37.. 


May wood 


10,155 








38.. 


Monmouth 


10,008 


Total. 32 cities... 


2,950,963 


T 


otal, 38 cities 


3,383,407 


Percentage of state 


52 


T 
li 

I 

I 


otal, 32 cities, 1910 

st 

acrease, 32 cities, 

1910 list 

ticrease percentage, 

32 cities, 1910 Hst. 


3,313,422 

362,459 

12 



312 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



TABLE II 
Cities of Illinois, Population 2,500 to 10,000, 1910 



Rank 


City 


Popula- 
tion 


Rank 


City 


Popula- 
tion 


33.. 


Granite City 


9,903 


81. . 


Morris 


4,563 


34.. 


Pekin 


9,897 


82. . 


Batavia 


4,436 


35.. 


Centralia 


9,680 


83 . , 


Woodstock 


4,331 


3f). . 


Ottawa 


9,535 


84. . 


Highland Park 


4,209 


37.. 


Kewanee 


9,307 


85. . 


Princeton 


4,131 


38.. 


Monmouth 


9,128 


86. . 


Jerseyville 


4,113 


39.. 


Urbana 


8,245 


87. . 


St. Charles 


4,046 


40.. 


DeKalb 


8,102 


88. . 


Normal 


4,024 


41.. 


Blue Island 


8,043 


89. . 


Virden 


4,000 


42.. 


Maywood 


8,033 


90. . 


Sycamore 


3,986 


43.. 


Mount Vernon 


8,007 


91. . 


Effingham 


3,898 


44.. 


Peru 


7,984 


92 


Robinson 


3,863 


45.. 


Paris 


7,664 


93.. 


Mendotu 


3,806 


46.. 


Murphysboro 


7,485 


94. . 


Venice 


3,718 


47.. 


Collinsville 


7,478 


95. . 


Morgan Park 


3,694 


48.. 


Sterling 


7,467 


96 


Savanna 


3,691 


49.. 


Belvidere 


7,253 


97.. 


Carlinvijie 


3,()1() 


50.. 


Harvey 


7,227 


98 


Shelbyville 


.3,590 


51.. 


Dixon 


7,216 


99. . 


Havana 


3,525 


52.. 


Marion 


7,093 


100. . 


Mount Olive 


3,501 


53.. 


Spring Valley 


7,035 


101 . . 


Naperville 


3,449 


54.. 


Mount Carnul 


6,934 


102.. 


HilLsboro 


3,424 


55.. 


Herri n 


6.861 


103. 


Wheaton 


3,423 


56.. 


Forest Park 


6,594 


104 


Eldorado 


3,366 


57.. 


Beardstown 


6,107 


105 . 


Lake Forest 


3,349 


.58.. 


Pontiac 


6.090 


106 . 


North Chicago 


3,306 


59.. 


Pana 


6,0.55 


107. . 


Marseilles 


3.291 


60.. 


Litchfield 


5,971 


108 . . 


Johnston City 


3,248 


61 . . 


Charleston 


5,884 


109. 


LawrencevilJe 


3,235 


62.. 


Berwyn 


5,841 


110. 


(ieneseo 


3,199 


63.. 


Macomb 


5,774 


111. . 


Oglesby 


3,194 


64.. 


Duquoin 


5,4.54 


112. . 


Greenville 


3,178 


65.. 


Taylorville 


5,446 


113 . 


Winnetka 


3,168 


66.. 


Carbondale 


5,411 


114. . 


Sparta 


3,081 


67.. 


Harrisburg 


5,309 


115. . 


Harvard 


3,008 


68. . 


LaGrange 


5,282 


116. . 


Vandalia 


2,974 


69.. 


Clinton 


5,105 


117.. 


Carterville 


2,971 


70.. 


Staunton 


5,048 


118. . 


Lipper Alton 


2,918 


71.. 


Madison 


5,046 


119.. 


Pa.xton 


2,912 


72.. 


Edwardsville 


5,014 


120. . 


White Hall 


2,8.54 


73.. 


Olney 


5,011 


121 . . 


Mound City 


2,837 


74.. 


West Hammond 


4,948 


122. . 


Carmi 


2,833 


75. . 


Wilmette 


4,943 


123. . 


Anna 


2,809 


76.. 


Galena 


4,855 


124. . 


Chester 


2,747 


77.. 


Melrose Park 


4,806 


125.. 


Rochelle 


2,732 


78.. 


Zion, City 


4.789 


126. . 


Pincknevville 


2,722 


79.. 


Hoopeston 


4.698 


127. . 


Flora 


2,7o4 


80.. 


Metropolis 


4,658 


128.. 


Bridgeport 


2,703 



OTHER CITIES OF ILLINOIS 



313 



TABLE II— Clin/ i nun! 
Cities of Illinois, Population 2,500 to 10,000, 1919 



RanV 


City 


Popula- 
tion 


Rank 


City 


Popula- 
tion 


129. 
130. 
131. 
132. 
133. 
134. 
135. 
136, 


Benton 
Highland 
Salem 
Averyville 
Coal City 
East Moline 
Rock Falls 
Sullivan 
1 


2,675 
2,675 
2,669 
2,668 
2.667 
2,665 
2.657 
2,621 


137, 
138,. 
139 . . 
140,. 
141.. 
142.. 
143.. 
144. . 


Bushnell 

Westville 

Downers Grove 

Petersburg 

Marshall 

Sandwich 

Lockport 

Fairbury 


2,619 
2,607 
2,601 
2,587 
2,569 
2,557 
2,555 
2,505 



Total, 112 cities, 2,500 to 10,000 

Percentage of state 

Total, 144 cities over 2,500 

Percentage of state 



525,966 

9 

3,476,929 

61 



CHAPTER XX 
GOVERNMENT 

The capital city. — Old Kaskaskia was the capital of Illinois 
Territory 1809-18 and the capital of the state of Illinois 1818- 
20. Vandalia was the second capital of the state, 1820-39. 



# 




STATE CAPITOL, SPRINGFIELD 

_ The capitol was completed in 1888. It is in the form of a Greek cross with 
porticoes of granite and a dome 361 feet in height. 

Springfield has been the capital since that date. The beautiful 
and commodious State House, or Capitol, was erected between 
1867 and 1888. In 1905 the appropriation was made for 
the Supreme Court Building. In 1917 the State Legislature 

314 



GOVERNMENT 



315 




SUPREME COURT BUILDING, SPRINGFIELD 

The rapid growth of state business matle 
necessary more room than that contained in 
the spacious capitol. The Supreme Court 
Building was the first additional building to be 
erected for state officials. 



provided for the construction of a Centennial Memorial 
Building to be used by various departments of the state govern- 
ment. The corner stone 
was laid October 5, 1918, 
on the centennial of the 
meeting of the first legis- 
lature and the inaugura- 
tion of the first governor. 
On the same date the 
statues of Lincoln and 
Douglas, erected on the 
capitol grounds, were 
dedicated. The Gov- 
ernor's Mansion, the 
home of the chief execu- 
tive, is also the property 
of the state. The State 

Fair Grounds are located at Springfield. Camp Lincoln, set 
aside for the training of the National Guard, is near the city. 

Lincoln's home, now the 
property of the state, 
and Lincoln's monu- 
ment, also under the 
care of the state, are 
interesting memorials in 
the capital city to our 
most illustrious citizen. 
The importance of 
Springfield as a city is 
largely enhanced by its 
being the seat of the 
state government. In 
addition, the advantages 
of location due to rich 
coalfields and fertile agri- 
cultural lands, together with excellent transportation facilities 
and the establishment of numerous industrial and commercial 
plants, have made Springfield the fourth city of the state in 
population. 




GOVERNOR S MANSION, SPRINGFIELD 

The state, like the United States, provides a 
home for its chief executive during his term of 
office. The Governor's Mansion is located at 
Fifth and Jackson streets. 



316 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




y / 



CENTENNIAL BUILDING, SPRINGFIELD 



This is a pliotoRrapli of a model of the Centennial BuildinK. The corner 
stone was laid October 5. 1918. on the centennial of the meeting of the first legis- 
lature and the inauguration of the first governor. 




FRENCH MISSION AT LI.XCOLN S TOMB, SPRINGFIELD 

The French Commission visited Oak Ridge Cemeter>- on May 7, 1917. Here 
they are standing beside the tomb of Lincoln. From right to left they are: Marshal 
JofEre, ex-Premier Viviani, Admiral Chocheprat, and Lieutenant-Colonel Jean Fabry. 



GOVERNMENT 



317 



State government and geographical divisions. — The state 
government, like the national government, has three depart- 
ments, the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. Elec- 
tion of state officers and of United States senators is made by 
a vote of the state as a whole. The election of persons to the 
legislative and judicial departments of the state government 




LINCOLN CENTENNIAL MONUMENT, E, \sl LMK \M.i. In L \PITOL GROUNDS, SPRINGFIELD 

"Lincoln of the Farewell Address" is the work of the New England sculptor, 
Andrew O'Connor. This statue was erected in the state centennial year, 1918. It 
represents Lincoln as he appeared when he left Springfield on Febiuary 11, 1861, to 
go to Washington to take up his new duties as president. The statue is 10^ feet 
high and stands on a granite base. 



and to the Lower House of the Congress of the United States 
makes necessary the geographical division of the state in several 
different ways for governmental purposes. 

The General Assembly or State Legislature consists of 
51 Senators, one for each senatorial district, and 153 Repre- 
sentatives, three for each senatorial district. It is necessary, 



318 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



therefore, to divide the state into 51 geographic divisions 
known and numbered as senatorial districts. These are 
indicated on the accompanying map. Cook County, because 
of its large population, contains 19 of the 51 senatorial dis- 
tricts numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 
23, 25, 27, 29, and 31. The other districts of the state are 
numbered on the map. The boundaries of senatorial districts 
outside of Cook County follow county lines. Each of the three 
counties, Peoria, La Salle, and St. Clair, forms a district. 



1 I 





STATE ARSENAL AT SPRINGFIELD 



This building not only serves its purpose as an arsenal, but it provides a com- 
modious hall for conventions, lectures, and concerts. The State Natural History 
Museum, now located here, is to be transferred to the Centennial Building when 
completed. 

Other districts are composed of counties varying in number 
from two to seven. The grouping of counties by districts is 
shown on the map. The State Legislature meets once in 
two years at Springfield in the Senate Chamber and the Hall 
of the House of Representatives of the State Capitol. Joint 
sessions are held in the Hall of the House of Representatives. 
The action of the State Legislature applies uniformly to the 
entire state, but its members, selected from all parts of 
the state, are expected to keep the Legislature informed 




MAP SHOWING SENATORIAL DISTRICTS OF ILLINOIS 



320 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



concerning the needs of the locaUties which they represent. 
The state senators are elected for four years and the repre- 
sentatives for two years. 

The state is divided into seven districts for the election of 
justices of the Supreme Court. The boundaries of these 
districts follow county lines. The counties composing each 
district are shown on the accompanying map. The justices 




GENERAL ASSEMBLY IN JOINT SESSION 

The House of Representatives and the Senate act separately in the passing of 
laws. The Hall of the House of Representatives is the scene of joint sessions on 
special occasions. 

hold office for nine years. The presiding officer, or chief 
justice, is selected by the members of the Supreme Court 
from their own number. He serves as chief justice for one 
year, and, by rotation, each member serves as chief justice 
at some time during his term of ofticc. 

The state is divided into four Appellate Court Districts 
as shown on the accompanying map. Justices for these courts 
are appointed by the Justices of the Supreme Court. 




MAP SHOWING JUDICIAL CIRCUITS OF ILLINOIS 



322 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



The state outside of Cook County is divided into 17 circuits, 
in each of which three circuit judges arc elected for a term of 
six years. The map on page 321 shows the number and 
boundaries of the judicial circuits. Special provision is made 
for the courts of Cook County, and for this reason Cook 
County does not appear as one of the numbered districts. 

Efforts to reapportion the congressional districts of the 
state based on the census of 1910 have failed. The 25 districts 




MAP OF THE SUPREME COURT DISTRICTS 
OF ILLINOIS 



MAP OF APPELLATE COURT DISTRICTS 
OF ILLINOIS 



The district boundaries follow county lines Cook County alone makes one district 



remain, therefore, as apportioned in 1901 based on the census 
of 1900. Since the census of 1910 gives Illinois 27 representa- 
tives in Congress instead of 25, it has been necessary since 
1910 to elect two congressmen-at-Iarge. The first nine con- 
gressional districts are wholly in Cook County. The tenth 
district includes the northern part of Cook County and all of 




MAP SHOWING CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS OF ILLINOIS 



324 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




SOUTHERN ILLINOIS STATE PENITENTIARY, 
CHESTER, RANDOLPH COUNTY 

Illinois has two state penitentiaries, one at 
Joliet and one at Chester. The men are kept 
busy at some useful labor for which they are 
fitted. 



Lake County. The other districts follow county lines as indi- 
cated on the map shown on page 323. The number of counties 

in a single district varies 
from 4 to 11. 

The Administrative 
Code. — The executive 
branch of the state 
government was reor- 
ganized on Jul}' 1, 1917, 
under a law known as 
"The Civil Administra- 
tive Code of Illinois." 
This law provides for 
nine departments as 
follows: 1. Finance; 
2. Agriculture; 3. La- 
bor; 4. Mines and Min- 
erals; 5. Public Works 
and Buildings; G. Pubhc Welfare; 7. Public Health; 8. Trade 
and Commerce; 9. Registration and Education. A director 
of each department is 
appointed by the gov- 
ernor. More than a 
hundred separate boards 
and commissions were 
consolidated under these 
nine departments. 

State institutions. — 
There are many things 
which contribute to the 
welfare of the people 
that can be carried on 
better by the state as a 
whole than by private or 
local interests. These 
include the state university and the state normal schools as 
higher institutions of learning; the state hospitals for the care of 
the insane; schools for boys and girls who are blind, deaf, 
feeble-minded, or unruly; homes for soldiers, sailors, their 




STATE REFORMATORY, PONTIAC, 

LIVINGSTON COUNTY 

Boys who have violated the law are sent 
to the State Reformatory. Well-organized 
school work and industrial training prepare 
them for useful occupations. 




MAP OF STATE INSTITUTIONS AND NATIONAL SOLDIERS' HOME 



326 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



widows, and orj)hans; and penitentiaries for those who violate 
tlic law. Illinois established and supports by general taxation 
32 state institutions. The five state normal schools and the 
state university are listed among the higher institutions of 
learning of the state, page 325. The 26 other state institutions 
are given in the accompanying table and their locations are 
indicated on the map. Number 27 is a national, not a state, 
institution. Its service, however, is of the same character as 
that of the State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home at Quincy. It 
is open to soldiers from any state of the Union. The popu- 
lation of these institutions as given in the table suggests the 
large service which they render the state. 

TABLE I 

State Institutions 



No. 


Institution 


City 


Population 
1919 ■ 


1 


Elgin State Hospital 


Elgin 


2,144 


2 


Kankakee State Hospital 


Kankakee 


3,183 


3 


Jacksonville State Hospital 


Jacksonville 


2,103 


4 


Anna State Hospital 


Anna 


1,693 


5 


Watertown State Hospital 


Watertown 


1,603 


6 


Peoria State Hospital 


Peoria 


2,135 


7 


Chester State Hospital 


Chester 


142 


8 


Chicago State Hospital 


Chicago 


3,268 


9 


Alton State Hospital 


Alton 


702 


10 


Lincoln State School and Colony 


Lincoln 


2.157 


11 


Dixon Colony for Feeble-Minded 
Dixon Colony for Epileptics 






12 


Dixon 


96 


13 


State P.sychopathic Institute 
Illinois School for the Deaf 






14 


Jacksonville 


346 


15 


Illinois School for the Blind 


Jacksonville 


213 


IG 


Illinois Industrial I lonu- for the Blind 


Chicago 


80 


17 


Illinois SdlditTs' and Sailors' Home 


Quincy 


1,230 


IS 


Soldiers' Widows' Home of Illinois 


Wilmington 


96 


19 


Soldiers' Orphans' Home 


Normal 


405 


20 


Illinois Charitable Eye and Ear 








Infirmary 


Chicago 


113 


21 


State Training School for Girls 


Ceneva 


453 


22 


St. Charles School for Boys 


St. Charles 


828 


23 




Lockport 
JoUet 




24 


Illinois State Penitentiary 


1,483 


25 


Southern Illinois Penitentiary 


Chester 


1,011 


26 


IlHnois State Reformatory 


Pontiac 


959 


27 


National Soldiers' Home 


Danville 


1,201 



GOVERNMENT 327 



State constitutions. — The first state constitution was 
adopted in 1818, the second in 1848, and the third in 1870. 
For several years preceding 1917, various civic organizations 
of the state had agitated the question of calhng a constitutional 
convention for the purpose of making such changes in the 
constitution of 1870 as would better meet the present needs of 
the state. Governor Lowden, in his inaugural message of 

1917, submitted the importance of constitutional changes to 
the General Assembly in the following words: 

The time has come for a new state constitution. The constitutions 
framed since the Civil War, including our own. have not been limited to 
those things which properly constitute the fundamental law of the state; 
but have contained many matters which are properly the subject of legis- 
lation. Legislation always depends upon e.xisting conditions, and condi- 
tions change. A constitution which seems to legislate will inevitably be 
outgrown. This is our situation today. Therefore, we strongely urge 
prompt adoption by the General Assembly of a resolution calling for a 
constitutional convention. 

In 1917 the General Assembly adopted a resolution sub- 
mitting to the voters of the state at the election in November, 

1918, the question as to whether or not a convention "to revise, 
alter, or amend the constitution of this state" should be called. 
The proposition carried; delegates to a constitutional conven- 
tion were elected in November, 1919; and the convention 
assembled in Springfield in January, 1920. 

State parks. — The state parks are administered by the 
Department of Public Works and Buildings through the 
Division of Parks. The movement to establish a compre- 
hensive system of state parks has taken place since 1900, and a 
progressive program of action has followed the appointment of 
a superintendent of parks under the Administrative Code 
of 1917. The present plan looks forward to the improvement 
or reclamation of every spot in the state which is of lasting 
historic importance. The following parks and historic spots 
are now the property of the state and under the care of the 
Division of Parks: 

1. Starved Rock Park, a tract of about 1,000 acres, is located 
along the south bank of the Illinois River in La Salle County, 
near Utica, midway between Ottawa and La Salle. It includes 
the historic Starved Rock on which La Salle and Tonti erected 



328 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Fort St. Louis in 1682. The park extends along the river 
bluff for 5 miles and includes more than a score of picturesque 
canyons. French Canyon, Fox Canyon, and Aurora Canyon 
are among those easily visited and widely known. Starved 
Rock Park was purchased by the state in 1911. Visitors now 
number more than 100,000 annually. A modern hotel, owned 

by the state, with rooms for 
200 guests, offers comfort- 
able accommodations to 
visitors. Guard raUs have 
been placed in hazardous 
places, paths have been laid 
out, and markers put up 
showing routes to the differ- 
ent canyons. A spacious 
auditorium is provided for 
conventions and social 
gatherings. A garage is also 
maintained. Admission to 
the park and its scenery is 
free to all. The historic 
associations of the region, 
the natural beauty of the 
scenery, the good automobile 
roads leading to the park, 
the excellent electric-raUway 
service, the river ferryboats, 
and the provision made by 
the state for the comfort 
of visitors are making of 
Starved Rock Park one of 
the most attractive places to 
be found between the Appalachian and Rocky mountains. 

2. Fort Massac Park is located on the Ohio River at 
Metropolis in Massac County. George Rogers Clark entered 
Illinois in 177S in the immediate vicinity of Fort Massac 
Park under the first American flag unfurled in Illinois. 
A monument to George Rogers Clark has been erected in the 
park. The site of the park, consisting of 25 acres, was 




THE FALLS, HEAD OF HORSESHOE CANYON, 
STARVED ROCK STATE PARK 

Water flows over the falls of the 
numerous canyons of Starved Rock 
State Park only in wet weather. 



GOVERNMENT 



329 



purchased by the state in 1903. Visitors will find here relics 
of early Illinois history and a magnificent view of the Ohio 
River and Valley. 

3. Fort Chartres Park, 10 acres in area, is located in the 
northwest corner of Randolph County four miles west of the 
village of Prairie du Rocher, the nearest railroad station. 
Recent plans provide for the restoration of the old fortress from 
the native rock which is abundant in the immediate vicinity. 
A visit to this early center of the white man's activity in 
Illinois is well worth 
the effort of anyone ■^-^ 
who wishes to recon- 
struct in imagination 
the conditions under 
which early exploration 
and settlement were 
made. 

4. Shabbona Park, 
a small plot, 3| acres, 14 
miles north of Ottawa, 
was secured by the 
state in 1902. This 
park and the monument 
erected in the park 
commemorate the 
memory of 15 men, 
women, and children 
who were massacred by 
the Indians in 1832. 
The park is named for 
Shabbona, an Indian chief, who rode all night to warn the 
settlers of their danger. Those who fled at his request saved 
their lives. 

5. Douglas Monument Park, a small plot of ground in 
Chicago at Thirty-fifth Street and Lake Michigan, is the 
property of the state and contains a monument to Stephen A. 
Douglas. 

6. The Lincoln Monument in Oak Ridge Cemetery, Spring- 
field, is now state property and under the care of the Division 




WATERFALL, WILD CAT CANYON, STARVED ROCK 
STATE PARK 



330 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

of Parks. The French and British Commissions which visited 
the United States shortly after America entered the world-war 
made pilgrimages to the tomb of Lincoln. 

7. The Lincoln Homestead, Eighth and Jackson streets, 
Springfield, has been donated to the state. Its convenient 
location makes it possible for people to visit it even if their 
stay in the capital city is very brief. 

8. In 1919 the system of state parks was enlarged by the 
addition of New Salem Park on the banks of the Sangamon 
River near Petersburg in Menard County. Abraham Lincoln 
arrived at the village of New Salem in 183 1, at the age of twenty- 
two. New Salem was Lincoln's home for seven years. Here he 
kept store, practiced surveying, was chosen captain in the 
Black Hawk War, studied law, and was elected to the State 
Legislature. In later years, the village was abandoned, the 
buildings were removed or decayed, and the exact site of the 
village and its streets lost to the casual observer. A tract of 
60 acres has been donated to the state. Historic buildings of 
Lincoln's day are to be restored. New Salem Park is one of the 
most interesting memorials of Abraham Lincoln. President 
Woodrow Wilson and David Lloyd George, premier of England, 
were charter members of the Old Salem Lincoln League which 
created an interest in making New Salem a state park. 

9. The General Assembly of 1919 appropriated $1,500 to 
provide a marker for the site of Fort Creve Coeur near Peoria. 
The State Historical Society is engaged in making a thorough 
investigation concerning the exact site of Creve Coeur. The 
state marker will not be placed until the committee of the 
Historical Society reports. Seven sites have been presented 
for consideration. 

Proposed state parks. — Other spots within the state having 
historic value and scenic beauty are under consideration as 
desirable additions to the state parks. Among these are the 
following: 

1. The White Pine Forest, a tract of 500 acres in Ogle 
County, is the only natural white-pine woods in Illinois. As a 
state park this forest would become a center of attraction to 
visitors, and its care would furnish an opportunity for practical 
lessons in scientific forestry. 



GOVERNMENT 



331 



2. Cahokia Mound or Monk's Mound is in Madison 
County about 6 miles from East St. Louis. It is a truncated 
pyramid of earth, 1,080 by 710 feet, and 100 feet above the 
flood plain of the Mississippi. Sixty smaller mounds are 
fdund within a radius of 2 miles. Authorities differ as to 
whether these mounds are natural or artificial. Regardless of 
the method of formation, they furnished the native inhabitants 
of the region good building-sites above flood damage, and the 




VnilTE-PINE FOREST, OGLE COUNTY 

The White Pine Forest, a tract of 500 acres, has been under consideration for 
many years as a state park. This is the only natural white-pine woods in Illinois. 



relics of these former inhabitants are numerous in and near 
the mounds. 

3. Campbell's Island, east of Moline, is a tract of 250 acres 
now used as an amusement park. Historical interest, however, 
attaches to the spot from the fact that 16 Americans were 
killed and 21 wounded here by Indians of Black Hawk's band 
on July 19, 1814, while an expedition under Major John 
Campbell was going to the relief of Fort Shelby in Wisconsin. 

Internal improvements. — The voters of the state have 
approved the expenditure of $20,000,000 for the development 



832 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

of the Illinois Waterway and $60,000,000 for the building 
of good roads. As population has increased and as important 
needs of value to the state as a whole have appeared, the state 
government has become increasingly important in its ordinary 
functions and in the extensive enterprises committed to the 
state government by special vote of the people. 



CHArTER XXI 



EDUCATION 

Importance of education. — In order to insure an education 
to every person of school age the constitution of Illinois states 
that "the General Assembly shall provide a thorough and 
efficient system of free schools whereby all children of this 
state may receive a good common school education." Under 
this provision the Legislature has established by means of 
public funds a complete 
school system from the 
lowest to the highest 
grade, comprising ele- 
mentary schools, high 
schools, normal schools, 
and a state university 
which includes almost 
every department of gen- 
eral and professional edu- 
cation. More than a 
million pupils are enrolled 
in the public schools of 
Illinois, and one-fifth as 
many in the private 
schools. More persons 
are engaged in Illinois 
in the one business of getting an education than in any 
other single industry of the state. The welfare of the 
state, the nation, and the world depends very largely on 
the proper conduct of this largest of public enterprises— 
the education of the rising generation, and the extension of 
educational opportunities to adults. In addition to the com- 
plete system of public education for the children and youth of 
the state as a whole, special schools have been established at 
state expense for the best development of those children who 
cannot take advantage of the ordinary school. These special 

333 




AMERICANIZATION EVENING SCHOOL, 
SPRINGFIELD 

Evening schools for adult foreign-born 
inhabitants are established in all large cities 
of the United States. These people are 
eager to learn the English language and to 
know more about the resources and govern- 
ment of their adopted country. 



334 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




TYPICAL COUNTRY SCHOOL, II LEAN COUNTY 

The State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion has indicated certain conditions for build- 
ings, furnishings, equipment, and instruction 
whereby country schools may be classified as 
"standard" and "superior."' This is a stand- 
ard school. 



schools provide for the education of the blind, the deaf, the 
feeble-minded, the orphans, and the wayward. Evening 
schools are maintained in the larger cities of the state where 

young people may con- 
tinue their education and 
where foreign-born men 
and women may learn 
the English language. 

School districts. — The 
administration of a sys- 
tem of public education 
requires that the state be 
divided into school dis- 
tricts. Every home in 
the state is located 
within the limits of 
an elementary-school dis- 
trict. These districts 
have definite boundaries. 
A school district may in- 
clude four square miles, more or less, of farm lands and employ 
one teacher; or a larger country district with a consolidated 
school and several teachers; or the school district may be the 
corporate limits of a vil- 
lage or small city with 
one building and few- 
teachers; or a larger city 
with its numerous school 
buildings and hundreds 
of teachers. The city of 
Chicago constitutes the 
largest single school dis- 
trict in the state with 
more than 300 large 
school buildings and over 
8,000 teachers. 

Not all the state is included in the high-school districts. 
The state may therefore be divided into high-school territory 
and non-high-school territory. Under an insistent public 




HIGH SCHOOL, PRIM LION, BLRLVL COUNTY 

The Princeton Township High School was 
the first township high school in Illinois. 



EDUCATION 



335 



demand for free public high-school privileges for all boys and 
girls of the state, and under the operation of a recent law 
favorable to the devel- 
opment of community 
high schools, the high- 
school territory of Illi- 
nois is being rapidly 
extended. The present 
law provides that pupils 
living in non-high- 
school territory may 
attend a high school 
and have their tuition 
paid by the taxpayers 
of the non-high-school 
territory of the county. 
Thus every boy and girl 
in Illinois may now 
have a full four-year 
high -school education 
without charge for individual tuition. 




STATE soldiers' ORPHAN-,' Hn> 

m'lean county 



NORMAL, 



The State Soldiers' Orphans' Home was 
located in Normal in 1867. At first only the 
children of deceased soldiers were admitted, 
but since 1907 the home has been opened to 
other dependent children. 



All children and youth 
of Illinois are thus 
given the opportunity 
of attending schools 
provided by state 
action from the first 
grade to the most ex- 
tensive and most spe- 
cialized courses of the 
state university. 

Normal schools. — 
Trained teachers are 
necessary "to provide 
a thorough and efficient 
system of free schools," 
and Illinois has been 
generous in establish- 
ing five state normal schools in different parts of the state. 
These normal schools were opened to students in the following 




VIEW AT MILLIKIN UNIVERSITY, DECATUR 

The buildings for the James Millikin Uni- 
versity were dedicated in 1903. 



336 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




SOUTHERN ILLINOIS STATE NORMAL UNI\F.RSITV, 
CARBONDALE, JACKSON COUNTY 

The Southern Illinois State Normal Uni- 
versity was opened in 1874. 



The Chicago Normal 
School is maintained by 
the city of Chicago for 
the preparation of teach- 
ers for the public schools 
of Chicago. 

University of Illi- 
nois. — The state univer- 
sity, the University of 
Illinois, founded in 1867, 
and located at Urbana, 
Champaign County, is 
the highest educational 
institution of the state. 
The University is made 
up of 11 Colleges and 
Schools, 8 of which are 
at Urbana and 3 in Chi- 
cago. Those at Urbana 



order: (1) Illinois State 
Normal University, Nor- 
mal, McLean County, 
1857; (2) Southern IllV 
nois State Normal 
University, Carbondale, 
Jackson County, 1874 ; 
(3) Northern Illinois 
State Normal School, 
DeKalb, DeKalb 
County, and (4) East- 
ern Illinois State 
Normal School, Charles- 
ton, Coles County, 
both on the same day, 
September, 1899 ; and 
(5) Western Illinois 
State Normal School, 
Macomb, McDonough 
County, 1902. 




NORTHERN ILLINOIS slUl, M iH M \I. SriK >( IL, 
DEKALB, UKKALB CLll-iNTV 

The Northern Illinois State Normal School and 
the Eastern Illinois State Normal School were 
opened on the same day, September 12, 1899. 



EDUCATION 



337 




WESTERN ILLINOIS STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, 
MACOMB, m'dONOUGH COUNTY 

Western Illinois State Normal School is the 
fifth and youngest of the state normal schools 
of Illinois. It was opened in September, 1902. 



are: Liberal Arts and Sciences, Commerce, Education, Engi- 
neering, Agriculture, Music, Law, Library; those at Chicago, 
Medicine, Dentistry, and 
Pharmacy. 

Special schools. — The 
School for the Deaf and 
the School for the Blind 
are at Jacksonville; the 
Lincoln State School and 
Colony at Lincoln; the 
school of the Soldiers' 
Orphans' Home at Nor- 
mal; the St. Charles 
School for Boys at St. 
Charles; and the State 
Training School for Girls 
at Geneva. Each of 

these schools is established to provide educational oppor- 
tunities for a special group of pupils who cannot have the 

advantages of the ordi- 
nary public schools. 
Boys and girls from all 
parts of the state are 
sent to these special 
schools. 

Private schools. — 
About one-fifth as many 
elementary- and high- 
school pupils are en- 
rolled in the 
schools of the 
in the public 
These schools 
parochial schools under 
church management or 
tuition schools under individual control. Three-fourths of all 
pupils of the state attending private schools are in Chicago. 

Higher institutions of learning. — In addition to the state 
normal schools, the Chicago Normal School, and the state 




LINCOLN MEMORIAL HALL, UNUKkSllV OF 
ILLINOIS, URBAN A 

Lincoln Memorial Hall was made possible 
by an appropriation given in 1909, the cen- 
tennial of Lincoln's birth. 



private 
state as 

schools, 
may be 



338 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 




FELL GATE AND BUILDINGS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE NORMAL UNIVERSITY, NORMAL, 
m'lEAN COUNTY 

The Illinois State Normal University was the first state normal school estab- 
lished in the Mississippi Valley and the ninth in the United States. The Main 
Building, the one with the clock tower, begun in 1857, is the oldest state normal- 
school building now in use in the United States. 




HARPER LIBRARY AND WOMEN S HALLS, THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 

Harper Memorial Library was erected in memory of William Rainey Harper, 
first president of the University of Chicago. 



EDUCATION 



339 




BLACKBURN COLLEGE, CARLINVILLE, MACOUPIN 
COUNTY 

Blackburn College, founded in 1837 by Rev. 
Gideon Blackburn, is one of the oldest colleges 
in Illinois. 



university, which are supported by general taxation, IlHnois 
has numerous other colleges, universities, technical and pro- 
fessional schools sup- 
ported by funds from 
other than public reve- 
nues. Many of these in- 
stitutions were founded 
in the early years of 
Illinois statehood before 
the state had assumed 
the responsibility for the 
education of the chil- 
dren or the young 
people of the common- 
wealth. The table on 
pages 340-41 indicates 
the extent to which the 

higher educational institutions of Illinois are supported and 
maintained by voluntary action of her citizens. Two of 

these institutions, the 
University of Chicago 
and Northwestern Uni- 
versity, hold high rank, 
among the larger uni- 
versities of America. 
Of the 66 institutions 
of higher learning listed 
on pages 340-41, 10 
are supported by pub- 
lic taxation, and 56 are 
supported by church or 
private funds; 28 of 
these 56 are supported 
by 10 different religious denominations, 1 by interdenomi- 
national activity, and 27 are either non-sectarian schools or 
private institutions. Thirty of these 66 institutions are 
located in Chicago, 2 in Peoria, 2 in Galesburg, 2 in Jackson- 
ville, and 1 in each of 30 other cities, widely distributed 
throughout the state. 




JiKAL/LhY INSTITUTE, PEORIA 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute was opened 
in 1897. It is a memorial to the deceased 
children of Mr. and Mrs. Tobias Bradley. 



340 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



TABLE I 
Higher Institutions of Learning 



Institution 



University of Illinois 
State Normal University 
Southern State Normal Uni- 
versity 
Northern State Normal School 
Eastern State Normal School 
Western State Normal School 
Chicago Normal School 
University of Chicago 
Shurtleff College 
Northwestern University 
Illinois Wesleyan University 
Illinois Woman's College 
Hedding College 
McKendree College 
Greenville College 
Illinois College 
James Millikin University 
Knox College 
Lake Eorest College 
Monmouth College 
Blackburn College 
Lincoln College 
Augustana College 
Carthage College 
Northwestern College 

Eureka College 

Mount Morris College 

Aurora College 

De Paul University 

Loyola L^niversity 

St. Viator College 

Lombard College 

Rockford College 

Wheaton College 

William and Vashti College 

Armour Institute of Technology 

Lewis Institute 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute 

Joliet Junior College 

Frances Shinier School 

Monticello Seminary 

American Conservatory of 

Music 
Bush Conservatory of Music 
Chicago Musical College 
Columbia School of Music 



Location 



Urbana 
Normal 

Carbondale 

DeKalb 

Charleston 

Macomb 

Chicago 

Chicago 

Alton 

Evanston 

Bloomington 

Jacksonville 

Abingdon 

Lebanon 

Greenville 

Jacksonville 

Decatur 

Galesburg 

Lake Forest 

Monmouth 

Carlinville 

Lincoln 

Rock Island 

Carthage 

Naperville 

Eureka 

Mount Morris 

Aurora 

Chicago 

Chicago 

Bourbonnais 

Galesburg 

Rockford 

Wheaton 

Aledo 

Chicago 

Chicago 

Peoria 

Joliet 

Mount Carroll 

Godfrey 

Chicago 
Chicago 
Chicago 
Chicago 



Auspices 



State 
State 

State 
State 
State 
State 
City 
Baptist 
Baptist 
Methodist 
Methodist 
Methodist 
Methodist 
Methodist 
Free Methodist 
Presbyterian 
Presbyterian 
Presbyterian 
Presbyterian 
Presljytcrian 
Presbyterian 
Presbyterian 
Lutheran 
Lutheran 
Evangelical 
Lutheran 
Christian 
Dunkard 
Adventist 
Roman Catholic 
Roman Catholic 
Roman Catholic 



Public School 



EDUCATION 



341 



TABLE I — Continued 



Institution 



Location 



Auspices 



Cosmopolitan School of Music 

and Dramatic Art 
Sherwood Music School 
Technical Normal vSchool 
Peoria Musical College 
Columbia College of Expression 
Art Institute 
American College of Physical 

Education 
Chicago Normal School of 

Phj'sical Education 
Young Men's Christian Associ- 

tion College 



Chicago Kindergarten Institute 
National Kindergarten College 
Pestalozzi-Froebel Kindergar- 
ten Training School 
Rush Medical College 

Northwestern University Medi- 
cal School 

College of Medicine of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois 

Hahnemann Medical School 
Loyola University College of 
Medicine 

Chicago Medical School 
Northwestern University Den- 
tal School 

University of lUinois College of 
Dentistry 

Chicago College of Dental 
Surgery 



Chicago 

Chicago 

Chicago 

Peoria 

Chicago 

Chicago 

Chicago 

Chicago 

Chicago 



Chicago 
Chicago 

Chicago 
Chicago 



Chicago 

Chicago 
Chicago 
Chicago 
Chicago 
Chicago 

Chicago 

Chicago 



Young Men's 
Christian 
Association 



of 



University 
Chicago 

Northwestern 
University 

University of 
Illinois 



Loyola Univer- 
sity 



Northwestern 
University 

University 
Illinois 



of 



The establishment of state institutions of higher learning 
has tended to encourage the progress and development of edu- 
cational institutions supported by church and private funds. 
The opportunities for higher education give assurance that 
Illinois will continue to produce an educated citizenship based 
upon a system of universal, thorough, and extended education. 



342 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Educational statistics. — The magnitude of the schools of 
Illinois is indicated by the following statistical data from the 
otificial report of 1918. 



Population of Illinois, census 1910. 



5,038,591 




MAIN BUILD1> 



II i:\SI 1:K\ ILLINOIS STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, 
^UARLESTOX, COLES COUNTY 



Eastern Illinois State Normal School was opened September 12, 1899. In 
addition to the Main Building there are now the Woman's Building, erected in 1909, 
and the Training School Building, erected in 1913. 



ENROLMENT IN TUBLIC SCHOOLS, 1918 



Girls 478,185 



Per Cent 
968,947 89.6 



Elementary Schools 

Boys 490,762 

High Schools 112,557 10.4 

Boys 50,107 Girls 62,450 

Total, public schools 1,081,504 

Boys 540,869 Girls 540,635 

Enrolled in elementary and secondary private schools 210,000 

Total, all schools 1,291,504 



EDUCATION 343 



ATTENDANCE AND AVERAGE COST, PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Average number of days schools were in session 159 

Average number of days each pupil attended 141 

Average cost per pupil for current expense $38.38 

Average cost per pupil enrolled for all expense $48.64 

DISTRICTS, SCHOOL HOUSES, AND LIBRARIES 

Number of districts 11,899 

Number of school buildings 13,725 

Number of sittings (capacity) 1,143,148 

Number of libraries 11,226 

Number of volumes in libraries 1,874,831 

TEACHERS AND THEIR SALARIES 

Number of superintendents, principals, and teachers. 34,597 

Men 5,600 Women 29,997 

Total salaries $ 27,850,144 

Men $ 5,497,985 Women. .$22,352,159 

Average salaries for all $805 

Men $981 Women $770 

Total current expense $ 41,507,153 

Total expenses for all purposes $ 52,603,570 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY 

School buildings and sites $144,086,011 

Equipment, furniture, apparatus, etc $ 10,533,848 

Total value all school property $154,619,859 

HIGH SCHOOLS, 1918 

Four-year high schools 549 

Three-year high schools 81 

Two-year high schools 210 

Total 840 

Number of high school teachers 5,476 

Men 2,146 Women 2,330 

Number of high school pupils 112,557 

Number of high school graduates 16,071 

Four-year schools 14,827 

Three-year schools 395 

Two-year schools 849 

Total current high school expense $ 8,710,518 

Total of all high school expense 11,410,270 

Average cost per pupil for current expense. ... 78.07 

Average annual salary of high school teachers $1,159 

EVENING SCHOOLS 

Enrolment 36,976 

Boys of school age 13,743 

Girls of school age 8,525 

Men 7,454 Women. . . . 7,254 

Total expenditures $290,226 



344 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



Summary. — The valuable natural resources of Illinois, 
especially its soil, climate, and minerals, led to rapid settlement 
and development of the region as knowletlgc of the Illinois 
country spread to other states and to foreign lands. In less 
than a single century Illinois passed from pioneer conditions 
to a stage of modern progress and civilization equal to that of 
the foremost countries of the world. Stable government and 
universal education have made such achievement possible. 



CHAPTER XXII 
ILLINOIS IN 1920 

On January 2, 1920, under the direction of the United 
States Bureau of the Census, thousands of enumerators began 
the official gathering of data for the Fourteenth Census of the 
United States. 

In January, 1921, the tabulation of population for Illinois 
was completed. In this chapter the census returns for Illinois 
are given in full for the 102 counties and the 1,081 incorporated 
places. The population for Illinois on January 1, 1920, was 
6,485,098. This is an increase of 15 per cent over the popula- 
tion for 1910. The population of Continental United States 
was 105,683,108, and 6.1 per cent of this number resided in 
Illinois. The population of the United States and of Illinois 
for all preceding censuses is given in the table on page 147. 

Forty-five of the 102 counties increased in population 
during the past ten years, and 57 decreased in population. 
The increases varied from 647,784 for Cook County to 18 for 
Putnam County. The increase for Cook County is 7 . 65 per 
cent of the increase for the state. The decrease was greatest 
for Grundy County, 5,582; and least for Randolph County, 11. 
Population increases have been due in a very marked degree 
to increase in the population of cities. Many counties show- 
ing decided increase in total population have lost at the same 
tim_e in rural pppulation. Interesting comparisons may be 
made from the tables given in this chapter. 

The number of incorporated places for 1920 was 1,081, and 
for 1910, 1,041, an increase during ten years of 40. Fifteen 
incorporated places of 1910 do not appear in the 1920 hst, 
while 55 new names are found. 

Cook County contains the largest number of incorporated 
places, 75; Bureau County ranks next with 22; and La Salle 
and Madison counties third, with 21. Each of 6 counties 
contains 3 incorporated places, the fewest in any county; 
8 counties have but 4 incorporated places each; 5 counties 
have 5 each. 

345 




Shaded counties show increase, others decrease, in population, 1910-20 



ILLINOIS IN 1920 



347 



If these 1,081 incorporated places of Illinois are classified 
on basis of population we find the following: 



Inhabitants 



25,000 or over 

10,000 to 25,000 

5,000 to 10,000 

2,500 to 5,000 

Total 2,500 or over 

2,000 to 2,500 

1,500 to 2,000 

1,000 to 1,500 

500 to 1,000 

Fewer than 500 

Total incorporated placesin 1920 



No. of 
Places 



17 
27 
47 
80 



171 



40 

51 

136 

265 

418 



1,081 



Population of 
the Group 



3,072,285 
406,080 
324,146 
264,504 



4,067,015 



89,616 

85,845 

166,978 

181,890 

138,984 



4,730,328 



Percentage 
of State 



47 


3 


6 


2 


4 


9 


4 






62.4 



1.3 
1.1 



72.1 



The census divides the population of the country into two 
classes: urban and rural. The urban population includes the 
population of all cities having 2,500 inhabitants or more; the 
rural population includes all other persons. A further analysis 
divides the rural population into two classes: those living in 
incorporated places having fewer than 2,500 inhabitants and 
those living on farms in the open country. 

The urban population of Illinois constitutes 62.4 per cent 
of the population of the state, the inhabitants of the smaller 
incorporated places 9.7 per cent, and those who live in the 
open country 27 . 9 per cent. 

In 1910, lUinois had 144 cities with a population of 2,500 
or over. In 1920, the number had increased to 171. This 
included all the cities of the 1910 list except 5 whose populations 
fell below 2,500, and 32 others whose populations passed the 
2,500 mark during the ten-year period. In 1920, this group 
of cities included 4,067,015 inhabitants, or 62 .4 per cent of the 
population of the state. In 1910, the group included 3,476,929 
inhabitants, or 61 per cent of the population. Of these 144 
cities, 121 have increased in population during the decade, 
23 have decreased in population, 5 going below 2,500, the lower 
limit of the group. 



348 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



The following tables contain the names of the counties in 
alphabetical order and the incorporated places in each county, 
also arranged alphabetically, with population for 1920 and 1910. 

There are 5 counties that have a population of over 100,000. 
14 between ,50,000 and 100,000, 31 between 26,000 and 50,000, 
and 52 have less than 25,000. 

These tables arc followed by a final table giving the 171 
cities having a population of 1,500 or more in order of rank in 
population for 1920. This table may be compared with a 
similar table for 1910 on page 312. 



ILLINOIS. .6,485,098 


5,638,591 


Bureau County 


42,648 


43,975 


Adams County 


.62,188 


64,588 


.\rlington. . . 


284 


370 


Camp Point. 


. 994 


1,148 


Buda 


796 


887 


Clayton .... 


. 1,038 


940 


Bureau 


682 


534 


Coatsburg. . 


185 


262 


Cherrv 


1,265 


1,048 


Columbus . . 


141 


134 


DalzeH 


903 


949 


Golden 


. 654 


579 


Depue 


2,525 


1,339 


La Prairie. . . 


174 


187 


Dover 


165 


181 


Lima 


213 


797 


Holloway . . . 


107 


196 


Loraine .... 


. 527 


417 


Ladd 


2,040 


1,910 


Mendon. . . . 


645 


640 


Lamoille 


547 


555 


Payson 


. 453 


467 


Maiden 


233 


255 


Plainville. . . 


. 245 


251 


Manlius 


309 


218 


Quincy 


.35,978 


36,587 


Mineral ... 


308 


349 


Alexander 






Neponset. . . 


476 


542 


County.. . 


.23,980 


22.741 


Ohio 


874 


.527 


Cairo 


.15,203 


14,548 


Princeton. . . . 


4,126 


4,131 


Tamms. , . . 


. 822 


400 


Seatonville. . . 


534 


1,370 


Thebes 


857 


717 


Sheffield 


996 


1,009 


Bond County . 


.16,025 


17,075 


Spring Valley 


6,493 


7,035 


Greenville . . 


. 3,071 


3,178 


Tiskilwa 


915 


857 


Mulberry 






Walnut 


771 


763 


Grove. . . . 


. 725 


716 


Wyanet 


825 


872 


Old Ripley. . 


119 


146 


Calhoun 






Panama. . . , 


477 


313 


County. . . . 


8,245 


8,610 


Pocahontas . 


. 830 


749 


Batchtown. . . 


273 


300 


Smithboro . 


. 277 


301 


Brussells. . . . 


280 


283 


Sorento .... 


. 942 


1,018 


Hamburg. . . 


352 


335 


Boone County. 


15,322 


15,481 


Hardin 


694 


654 


Belvidere. . . 


. 7,804 


7,253 


Kampsville . . 


428 


506 


Capron 


. 550 


562 


Carroll County. 


19,345 


18,035 


Poplar Grov 


;. 314 


297 


Chad wick . . . 


582 


527 


Brown County 


. 9,336 


10,397 


Lanark 


1,297 


1,175 


Mound 






Milledgeville 


746 


630 


Station. . . 


. 267 


194 


Mount 






Mount 






Carroll. . . . 


1,806 


1,759 


Sterling. . 


. 1,932 


1,986 


Savanna 


5.237 


3,691 


Ripley 


193 


234 


Shannon . . . . 


636 


633 


Versailles , . 


, 627 


557 


Thompson. . . 


495 


487 



ILLINOIS IN 1920 



349 





1920 


1910 


Cass County. . 


.17,896 


17,372 


Arenzville . . 


. 479 


518 


Ashland. . . . 


1,122 


1,096 


Beardstown. 


. 7,111 


6,017 


Chandlervillc 


909 


884 


Virginia. . . . 


1,501 


1,501 


Cliampaign 






County. . . 


56,959 


51,829 


Broadlands . 


384 


480 


Champaign . 


15,873 


12,421 


Fisher 


747 


850 


Homer 


978 


1,086 


Ivesdale. . . . 


387 


429 


Longview. . . 


273 


257 


Ludlow .... 


343 


305 


Mahomet. . . 


649 


565 


Ogden 


448 


428 


Pesotum. . . . 


478 


376 


Philo 


544 


562 


Rantoul. . . . 


1,551 


1,384 


Sadorus. . . . 


413 


336 


St. Joseph. . 


772 


681 


Sidney 


546 


481 


Thomasboro 


261 


321 


Tolono 


693 


760 


Urbana. . . . 


10,244 


8,245 


Christian 






County. . . 


38,458 


34,594 


Assumption. 


1,852 


1,918 


Bulpitt 


470 




Edinburg . . 


823 


918 


Humphreys. 


913 




Jerseyville . . 


428 




Kincaid .... 


1,453 




Morrisonville 


1,178 


1,126 


Mount 






Auburn . . 


492 


463 


Owaneco . . . 


334 


365 


Palmer 


312 


404 


Pana 


6,122 


6,055 


Stonington. . 


1,466 


1,118 


Taylorville. . 


5,806 


5,446 


Clark County . 


21,165 


23,517 


Casey 


2,189 


2,157 


Marshall. . . 


2,222 


2,569 


Martinsville. 


1,437 


1,500 


West6eld . . 


933 


927 


Clay County. . 


17,684 


18,661 


Clay City. . . 


648 


837 


Flora 


3,558 


2,704 


lola 


279 
797 




Louisville. . . 


670 


Sailor Spring 


3 284 


388 


Xenia 


640 


634 



1920 
Clinton County 22,947 

Aviston 389 

Bartelson. . . . 246 
Beckemeyer.. 1,153 

Bresse 2,399 

Carlyle 2,027 



Germantown. 766 
Huey. .:.... 154 
Keyesport . . . 288 
New Baden.. 1,550 
New 

Memphis. . 252 

Trenton 1,200 

Coles County. .35,108 
Ashmore .... 548 
Charleston. . . 6,615 
Humboldt. . . 343 

Lerna 677 

Mattoon. . . . 13,552 

Oakland 1,210 

Cook 

County. 3,053,017 
Arlington 

Heights. . . 2,250 
Barrington. . . 1,744 

Bartlett 371 

Bellwood.. .. 1,881 

Berwyn 14,150 

Blue Island. .11,424 
Broadview. . . 430 
Brookfield. . . 3,589 
Burnham. . . . 795 
Burr Oak. . . . 1,237 
Chicago... 2, 701, 705 
Chicago 

Heights. . .19,653 
Chicago 

Ridge 176 

Cicero 44,995 

Des Plaines . . 4,640 

Dolton 2,076 

East Hazel 

Crest 394 

Elmwood 

Park 1,380 

Evanston. . . .37,234 
Evergreen 

Park 705 

Forest Park. . 10,768 
Franklin Park 914 

Glencoe 3,381 

Glenview. . . . 760 
Glenwood . . . 738 
Harvey 9,216 



1910 
22,832 
397 
344 
764 
2,128 
1,982 
711 
205 
350 
1,372 

243 

1,694 

34,517 

511 

5,884 

356 

391 

11,456 

1,159 

2,405,233 

1,943 
1,444 
408 
943 
5,841 
8,043 

2,186 
328 

2,185,283 

14,525 



14,557 
2,348 
1,869 



24,978 

424 
6,594 

683 
1,899 

652 

581 
7,227 



350 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 





1920 


1910 




1920 


1910 


Hazel Crest. . 


438 




Wilmette. . . 


7,814 


4,943 


Hillside 


555 


328 


Winnetka. . . 


. 6,694 


3,168 


Hodgkins. . . . 


266 


480 


Worth 


. 240 




Homewood . . 


1,389 


713 


Crawford 






Justice 


183 




Countv. . . 


22,771 


26,281 


Kenilworth . . 


1,188 


881 


Flat Rock . . 


745 


840 


LaGrange.. . . 


6,525 


5,282 


Hutsonville. 


. 665 


722 


LaGrange 






Oblong 


1,547 


1,482 


Park 


1,684 


1,131 


Palestine . . . 


1,803 


1,399 


Lansing 


1,409 


1,060 


Robinson. . . 


3,368 


3,863 


Lemont 


2,322 


2,284 


Stoy 


249 


488 


Lyons 


2,564 


1,483 


Cumberland 






Matteson. . . . 


485 


431 


County. . . 


12,858 


14,281 


Maywood . . . 


12,072 


8,033 


Greenup. . . . 


1,230 


1,224 


Melrose Park 


7,147 


4,806 


Jewett 


243 


366 


Morton 






Neoga 


1,149 


1,074 


Grove 


1,079 


836 


Toledo 


787 


900 


Mount 






DeKalb 






Greenwood 


1,441 


276 


County. . . 


31,339 


33,457 


Mount 






Cortland . . . 


238 


207 


Prospect.. . 


349 




DeKalb. .. . 


7,871 


8,102 


Niles 


1,258 


569 


Genoa 


1,228 


1,257 


Niles Center, 


763 


568 


Hinckley . . . 


665 


661 


Oak Lawn . . . 


489 


287 


Kingston . . . 


235 


294 


Oak Park.. . . 


39,858 


19,444 


Kirkland . . . 


559 


685 


Orland Park. 


343 


369 


Malta 


391 


450 


Phoenix 


1,933 


679 


Sandwich. . . 


2,409 


2,557 


Palatine 


1,210 


1,144 


Shabbona. . . 


735 


594 


PalosPark... 


240 




Somonauk. . 


540 


591 


Park Ridge. . 


3,383 


2,009 


Sycamore. . . 


3,602 


3,986 


Posen 


947 


343 


Waterman. . 


401 


398 


Riverdale. . . , 


1,166 


917 


Dewitt 






River Forest . 


4,358 


2,456 


County. . . 


19,352 


18,906 


River Grove.. 


484 


418 


Clinton .... 


5,898 


5,165 


Riverside. . . . 


2,532 


1,702 


Dewitt 


263 


220 


Riverview . . . 


334 


312 


Farmer City. 


1,778 


1,603 


Robbins 


431 




Kenny 


504 


5 70 


Schiller Park. 


390 




Wapella. . . . 


528 


498 


Shermerville. 


554 


441 


Wavnesville. 


592 


546 


South Chicago 




Weldon .... 


573 


521 


Heights. . . 


949 


552 


Douglas 






South 






County. . . 


19,553 


19,591 


Holland. .. 


1,247 


1,065 


Areola 


1,780 


2,100 


Spring Forest 


134 


334 


Camargo . . . 


336 


323 


Stickney .... 


550 




Garrett. . . . 


270 


290 


Summit 


4,019 


949 


Hindsboro. . 


463 


498 


Tessville .... 


355 


359 


Newman. . . . 


1,225 


1,264 


Thornton. . . . 


767 


1,030 


Tuscola 


2,564 


2,453 


Tinley Park. . 


493 


309 


Villa Grove . . 


2,493 


1,828 


West 






Dupage 






Hammond. 


7,492 


4,948 


County.. . . 


42,096 


HAU 


Western 






Addison. . . . 


510 


579 


Springs. . . . 


1,258 


905 


Bensonville . . 


650 


443 


Wheeling. . . . 


313 


260 


Bloomingdale 


149 


462 



ILLINOIS IN 1920 



351 



Downers 
Grove. . 

Elmhurst. 

Glenellyn . 

Hinsdale . 

Itasca. . . . 

Lombard . 

Naperville 

Villa Park 

West Chicago 

Wheaton. . 
Edgar County 

Brocton. . . 

Chrisman. . 

Hume 

Kansas, . . . 

Metcalf . . . 

Paris 

Redmon. . . 

Vermilion. . 
Edwards 

County. . 

Albion .... 

Bone Gap. . 

Browns . . . 

West Salem 
Effingham 

County.. 

Altamont. . 

Beecher City 

Dieterich. . 

Edgewood. 

Effingham. 

Mason .... 

Montrose. . 

Shumway. . 

Teutopolis. 

Watson . . . 
Fayette 

County. . 

Bingham . . 

Brownstone 

Farina. . . . 

Ramsey . . . 

St. Elmo... 

St. Peter... 

Vandalia . . 
Ford County. 

Cabery. . . . 

Elliott. . . . 

Gibson. . . . 

Kempton. . 

Melvin. . . . 

Paxton. . . . 



1920 1910 1920 

Piper City. .. 715 

3,543 2,601 Roberts 444 

4,594 2,360 Sibley 383 

2,851 1,763 Franklin 

4,513 2,451 County... .57,293 

339 iZi Benton 7,201 

1,331 883 Buckner 1,827 

3,830 3,449 Christopher.. 3,830 

854 ... Ewing 341 

2,594 2,378 Frankfort 

4,137 3,423 Heights. . . 3,423 

25,769 27,336 Hanaford 1,083 

562 558 North City... 1,362 

1,101 1,193 Orient City. . 1,388 

609 572 Royalton. .. . 2,043 

944 945 Sesser 2,841 

413 449 Thompson- 

7,985 7,664 viUe 577 

234 240 Urbain 263 

291 287 Valier.. 876 

West City... 525 

9,431 10,049 West 

1,584 1,281 Frankfort.. 8,478 

455 517 Zeigler 2,338 

388 419 Fulton County. 48, 163 

946 725 Astoria 1,340 

Avon 877 

19,572 20,055 Bryant 482 

1,352 1,328 Canton 10,928 

328 355 Cuba 1,484 

522 493 Ellisville 244 

438 419 Fairview. ... 572 

4,024 3,898 Ipava 720 

324 345 Lewistown . . 2,279 

334 347 London Mills 546 

269 291 Marietta. . . . 512 

744 592 Norris 382 

316 330 Smithfield. .. 385 

St. David 1,189 

26,187 28,075 Table Grove . 610 

192 191 Vermont. . . . 1,078 

518 415 Gallatin 

701 774 Countv... .12,856 

772 769 Equality. . . . 1,332 

1,337 1,227 Junction. ... 321 

396 313 New Haven.. 570 

3,316 2,974 Omaha 449 

16,466 17,096 Ridgway . . . . 1,102 

299 321 Shawnee. . . . 1,368 

344 371 Greene County. 22,883 

2,234 2,086 Carrollton. . . 2,020 

266 269 Eldred 298 

540 509 Greenfield... 1,149 

3,033 2,912 Hillview 577 



1910 
663 
466 

385 

25,943 
2,675 

1,825 
317 



357 
1,292 



573 



2,111 

49,549 

1,357 

865 

237 

10,453 

2,019 
218 
482 
652 

2,312 
655 
329 
560 
389 
915 
544 

1,118 

14,628 

1,180 

300 

514 

586 

1.054 

1,863 

22,363 

2,323 

241 

1,161 

309 



352 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 





1920 


1910 




1920 


1910 


Kane 


473 


521 


Gladstone . . 


450 


385 


Rockbridge . 


225 


275 


Lomax 


211 




Roodhouse. . 


2,928 


2,171 


Media 


170 


226 


White Hall.. 


2,954 


2,854 


Oquawka. . . 


888 


907 


Wilmington 


228 


204 


Stronghurst. 


836 


762 


Grundy County 


18,580 


24,162 


Hcnrv County. 


45,162 


41,736 


Braceville . , 


303 


971 


Alpha... ..'. 


281 


358 


Carbon Hill. 


281 


820 


Andover. . . . 


281 


222 


Central City 


56 


287 


Annawan. . . 


429 


398 


Coal City. . . 


1,744 


2,667 


Atkinson . . . 


778 


805 


Diamond. . . 


85 


255 


Bishop Hill. 


274 


289 


East 






Cambridge. . 


1,335 


1,272 


Brooklyn . 


204 


446 


Colona 


211 


217 


Eileen 


342 


677 


Galva 


2,974 


2,498 


Gardner. . . . 


937 


946 


Geneseo. . . . 


3,375 


3,199 


Kinsman . . . 


167 


219 


Hooppole. . . 


381 




Mazon 


442 


471 


Kewanee . . . 


16,026 


9,307 


Minooka. . . 


314 


361 


Orion 


613 


655 


Morris 


4,505 


4,563 


Wethersfield 


1,960 


1,593 


South Wil- 






Woodhull. .. 


700 


692 


mington . . 


1,362 


2,403 


Iroquois 






Verona 


184 


188 


County. . . 


34,841 


35,543 


Hamilton 






Ashkum. . . . 


375 


416 


County. . . 


15,920 


18,227 


Beaverville . 


402 


401 


Belle Prairie 


178 


87 


Buckley. . . . 


461 


495 


Broughton. . 


506 


470 


Chebanse. . . 


541 


590 


Dahlgrcn. . . 


693 


654 


Cissna Park. 


670 


652 


McLeansborc 


1,927 


1,796 


Clifton 


638 


634 


Hancock 






Crescent City f 


341 


County. . . 


28,523 


30,638 


Danforth. . . 


398 


410 


Augusta. . . . 


1,085 


1,146 


Donovan . . . 


410 


346 


Basco 


267 


255 


Gilman 


1,448 


1,305 


Bentley .... 


136 


89 


Iroquois. . . . 


276 


286 


Bowen 


715 


606 


L'Erable . . . 


101 


145 


Carthage . . . 


2,129 


2,373 


Loda 


530 


603 


Dallas 


1,140 


1,288 


Martinton. . 


250 


312 


Elvaston . . . 


t 


250 


Milford .... 


1,466 


1,316 


Ferris 


t 


299 


Onarga 


1,302 


1,273 


Hamilton. . . 


1,698 


1,627 


Papineau . . 


176 


183 


La Harpe. . . 


1,323 


1,349 


Sheldon ... 


1,182 


1,143 


Nauvoo. . . . 


972 


1,020 


Thawville . . 


318 


318 


Plymouth . . 


900 


829 


Watseka , . 


2,817 


2,476 


Pontoosuc. . 


199 


285 


Woodland . . 


398 


295 


Warsaw. . . . 


2,031 


2,254 


Jackson 






West Point . 


303 


292 


County. . . 


37,091 


35,143 


Hardin County 


7,533 


7,015 


Ava 


626 


780 


Cave in Rod 


c 349 


306 


Campbell Hill 366 


414 


Elizabeth- 






Carbondale. 


6,267 


5,411 


town 


1,055 


633 


De Soto. . . . 


703 


644 


Rosiclare . . . 


1,522 


609 


Elkville. . . . 


990 


732 


Henderson 






Fordyce . . . 


463 


392 


County. . . 


9,770 


9,724 


Grand Tower 750 


873 


Biggsville. . . 


325 


40U 


Makanda. . . 


310 


400 



t Not returned separately. 



ILLINOIS IN 1920 



353 



1920 
MurphysborolO,703 
Vergennes. . . 305 

Jasper County.. 16,064 

Hidalgo 193 

Hunt City. . . 195 
Newton City. 2,083 
Rose Hill .... 202 
Ste. Marie. . . 351 

Wheeler 214 

Willow Hill.. 397 

Jefferson 

County.. . .28,480 
Belle Rive. . . 311 

Ina 398 

Mount 

Vernon... . 9,815 

Rome 216 

Waltonville. . 421 
Woodlawn ... 309 

Jersey County. . 12,682 

Elsah 167 

Fidelity 155 

Fieldon 248 

Grafton 949 

Jerseyville. . . 3,839 
Otterville. . . . 150 

Jo Daviess 

County.. . .21,917 
Apple River. . 484 
East 

Dubuque. . 1,163 

Elizabeth 687 

Galena 4,742 

Hanover .... 737 

Nora 213 

Scales Mound 356 
Stockton. . . . 1,449 
Warren 1,253 

Johnson 

Countv... .12,022 

Belknap 424 

Buncombe. . . 280 

Cypress 438 

Goreville .... 581 
NewBurnside 309 

Simpson 178 

Vienna 907 

Kane County. .99,499 

Aurora 36,397 

Batavia. . . . 4,395 
Burlington... 209 
Carpenters- 

ville 1,036 

t Not returned separately, 



1910 




1920 


1910 


7,485 


East Dundee 


1,303 


1,405 


342 


Elburn 


571 


613 


18,157 


Elgin 


27,454 


25,976 


190 


Geneva 


2,803 


2,451 


235 


Gilberts 


152 


268 


2,108 


Hampshire. . . 


618 


697 


229 


Maple Park.. 


384 


389 


450 


Montgomery, 


463 


371 


255 


North 






444 


Aurora. . . . 
Pingree 


t 


352 


29,111 


Grove 


115 


135 


312 


St. Charles.. . 


4,099 


4,046 


484 


South Elgin. 


559 


580 




West Dundee 1,587 


1,380 


8,007 


Kankakee 






233 


County. . . . 


44,930 


40,752 




Bonfield 


126 


162 


315 


Bourbonnais. 


620 


611 


13,954 


Bradley 


2,128 


1,942 


267 


Buckingham. 


165 


272 


211 


Clark City.. . 


14 


230 


227 


Essex 


278 


342 


1,116 


Grant Park. . 


459 


692 


4,113 


Herscher. . . . 


449 


461 


179 


Irwin 


102 


74 




Kankakee . . . 


16,721 


13,986 


22,657 


Manteno .... 


1,182 


1,229 


581 


Momence. . . . 


2,218 


2,201 




Reddick 


239 


288 


1,253 


St. Anne 


1,067 


1,065 


703 


Waldron 




261 


4,855 


Kendall 






650 


County. . . . 


10.074 


10,777 


251 


Bristol 


415 


394 


388 


Lisbon 


t 


197 


1,096 


Millington. . , 


212 


223 


1,331 


Newark 


391 


406 




Oswego 


676 


600 


14,331 


Piano 


1,473 


1,627 


404 


Yorkville . . . 


441 


431 




Knox County . 


.46,678 


46,159 


311 


Abingdon. . . . 


2,721 


2,464 


554 


Altona 


506 


528 


369 


East Gales- 






161 


burg 


566 


753 


1,124 


Galesburg. . . 


,23,785 


22,089 


91,862 


Henderson. . , 


156 


171 


29,807 


Knoxville. . . . 


1,708 


1,818 


4,436 


Maquon 


441 


472 


282 


Oneida 


563 


589 




St. Augustine 195 


187 


1,128 


Victoria 


415 


334 



354 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 





1920 


1910 




1920 


1910 


Wataga . . . 


. . 459 


444 


Lawrencevillc 5,080 


3,235 


Williamsfield. 435 


480 


Russellville . 


200 


257 


Yates City. 


582 


586 


St. Francis- 






Lake County. 


. .73,991 


55,058 


ville 


1,164 


1,391 


Antioch . . . 


. . 775 


682 


Sumner .... 


1,029 


1,413 


Area 


469 


358 


Lee County. . . 


28,004 


27,750 


Deerfield . . 


.. 610 


476 


Amboy 


1,944 


1,749 


Fox Lake. . 


.. 467 


400 


Ashton 


882 


779 


Hainesville. 


84 


66 


Compton. . . 


283 


387 


Highland 






Dixon 


8,191 


7,216 


Park. . .. 


.. 6,167 


4,209 


Franklin 






Highwood . 


. . 1,446 


1,219 


Grove. . . . 


589 


572 


Lake Bluff. 


. . 819 


726 


Harmon. . . . 


202 


162 


Lake Forest 


. . 3,363 


3,349 


Lee 


289 


303 


Lake Villa 


. . 407 


342 


Pawpaw. . . . 


665 


709 


Lake Zurich 


.. 316 


304 


Steward. . . . 


253 


353 


Libertyville 


.. 2.125 


1,724 


Sublette. . . . 


262 


287 


North 






West 






Chicago. 


. . 5,839 


3,306 


Brooklyn. 


190 


266 


Round Lak 


3. 251 


182 


Livingston 






Wauconda. 


399 


368 


County. . . 


39,070 


40,465 


Waukegan. 


.19,226 


16,069 


Campus. . . . 


228 


241 


Winthrop 






Cardiff 


152 


1,031 


Harbor. . 


473 


439 


Chatsworth. 


1,087 


1,112 


Zion City. . 


. . 5,580 


4,789 


Cornell 


528 


536 


La Salle 






CuUom 


631 


579 


County. . 


.92,925 


90,132 


Dwight .... 


2,273 


2,156 


Cedar Point 


.. 686 


545 


Emington. . 


175 


190 


Crotty . . . . 


994 


1,005 


Fairbury . . . 


2,532 


2,505 


Dana 


.. 251 


254 


Flanagan. . . 


637 


590 


Earlville. . . 


. 1,012 


1,059 


Forrest 


965 


967 


East Wenoi 


la iii 


367 


Long Point . 


247 


239 


Grand Ridg 


e. 389 


403 


Odell 


1,069 


1,035 


Kengley. . . 


261 


380 


Pontiac. . . . 


6,664 


6,090 


La Salle . . . 


.13,050 


11.537 


Saunemin. . . 


360 


357 


Leland .... 


.. 588 


545 


Strawn 


248 


277 


Leonore. . . 


189 


203 


Logan County. 


29,562 


30,216 


Lostant . . . 


911 


458 


Atlanta. . . . 


1,173 


1,367 


Marseilles. 


. 3,391 


3,291 


Broadwell . . 


209 


246 


Mendota . . 


. . 3,934 


3,806 


Elkhart 


457 


418 


North Utica 


.. 1,037 


976 


Emden 


816 


411 


Oglesby . . . 


. . 4,135 


3,194 


Hartsburg. . 


332 


350 


Ottawa. . . . 


..10,816 


9,535 


Latham .... 


444 


438 


Peru 


. . 8,869 


7,984 


Lincoln .... 


11,882 


10,892 


Ransom. . . 


. . 402 


370 


Middleton. . 


587 


751 


Rutland. . . 


.. 618 


754 


Mount 






Sheridan . . 


. 476 


506 


Pulaski. . . 


1,510 


1,511 


Streator. . . 


..14,779 


14,253 


New Holland 


457 


387 


Tonica. . . . 


.. 439 


483 


McDonough 






Troy Grove 


. 261 


289 


County. . . 


27,074 


26,887 


Lawrence 






Bardolph. . . 


352 


285 


County. . 


.21,380 


22,661 


Blandinsville 


1,002 


987 


Birds 


290 


382 


Bushnell. . . 


2,716 


2.619 


Bridgeport. 


. 2,229 


2,703 


Colchester. . 


1,387 


1,445 



ILLINOIS IN 1920 



35^ 





1920 


1910 




1920 


1910 


Good Hope. 


353 


361 


Bunker Hill. 


977 


1,046 


Industry . . . 


604 


580 


Carlinville. . 


5,212 


3,616 


Macomb . . . 


6,714 


5,774 


Chesterfield. 


363 


364 


Prairie City. 


638 


719 


Dorchester. . 


179 


102 


Sciota 


195 


160 


Gillespie.. . . 


4,063 


2,241 


Tennessee. . 


252 


274 


Girard 


2,387 


1,891 


Mclienry 






Hettick. . . . 


298 


306 


County. . . 


33,164 


32,509 


Medora. . . . 


483 


444 


Algonquin. . 


693 


642 


Modesto . . . 


379 


298 


Cary 


t 


679 


Mount Olive 


3,503 


3,501 


Crystal Lake 


2,249 


1,242 


Nilwood. . . . 


449 


401 


Harvard. . . . 


3,294 


3,008 


Palmyra. . . . 


1,331 


873 


Hebron. . . . 


631 


644 


Sawyerville . 


588 


445 


Huntley. . . . 


720 


773 


Scottsville. . 


285 


301 


Marengo. . . 


1,758 


1,936 


Shipman . . . 


333 


392 


McHenry. . . 


1,146 


1,031 


Staunton . . . 


6,027 


5,048 


Richmond. . 


533 


554 


Virden 


4,682 


4,000 


Spring Grove 


. 363 


203 


White City. 


503 


421 


Union 


399 


432 


Woodburn. . 


133 


175 


Woodstock. . 


5,523 


4,331 


Madison 






McLean 






County. . . 


06,895 


89,847 


County. . . 


70,107 


68,008 


Alhambra. . 


354 


433 


Arrowsmith. 


344 


366 


Alton 


24,682 


17,528 


Bellflower . . 


441 


394 


Bethalto. . . 


471 


447 


Bloomington 


28,725 


25,768 


Collinsville. . 


9,753 


7,478 


Chenoa. . . . 


1,311 


1,314 


East Alton. . 


1,669 


584 


Cooksville. . 


297 


332 


Edwardsville 


5,336 


5,014 


Colfax 


976 


965 


Fostersburg. 


70 


90 


Danvers. . . . 


616 


593 


Glen Carbon 


1,323 


1,220 


Downs 


295 




Granite .... 


14,757 


9,903 


Dudson .... 


309 


375 


Highland. . . 


2,902 


2,675 


Gridley .... 


720 


750 


Livingston. . 


1,365 


1,092 


Hey worth . . 


851 


681 


Madison . . . 


4,996 


5,046 


LeRoy 


1.680 


1,702 


Marine 


676 


685 


Lexington . . 


1,301 


1,318 


Maryville.. . 


836 


729 


McLean. . . . 


697 


707 


Nameoki . . . 


1,181 




Normal .... 


5,143 


4,024 


New Douglas 390 


499 


Saybrook. . . 


752 


805 


Saline 


222 


112 


Stanford. . . 


500 


525 


St. Jacob . . . 


485 


534 


Towanda. . . 


404 


404 


Troy 


1,312 


1,447 


Macon County 


65,175 


54,186 


Venice 


3,895 


3,718 


Argenta. . . . 


528 


519 


Williamson . 


805 


648 


Blue Mound 


881 


900 


Woodriver . . 


3,476 


84 


Decatur. . . . 


43,818 


31,140 


Worden. . . . 


1,252 


1.082 


Macon 


788 


683 


Marion County 


.37,497 


35,094 


Maroa 


1,193 


1,160 


Alma 


366 


380 


Mount Zion. 


330 


330 


Central City 


1,248 


1,179 


Niantic .... 


613 


685 


Centralia. . . 


12,491 


9,680 


Warrensburg 


490 


504 


Glenridge. . . 


457 




Macoupin 






luka 


435 


364 


County.. . 


57,274 


50,685 


Kinmundy. . 


898 


997 


Benld 


3,316 


1,912 


Odin 


1,385 


1,400 


Brighton . . . 


586 


595 


Patoka 


508 


676 



t Not returned separately. 



356 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



1920 

Salem 3,457 

Sandoval .... 1,768 

Vernon 230 

Wamac 1,180 

jNIarshall 

County.. . .14,760 

Henry 1,637 

Lacon 1,464 

La Rose 171 

Sparland .... 437 

Toluca 2,503 

Varna 359 

Wenona 1,203 

Mason County . 16,634 

Bath 408 

Easton 456 

Forest City.. 314 

Havana 3,614 

Kilbourne . . . 393 

Manito 758 

Mason City.. 1,880 

San Jose 566 

Topeka 109 

Massac County. 13,559 

Brookport. . . 1,098 

Joppa 651 

Metropolis. . . 5,055 

Menard 

Countv... .11,694 

Athens City.. 1,241 

Greenview. . . 755 

Oakford 351 

Petersburg... 2,432 

Tallula 761 

Mercer Countv. 18,800 

Aledo 2,231 

Cable t 

Joy 529 

Keithsburg. . 1,148 

Mathersville. 886 

New Boston. . 714 

Seaton 297 

Sherrard 437 

Swedona .... t 

Viola 668 

Windsor 484 

Monroe 

Countv... .12,839 

Burksvilie. .. 173 

Columbia. . . . 1,592 

Hecker 159 

Maeystown. . 270 

Renault 209 

t Not returned separately. 



1910 




1920 


2,669 


Valmever. . . 


406 


1,563 


Waterloo . . . 


1,930 


333 


Montgomerv 






County. . . 


41.403 




Butler 


t 


15,679 


Coalton .... 


991 


1,687 


Colleen 


945 


1,495 


Donnellson . 


403 


155 


Farmersville 


513 


461 


Fillmore. . . . 


511 


2,407 


Harvel 


351 


406 


Hillsboro. . . 


5,074 


1,442 


Irving 


519 


17,377 


Litchfield. . . 


6,215 


475 


Nokomis . . . 


3,465 


407 


Panama. . . . 


1,281 


306 


Raymond. . . 


868 


3,525 


Schram City 


1,200 


424 


Tavlor 




696 


Springs. . . 


1,526 


1,842 


Walshville. . 


180 


446 


Waggoner . . 


307 


130 


Wenona .... 


299 


14,200 


Witt 


2,443 


1,443 


Morgan County 


33,567 


734 


Chapin 


565 


4,658 


Concord. . . . 


318 




Franklin . . . 


611 


12,796 


Jacksonville. 


15,713 


1,340 


Lynnville. . . 


123 


921 


Meredosia . . 


810 


317 


Murravville. 


523 


2,587 


South Jack- 




742 


sonville. . . 


435 


19,723 


Waverly. . . . 


1,510 


2,144 


Woodson . . . 


231 


360 


Moultrie 




516 


Countv. . . 


14,839 


1,515 


Allenville. . 


286 




Arthur 


998 


718 


Bethanv ... 


842 


326 


Dalton Citv. 


446 


906 


Gays 


274 


97 


Lovington . . 


1,479 


760 


Sullivan. . . . 


2,532 


660 


Ogle County . . 


26,793 




Adeline .... 


140 


13,508 


Bvron 


855 


187 


Creston .... 


290 


2,076 


Forreston. . . 


884 


187 


Leaf River. . 


388 


284 


Mount 




241 


Morris . . . 


1,250 



1,132 



ILLINOIS IN 1920 



357 





1920 


1910 




1920 


1910 


Oregon 


2,227 


2,180 


Pope County. . 


. 9,625 


11,215 


Polo 


1,867 


1,828 


Eddyville. . . 


173 


145 


Rochelle .... 


3,310 


2,732 


Ciolconda. . . 


. 1,242 


1,088 


Peoria 






Hamletsburj 


'. 219 


215 


County. . . 


11,710 


100,255 


Pulaski Count> 


^.14,629 


15,650 


Averyville. . 


3,815 


2,668 


Mound City 


. 2,756 


2,837 


Bartonville . 


1,588 


1,536 


Mounds. . . . 


. 2,661 


1,686 


Brimfield. . . 


617 


576 


New Grand 






Chillicothe. . 


1,986 


1,851 


Chain. . . . 


397 


490 


Elmwood. . . 


1,242 


1,390 


Olmsted. . . . 


. 318 


288 


Glasford. . . . 


645 


625 


Pulaski 


. 518 


592 


Hanna City. 


975 




Ullin 


, 652 


670 


Kingston 






Wetaug . . . . 


132 


218 


Mines. . . , 


360 


492 


Putnam 






North 






County. . . 


. 7,579 


7,561 


Chillicothe 


. 1,002 


911 


Granville. . . 


. 1,427 


1,391 


Peoria 


76,121 


66,950 


Hennepin. . . 


377 


451 


Peoria 






Magnolia. . . 


. 1,066 


368 


Heights. . 


1,111 


582 


Mark 


. 1,300 


1,025 


Princeville. . 


1,035 


982 


Standard . . . 


. 980 


793 


Perry County . 


22,901 


22,088 


Randolph 






Cutler 


363 


324 


County. . . 


.29,109 


29,120 


Duquoin . . . 


7,285 


5,454 


Baldwin. . . . 


. 353 


358 


Pinckneyvilk 


2.649 


2,722 


Chester. . . . 


. 2,904 


2,747 


St. John 


353 


370 


Coulterville. 


. 1,407 


949 


Tamaroa . . . 


1,115 


910 


Ellis Grove . 


. 269 


252 


Willisville . . 


1,485 


1,082 


Evansville. . 


. 575 


562 


Piatt County.. 


15,714 


16,376 


Kaskaskia. . 


152 


142 


Atwood .... 


883 


659 


Modoc 


. 237 




Bement .... 


1,663 


1,530 


Percy 


t 


1,033 


Cerro Gordo 


1,003 


876 


Prairie du 






Cisco 


345 


379 


Rocher. . . 


. 535 


511 


De Land.. . . 


542 


503 


Red Bud. . . 


. 1,141 


1,240 


Hammond. . 


459 


492 


Rockwood. . 


153 


140 


Mansfield. . . 


669 


681 


Ruma 


t 


138 


Monticello. . 


2,280 


1,981 


Sparta 


. 3,340 


3,081 


Pike County . . 


26,866 


28,622 


Steeleville . . 


. 702 


708 


Barry 


1,490 


1,647 


Tilden 


. 1,137 


774 


Baylis 


388 


385 


Richland 






Detroit 


129 


127 


County. . . 


.14,044 


15,970 


El Dara .... 


165 


195 


Calhoun. . . . 


230 




Griggsville. . 


1,343 


1,262 


Claremont. . 


. 186 


186 


Hull 


648 


541 


Noble 


. 580 


618 


Kinderhook. 


332 


371 


Olney 


. 4,491 


5,011 


Milton 


348 


330 


Rock Island 






Nebo 


549 


520 


County. . . 


.92,297 


70,404 


New Canton 


540 


473 


x\ndalusia . . 


228 


299 


New Salem. . 


262 


260 


Carbon Cliff 


400 


366 


Pearl 


669 


842 


Coal Valley . 


184 


190 


Perry 


491 


649 


Cordova. . . . 


271 


324 


Pittsfield . . . 


2,129 


2,095 


East Moline. 


. 8,675 


2,665 


Pleasant Hill 


433 


576 


Hampton. . . 


. 460 


348 


Time 


95 


158 


Milan 


. 850 


727 



t Not returned separately. 



358 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 





1920 


1910 




1920 


1910 


Moline 


.30,734 


24,199 


Illiopolis . . . 


. 814 


849 


Port Byron . 


510 


642 


Loami 


. 462 


530 


Rapids City. 


142 


143 


Mechanics- 






Reynolds. . . 


322 


387 


burg 


470 


417 


Rock Island. 


.35,177 


24,335 


NewBerlin . 


687 


690 


Silvis 


. 2,541 


1,163 


Pawnee .... 


1,200 


1,399 


St. Clair 






Pleasant 






County.. . 


136,411 


119.870 


Plains. . . . 


. 1,078 


625 


Belleville . . . 


.24,741 


21,122 


Riverton . . . 


. 1,916 


1,911 


Brooklyn. . . 


. 1,685 


1,569 


Rochester . . 


399 


444 


Casey ville . . 


675 


613 


Spaulding . . 


237 


308 


Dupo 


. 1,393 


433 


Springfield. . 


.59,183 


51,678 


East Car- 






Thayer 


. 1,254 


1,012 


ondelet. . . 


. 311 


212 


Williamsville 


. 652 


600 


East 






Schuyler 






St. Louis . 


.66,740 


58,547 


County.. . 


.13,285 


14,852 


Fayetteville. 


174 


228 


Browning. . . 


456 


551 


Freeburg . . . 


. 1,594 


1,397 


Littleton. . . 


300 




Lenzburg. . 


. 502 


463 


Rushville. . . 


. 2,275 


2,422 


Marissa. . . . 


. 1,900 


2,004 


Scott County. . 


. 9,489 


10,067 


Mascoutah. . 


. 2,343 


2,081 


Bluffs 


. 1,009 


766 


Millstadt. . . 


907 


1,140 


Exeter 


. 167 


201 


NationalCity 426 


253 


Glasgow. . . . 


. 235 


215 


NewAthens. 


1,406 


1,131 


Manchester. 


456 


480 


O'Fallon.. . . 


. 2,379 


2,018 


Naples 


. 384 


457 


Old Marissa. 


. 232 


314 


Winchester . 


. 1,540 


1,639 


St. Libory . . 


289 


328 


Shelby County 


.29,601 


31,693 


Shiloh 


381 


395 


Cowden. . . . 


t 


711 


Smithton. . . 


357 


380 


Fancher. . . . 


113 


215 


Sumnerfield. 


277 


337 


Findlay .... 


. 882 


827 


Swansea. . . . 


. 1,048 


889 


Herrick .... 


601 


618 


Saline County. 


.38,353 


30,204 


Moweaqua. . 


. 1,591 


1,^13 


Beulah 






Oconee 


. 318 


293 


Heights . . 


549 




Shelbyville. . 


. 3,568 


3,590 


Carrier Mills 


. 2,343 


1,558 


Sigel 


292 


308 


Dorrisville. . 


. 1,740 


1,184 


Stewardson . 


. 575 


720 


Eldorado . . . 


. 5,004 


3,366 


Strasburg. . . 


. 469 


526 


Galatia 


. 863 


745 


Tower Hill.. 


769 


1,040 


Gaskins. . . . 


. 834 


685 


Windsor. . . . 


. 1,000 


987 


Harrisburg.. 


. 7,125 


5,309 


Stark County . 


. 9,693 


10,098 


Ledford .... 


. 673 


599 


Bradford . . . 


. 915 


770 


Muddy 


336 




La Fayette. . 


. 258 


287 


Raleigh .... 


. 264 


238 


Toulon 


. 1,235 


1,208 


Sangamon 






Wyoming. . . 


. 1,376 


1,506 


County. . . 


100,262 


91,024 


Stephenson 






Auburn. . . . 


. 2,660 


1,814 


County. . . 


.37,743 


36,821 


Barclay .... 


51 


252 


Baalton . . . . 


. 187 


144 


Berlin 


241 


251 


Cedarville . . 


. 1,163 


311 


Buffalo 


. 475 


475 


Dakota . . . . 


. 248 


227 


Cantrall. . . . 


. 187 


318 


Davis 


. 337 


352 


Chatham. . . 


. 848 


666 


Freeport . . . 


.19,669 


17,567 


Dawson. . . . 


602 


620 


Lena. ..... . 


. 1,149 


1,168 


Divernon. . . 


. 2,382 


1,519 


Orangeville . 


. 423 


370 



t Not returned separately. 



ILLINOIS IN 1920 



359 





1920 


1910 




1920 


1910 


Pearl City . . 


468 


485 


Keensburg. . 


354 


405 


Ridott 


1,175 


173 


Mount 






Rock City . . 


159 


122 


Carmel. . . 


7,456 


6,934 


Winslow. . . . 


371 


426 


Warren 






Tazewell 






County. . . . 


21,488 


23,313 


County. . . 


38,540 


34,027 


Alexis 


830 


829 


Armington. . 


368 


327 


Kirkwood . . 


882 


926 


Delavan. . . . 


1,191 


1,175 


Little York. 


355 


358 


Deer Creek . 


344 


332 


Monmouth . 


8,116 


9,128 


East Peoria. 


2,214 


1,493 


Roseville. . . 


952 


882 


Green Valley 


446 




Washington 






Hopedale. . . 


556 


586 


County. . . 


18,035 


18,759 


Mackinaw. . 


828 


725 


Addieville. . 


300 


269 


Minier 


789 


690 


Ashley 


751 


913 


Morton. . . . 


1,194 


1,004 


Dubois 


443 


351 


Pekin. ..... 


12,086 


9,897 


Hoyleton. . . 


527 


451 


South Pekin. 


944 




Irvington. . . 


258 


223 


Tremont . . . 


976 


782 


Nashville. . . 


2,209 


2,135 


Washington. 


1,643 


1,530 


New Minden 


364 


245 


Union County. 


20,249 


21,856 


Okawville . . 


614 


579 


Alto Pass. . . 


500 


551 


Richview. . . 


330 


366 


Anna 


3,019 


2,809 


Venedy . . . . 


345 


160 


Cobden .... 


688 


988 


Wayne County 


22,772 


25,697 


Dongola. . . . 


660 


702 


Cisne 


526 


373 


Jonesboro. . 


1,090 


1,169 


Fairfield. . . . 


2,754 


2,479 


Mill Creek.. 


209 


221 


Golden Gate 


265 


311 


Vermilion 






Jefiersonville 


322 


237 


County. . . 


86,235 


77,996 


Johnsonville 


133 


225 


Allerton. . . . 


t 


364 


Mount Erie. 


. 230 


290 


Alvin 


367 


319 


Sims 


429 


399 


Belgium. . . . 


489 


433 


Wayne City. 


561 


620 


Brookville. . 


242 


398 


White County. 


20,081 


23,052 


Catlin 


681 


952 


Carmi 


2,667 


2,833 


Danville 


33,750 


27,871 


Crossville. . . 


558 


574 


Fairmount. . 


870 


847 


Enfield 


929 


927 


Fithian 


482 


386 


Grayville. . . 


1,749 


1,940 


Georgetown. 


3,061 


2,307 


Maunie .... 


480 


512 


Henning. . . . 


347 


364 


Mill Shoals. 


356 


700 


Hoopeston. . 


5,451 


4,698 


Norris City . 


1,300 


1,055 


Indianola. . . 


359 


365 


Phillipstown 


70 


105 


Marysville. . 


733 


742 


Springerton. 


318 


418 


Muncie. . . . 


248 


251 


Whiteside 






Oakwood. . . 


573 


423 


County. . . 


36,174 


34,507 


Rankin 


944 


858 


Albany 


491 


618 


Ridge Farm. 


851 


967 


Coleta 


174 




Rossville . . . 


1,051 


1,422 


Erie 


957 


804 


Sidell 


800 


741 


Fulton 


2,445 


2,174 


Tilton 


909 


710 


Lyndon .... 


325 


390 


Westville. . . 


4,241 


2,607 


Morrison . . . 


3,000 


2,410 


Wabash 






Prophetstown 1,159 


1,083 


County.. . 


14,034 


14,913 


Rock Falls. . 


2,927 


2,657 


Allendale. . . 


451 




Sterling. . . . 


8.182 


7,467 


Bellmont . . . 


464 


550 


Tampico . . . 


788 


849 



t Not returned separately. 



360 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



1920 
Will County. . .92,837 

Beechcr 609 

Braidwood.. . 1,297 

Crete 945 

Elwood 212 

Frankfort.... 497 

Godley 83 

Joliet 38,406 

Lockport. . . . 2,684 
Manhattan . . 525 

Mokena 475 

Monee 395 

Peotone 1,090 

Plainfield. . . . 1,147 
Rockdale . . . 1,478 
Romeoville . . 74 

Steger 2,304 

Williamson 

County.. . .61,038 

Bolton 456 

Bush 962 

Carterville. . . 3,404 

Colp 584 

Crainville. ... 557 
Creal Springs 1,002 

Fordville 792 

Freeman .... 325 

Herrin 10,986 

Hurst 1,222 



1910 




1920 


1910 


84,371 


Johnston 






543 


City 


, 7,137 


3,248 


1,958 


Marion 


. 9,582 


7,093 


840 


Pittsburg. . . 


. 670 


227 


211 


Reeves 


7 79 


658 


273 


Spillertown . 


186 


249 


184 


White Ash. . 


381 


353 


34,670 


Winnebago 






2,555 


County. . . , 


.90,929 


63,153 


443 


Cherry Valley 480 


433 


359 


Durand 


. 549 


527 


411 


Pecatonica. . 


. 1,088 


1,022 


1,207 


Rockford. . . 


.65,651 


45,401 


1,019 


Rockton. . . . 


899 


841 


1,101 


South Beloit 


. 1,436 




98 


Winnebago. 


495 


415 


2,161 


Woodford 








Countv. . . 


.19,154 


20,506 


45,098 


Benson 


414 


362 


485 


El Paso 


. 1,638 


1,470 


565 


Eureka 


. 1,559 


1,525 


2,971 


Kappa 


149 


142 




Metamora. . 


497 


694 


446 


Minonk 


. 2,109 


2,070 


936 


Panola 


98 


108 


385 


Roanoke. . . 


. 1,368 


1,311 




Secor 


311 


358 


6,861 


Spring Bay . 


89 


119 


345 


Washburn. . , 


. 830 


777 



CITIES OF ILLINOIS, EACH HAVING 2,500 INHABITANTS 
OR MORE IN 1920 



Rank 
in 1920 


1920 


1910 


Rank 
in 1920 


1920 


1910 


1. 


Chicago. . . 2, 


701,705 2 


,185,283 


19. 


Alton 


.24,682 


17,528 


2. 


Peoria 


.76,121 


66,950 


20. 


Galesburg. . . 


.23,785 


22,089 


3. 


E. St. Louis. 


.66,740 


58,547 


21. 


Freeport. . . . 


.19,669 


17,567 


4. 


Rockford . . . 


.65,651 


45,401 


22. 


Chicago 






5. 


Springfield . . 


.59,183 


51,678 




Heights. . . 


.19,653 


14,525 


6. 


Cicero 


.44,995 


14,557 


23. 


Waukegan. . 


.19,226 


16,069 


7. 


Decatur. . . . 


.43,818 


31,140 


24. 


Kankakee. . . 


.16,721 


13,986 


8. 


Oak Park . . . 


.39,858 


19,444 


25. 


Kewanee. . . . 


.16,026 


9,307 


9. 


Joliet 


.38,406 


34,670 


26. 


Champaign. . 


.15,873 


12,421 


10. 


Evanston . . . 


.37,234 


24,978 


27. 


Jacksonville. 


.15,713 


15,326 


11. 


Aurora 


.36,397 


29,807 


28. 


Cairo 


.15,203 


14,548 


12. 


Quincv 


.35,978 


36,587 


29. 


Streator. . . . 


.14,779 


14,253 


13. 


Rock Island . 


.35,177 


24,335 


30. 


Granite Citv 


14,757 


9,903 


14. 


Danville. . . . 


.33,750 


27,871 


31. 


Berwvn 


.14,150 


5,841 


15. 


Moline 


.30,734 


24,199 


32. 


Mattoon. . . . 


.13,552 


11,456 


16. 


Bloomington 


.28,725 


25,768 


ii. 


La Salle .... 


. 13,050 


11,537 


17. 


Elgin 


.27,454 


25,976 


34. 


CentraUa. . . 


.12,491 


9,680 


18. 


Belleville . . . 


.24,741 


21,122 


35. 


Pekin 


.12,086 


9,897 



ILLINOIS IN 1920 



361 



Rank 
in 1920 


1920 


1910 


36. 


May wood. . . . 


12,072 


8,033 


37. 


Lincoln 


11,882 


10,892 


38. 


Blue Island. . 


11,424 


8,043 


39. 


Herrin 


10,986 


6,861 


40. 


Canton 


,10,928 


10,453 


41. 


Ottawa 


,10,816 


9,535 


42. 


Forest Park. . 


10,768 


6,594 


43. 


Murphysboro 


.10,703 


7,485 


44. 


Urbana 


10,244 


8,245 


45. 


Mount 








Vernon .... 


9,815 


8,007 


46. 


CoUinsville. . . 


. 9,753 


7,478 


47. 


Marion 


9,582 


7,093 


48. 


Harvey 


9,216 


7,227 


49. 


Peru 


8,869 


7,984 


50. 


East MoHne.. 


8,675 


2,665 


51. 


West Frank 








fort 


8,478 


2,111 


52. 


Dixon 


8,191 


7,216 


53. 


Sterling 


, 8,182 


7,467 


54. 


Monmouth. . . 


, 8,116 


9,128 


55. 


Paris 


, 7,985 


7,664 


56. 


DeKalb 


. 7,871 


8,102 


57. 


Wilmette ... 


. 7,814 


4,943 


58. 


Belvidere .... 


, 7,804 


7,253 


59. 


West 








Hammond . 


7,492 


4,948 


60. 


Mount 








Carmel .... 


, 7,456 


6,934 


61. 


Duquoin 


, 7.285 


5,454 


62. 


Benton 


, 7,201 


2,675 


63. 


Melrose Park 


. 7,147 


4,806 


64. 


Johnston City 7,137 


3,248 


65. 


Harrisburg. . , 


. 7,125 


5,309 


66. 


Beardstown. 


. 7,111 


6,017 


67. 


Macomb. . . . 


, 6,714 


5,774 


68. 


Winnetka. . . , 


, 6,694 


3,168 


69. 


Pontiac 


6,664 


6,090 


70. 


Charleston . . , 


, 6,615 


5,884 


71. 


LaGrange . . 


. 6,525 


5,282 


72. 


Spring Valley 


. 6,493 


7,035 


73. 


Carbondale. . 


. 6,267 


5.411 


74. 


Litchfield 


. 6,215 


5,971 


75. 


Highland 








Park 


, 6,167 


4,209 


76. 


Pana 


, 6,122 


6,055 


77. 


Staunton. . . 


, 6,027 


5,048 


78. 


Clinton 


. 5,898 


5,165 


79. 


North 








Chicago. . . 


, 5,839 


3,306 


80. 


Taylorville. . 


, 5,806 


5,446 


81. 


Zion City . . . 


. 5,580 


4,789 


82. 


Woodstock. . 


. 5,523 


4,331 



Rank iq?n 

in 1920 ^^^^ 

83. Hoopeston... 5,451 

84. Edwardsville . 5,336 

85. Savanna 5,237 

86. Carlinville, . . 5,212 

87. Normal 5,143 

88. Lawrenceville. 5,080 

89. Hillsboro. . . . 5,074 

90. Metropolis. . . 5,055 

91. Eldorado 5,004 

92. Madison 4,996 

93. Galena 4,742 

94. Virden 4,682 

95. Des Plaines. . . 4,640 

96. Elmhurst. . . . 4,594 

97. Hinsdale 4,513 

98. Morris 4,505 

99. Olney 4,491 

100. Batavia 4,395 

101. River Forest. . 4,358 

102. Westville 4,241 

103. Wheaton 4,137 

104. Oglesby 4,135 

105. Princeton 4,126 

106. St. Charles... 4,099 

107. Gillespie 4,063 

108. Effingham.... 4,024 

109. Summit 4,019 

110. Mendota 3,934 

HI. Venice 3,895 

112. Jerseyville. . . 3,839 

113. Naperville. . . 3,830 

114. Christopher. . 3,830 

115. Averyville. . . . 3,815 

116. Havana 3,614 

117. Sycamore... 3,602 

118. Brookfield... . 3,589 

119. Shelby ville. . . 3,568 

120. Flora 3,558 

121. Downers 

Grove 3,543 

122. Mount Olive. 3,503 

123. Woodriver. . . 3,476 

124. Nokomis 3,465 

125. Salem 3,457 

126. Frankfort 

Heights. . . . 3,423 

127. Carterville. . . 3,404 

128. Marseilles. . . . 3,391 

129. Park Ridge... 3,383 

130. Glencoe 3,381 

131. Geneseo 3,375 

132. Robinson. . . . 3,368 

133. Lake Forest.. 3,363 



1910 

4,698 
5,014 
3,691 
3,616 
4,024 
3,235 
3,424 
4,658 
3,366 
5,046 
4,855 
4,000 
2,348 
2,360 
2,451 
4,563 
5,011 
4,436 
2,456 
2,607 
3,423 
3,194 
4,131 
4.046 
2,241 
3,898 
949 
3,806 
3,718 
4,113 
3,449 
1,825 
2,668 
3,525 
3,986 
2,186 
3,590 
2,704 

2,601 
3,501 
84 
1,872 
2,669 



2,971 
3,291 
2,009 
1,899 
3.199 
3,863 
3,349 



362 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



in^mo 1920 1910 

134. Sparta 3,340 3,081 

135. Vandalia 3,316 2,974 

136. Benld 3,316 1.912 

137. Rochellc 3,310 2,732 

138. Harvard 3,294 3,008 

139. Greenville. .. . 3,071 3,178 

140. Georgetown. . 3,061 2,307 

141. Paxton 3,033 2,912 

142. Anna 3,019 2,809 

143. Morrison 3,000 2,410 

144. Galva 2,974 2,498 

145. White Hall... 2,954 2,854 

146. Roodhouse. . . 2,928 2,171 

147. Rock Falls. .. 2,927 2,657 

148. Chester 2,904 2,747 

149. Highland 2,902 2,675 

150. Glenellvn. ... 2,851 1,763 

151. Sesser 2,841 1,292 

152. Watseka 2,817 2,476 



in^mo 1520 1910 

153. Geneva 2,803 2,451 

154. Mound Citv.. 2,756 2.837 

155. Fairfield 2,754 2,479 

156. .\bingdon. ... 2,721 2,464 

157. Bushnell 2,716 2,619 

158. Lockport. . . . 2,684 2,555 

159. Carmi 2,667 2,833 

160. Mounds 2,661 1,686 

161. .Auburn 2,660 1,814 

162. Pincknevville. 2,649 2,722 

163. West Chicago 2,594 2,378 

164. Tuscola 2,564 2,453 

165. Lyons 2,564 1,483 

166. Silvis 2,541 1,163 

167. Sullivan 2,532 2,621 

168. Fairburv 2,532 2,505 

169. Riverside. ... 2,532 1,702 

170. Depue 2,525 1.339 

171. Toluca 2,503 2,407 



APPENDIX 

A LIST OF THE GENERAL REFERENCES FOR THE 
STUDY OF THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

There is a wealth of source material, both state and national, upon 
which the student may draw for a more intensive study of the state. Some 
of the more important titles follow. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

The State Geological Survey, Urbana, Illinois, will furnish on request 
a descriptive circular of all their publications, with prices. The following 
are of especial value in the study of the geography of the state. 

Bulletin 1. The Geological Map of Illinois, by Stuart Weller. Urbana: 
University of Illinois, 1906. 26 pages. Bulletin 6, second edition of same. 
Urbana: University of Illinois, 1907. 37 pages. 

Bulletin 2. The Petroleum Industry oj Southeastern Illinois, by W. S. 
Blatchley. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1906. 109 pages. 

Bulletin 7. Physical Geography of the Evanston-W aukegan Region, 
by Wallace W. Atwood and James Walter Goldthwait. Urbana: Uni- 
versity of lUinois, 1908. 102 pages. 

Bulletin 11. The Physical Features of the Des Plaines Valley, by 
James Walter Goldthwait. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1909. 103pages. 

Bulletin 12. Physiography of the St. Louis Area, by N. M. Fenneman. 
Urbana: University of IlUnois, 1909. 81 pages. 

Bulletin 13. The Mississippi Valley between Savanna and Davenport, 
by J. Ernest Carman. Urbana: University of Ilhnois, 1909. 96 pages. 

Bulletin 15. Geography of the Middle Illinois Valley, by Harlan H. 
Barrows. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1910. 128 pages. 

Bulletin 17. Portland Cement Resources of Illinois, by A. V. Blein- 
inger, E. F. Lines, and F. E. Layman. Urbana: University of Illinois, 
1912. 121 pages. 

Bulletin 19. Geology and Geography of the Wheaton Quadrangle, by 
Arthur C. Trowbridge. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1912. 79 pages. 

Bulletin 21. Lead and Zinc Deposits of Northwestern Illinois, by G. H. 
Cox. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1914. 120 pages. 

Bulletin 22. The Oil Fields of Crawford and Lawrence Counties, by 
Raymond S. Blatchley. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1913. 442 pages. 

Bulletin 25. Report and Plans for Reclamation of Land Subject to 
Overflow in the Embarras River Valley, by Harman Engineering Company. 
Urbana: University of Illinois, 1913. 61 pages. 

Bulletin 26. Geology and Geography of the Galena and Elizabeth Quad- 
rangles, by Arthur C. Trowbridge, E. W. Shaw, and Bernard H. Schockel. 
Urbana: University of Ilhnois, 1916. 233 pages. 

Bulletin 27. Geography of the Upper Illinois Valley, by Carl O. Sauer. 
Urbana: University of Illinois, 1916. 208 pages. 

Bulletin 28. Gas and Oil in Bond, Macoupin, and Montgomery Counties, 
by Raymond S. Blatchley. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1914. 50 pages. 

Bulletin 31 . Oil Investigations in Illinois inI914< by Fred H. Kay and 
others. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1915. Ill pages. 

363 



364 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

Bulletin 32. Report and Plans for Reclamation of Land Subject to 
OverfJow in the Spoon River Valley, by Harman Engineering Company. 
Urbana: University of Illinois, 1!(16. 57 pages. 

Bulletin 35. Oil Imrslii^alions in Illinois in 1916. by Fred H. Kay, 
Albert D. Brokaw, and Stuart St. Clair. Urijana: University of Illinois, 
1917. SO pages. 

Bulletin 37. Geology of the LaSallc and Hennepin Quadrangles, by 
Gilbert H. Cady. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1919. 136 pages. 

Bulletin 39. The Environment of Camp Grant, by Rollin D. Salisbury 
and Harlan H. Barrows. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1918. 75 pages. 

Bulletin 40. Oil Investigations in Illinois in 1917 and 1918, by M.L. 
Nebel and others. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1919. 144 pages. 

Small quadrangles bounded by certain meridians are mapped in 
co-operation with the United States Geological Survey. The maps and 
description of each quadrangle are published in the form of a folio which is 
designated by the name of the principal town within the quadrangle. The 
folio contains topographic, geologic, and economic maps, together with a 
descriptive text. The folio constitutes the most complete and authentic 
information available concerning the geology and geography of the area 
included in the quadrangle. These folios should be ordered from The 
Director, United States Geological Survey, Washington, B.C. 

Folio 67. Danville Quadrangle. Washington, B.C., 1900. 10 pages. 

Folio 81. Chicago Quadrangle, bv William C. .\lden. Washington, 
B.C., 1902. 13 pages. 

Folio 105. Patoka Quadrangle, bv Mvron L. Fuller and Frederick 
G. Clapp. Washington, B.C., 1904. 12 pages. 

Folio 145. Lancaster and Mineral Point Quadrangles. 

Folio 185. Murphysboro and Ilerrin Quadrangles, by E. W. Shaw 
and T. E. Savage. Washington, B.C., 1912. 15 pages. 

Folio 188. Tallula and Springfield Quadrangles, by E. W. Shaw and 
T. E. Savage. Washington, B.C., 1913. 12 pages. 

Folio 195. Belleville and Breese Quadrangles, by J. A. Udden and 
E. W. Shaw. Washington, B.C., 1915. 13 pages. 

Folio 200. Galena and Elizabeth Quadrangles. 

Folio 208. Colchester and Macomb Quadrangles, bv Henry Hinds. 
Washington, B.C., 1919. 14 pages. 

Geological Map of Illinois. Scale approximately one inch to eight miles. 

Base Map of Illinois. Scale approximately one inch to eight miles. 
Shows all railroads, cities, villages, and stations. E.xcellent for school or 
home. 

County Topographic Maps. In four colors. Scale approximately 
one inch to the mile. Shows public land lines, railroads, roads, houses, 
churches, schools, rivers, creeks, divides, surface configuration and elevation 
above sea-level at all points. The most detailed county maps available. 
Excellent for the schools, homes, and offices of the county. Those so far 
issued are: St. Clair County, Clinton County, Monroe County, Gallatin 
County, Hardin County, Lawrence County, McBonough County, Randolph 
County. 

Starved Rock State Park Topographic Map. Scale approximately two 
inches to the mile. Valuable for tourists visiting the Park. 

Drainage Maps. Topographic maps on the scale of about three inches 
to the mile. Useful in planning reclamation projects, especially in con- 
nection with Bulletins 25 and 32. 

Big Muddy River. 5 sheets. 

Embarras River and North Fork, S sheets. 



APPENDIX 365 



Kaskaskia River, 13 sheets. 

Pecatonica River, 4 sheets. 

Spoon River, 3 sheets. 

Quadrangle Topographic Maps. Scale about one inch to the mile; 
size of quadrangle one-fourth of a square degree, about 17 miles in north- 
south extent and 13 miles east-west, area about 225 square miles; the best 
detailed maps published. About one-third of the area of the state is included 
in the maps now available. Eighty-three maps representing portions of 
68 counties have been issued. The maps are given in the list of pub- 
lications of the State Geological Survey. An index map, available on 
request, from the State Geological Survey, has been prepared to show the 
exact areas covered by these quadrangles. The topographic maps, like the 
geologic folios, are designated by the name of the principal town within 
the quadrangle. The topographic map of a quadrangle is included in the 
geologic folio of the quadrangle. The topographic map is a single sheet 
while the geologic folio contains several maps, much descriptive material, 
and numerous diagrams and pictures. The following is an alphabetical list 
of topographic maps issued to date: Avon, Baldwin, Belleville, Belvidere, 
Birds, Breese, Brownfield, Calumet, Canton, Carlyle, Centralia, Chester, 
Chicago, Clinton, Colchester, Coulterville, Crystal City, Danville, Daven- 
port, Des Plaines, Dixon, Dunlap, Edgington, Eldorado, Elizabeth, Equality, 
Evanston, Ford's Ferry, Galatia, Galena, Gillespie, Golconda, Good Hope, 
Hardinville, Hennepin, Herrin, Highwood, Joliet, Kimmswick, Kings, 
Kirkland, Lacon, La Harpe, Lancaster, La Salle, Leclaire, Lincoln, Louisiana, 
Macomb, Mahomet, Marseilles, Metamora, Milan, Mineral Point, Morris, 
Mount Carmel, Mount Olive, Murphysboro, New Athens, New Harmony, 
New Haven, O'Fallon, Okawville, Ottawa, Peoria, Renault, Riverside, 
Rockford, Savanna, Shawneetown, Springfield, St. Louis and East St. 
Louis, Sumner, Tallula, Urbana, Vermont, Vienna, Vincennes, Waterloo, 
West Frankfort, Waukegan, Wheaton, Wilmington. 



UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

Some of the publications of the LTnited States Geological Survey deal 
directly with the geology, geography, and resources of Illinois. Some of 
these may be secured without cost through Illinois congressmen. Prices 
may be obtained from Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 

Twenty-second Annual Report U.S. Geological Survey. Part III, 
"The Eastern Interior Coal Field," by G. H. Ashley, pp. 265-305. 

Monograph 38. The Illinois Glacial Lobe, by Frank Leverett. The 
most complete description available of the glacial topography of Illinois. 
It is used as the basis for the soil surveys of the state. Washington, D.C, 
1899. 817 pages. 

Bulletin 246. Zinc and Lead Deposits of Northwestern Illinois, by 
H. F. Bain. Washington, D.C, 1904. 56 pages. 

Bulletin 255. The Fluorspar Deposits of Southern Illinois, by H. F. 
Bain. Washington, D.C, 1905. 75 pages. 

Bulletin 294. Zinc and Lead Deposits of the Upper Mississippi Valley, 
by H. F. Bain. Washington, D.C, 1906. 156 pages. 

Bulletin 438. Geology and Mineral Resources of the St. Louis 
Quadrangle, Mo. -111., by N. M. Fenneman. Washington, D.C, 1911. 
69 pages. 

Bulletin 506. Geology and Mineral Resources of the Peoria Quadrangle, 
by J. A. Udden. Washington, D.C, 1912. 103 pages. 



366 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 



UNITED STATES WEATHER BUREAU PUBLICATIONS 

Bulletin Q. ClimiiloloRv of the United States, by Alfred Judson Henry. 
Washington, D.C., 19U(). 1()07 pages. 

Climatological Data, Illinois Section, monthly and annual summaries 
of weather conditions throughout the state. Issued by U.S. Weather 
Bureau, Springfield, Illinois. Free. Clarence J. Root. About 8 pages 
per month and about 108 pages per year, including annual report. 

ILLINOIS LABORATORY OF NATURAL HISTORY, 
URBANA, ILLINOIS 

The general geography of the state and of various regions of the state is 
treated in an instructive and interesting manner in many articles, the 
titles of which are of a somewhat technical nature. 

Volume I (1889) and Volume II (1895), Ornithology of Illinois, by Rob- 
ert Ridgway and Stephen A. Forbes. Springfield, 1889. 802 pages. 

Volume III, Article IX, A Preliminary Report on the Animals of the 
Mississippi Bottoms near Quincy. Illinois, in August, 1888, by H. Carman. 

Volume IV, Article IV, List of Altitudes in the State of Illinois, by 
C. W. Rolfe. 

Volume VI, Article II, The Plankton of the Illinois River, 1894~1899, 
with Introductory Notes upon the Hydrography of the Illinois River and lis 
Basin, by C. A. Kofoid. Urbana: University of Illinois. 361 pages. 

Volume VII, Article VII, January, 1907, On the Biology of the Sand 
Areas of Illinois, by Charles A. Hart and Henry Allan Gleason. 

Volume VII, Article IX, An Ornithological Cross-Section of Illinois in 
Autumn, by S. A. Forbes. 

Volume VIII, Article III, On the General and Interior Distribution of 
Illinois Fishes, by S. A. Forbes. 

Volume VIII, Article V, A Study of the Mammals of Champaign County, 
Illinois, by Frank Elmer Wood. 

Volume IX, Article I, On the Common Shrew Mole in Illinois, by Frank 
Elmer Wood. Article III, October, 1910, The Vegetation of the Inland 
Sand Deposits of Illinois. Article IV, January, 1911, Forest Conditions in 
Illinois, by R. CUfford Hall and O. D. Ingall. Article V, March, 1912, 
The Vegetation of the Beach Area in Northeastern Illinois and Southeastern 
Wisconsin, by Frank Caleb Gates. Article VI, January, 1913, The Mid- 
summer Bird Life of Illinois: A Statistical Study, by Stephen A. Forbes. 
Article X, Studies on the Biology of the Upper Illinois River, by Stephen A. 
Forbes and R. E. Richardson. Article XI, August, 1913, Vegetation of 
Skokie Marsh, by Earl E. Sherff. 

Volume X, Article I, September, 1913, An Associational Study of 
Illinois Sand Prairie, by Arthur G. Vestal. 

Volume XI, .\rticle I, July, 1915, An Outline of the Relations of Armnals 
to Their Inland Environments, by Charles C. Adams. Article II, September, 
1915, An Ecological Study of Prairie and Forest Invertebrates, by Charles C. 
Adams. Article III, The Vertebrate Life of Certain Prairie and Forest 
Regions near Charleston, Illinois, by T. L. Hankinson. 

Volume XII, Article I, September, 1915, The Relation of Evaporation 
and Soil Moisture to Plant Succession in a Ravine, by Fred Theodore Ullrich. 

"ILLINOIS BLUE BOOK" 

The Illinois Blue Book is a biennial publication, 1899 to date, compiled 
by the Secretary of State, and may be obtained from Secretary of State, 



APPENDIX 367 



Springfield. It contains information concerning all departments of the 
state government and much historical and descriptive matter. The eleven 
volumes already issued contain a large fund of authentic information con- 
cerning the development of the state during the past twenty years. 

ILLINOIS CENTENNIAL MEMORIAL HISTORY 

The six volumes of the Centennial Memorial History give a complete 
and authentic account of Illinois from earliest historic times to the close of 
the first century of statehood in 1918. 

Published by the Illinois Centennial Commission, for sale by A. C. 
McClurg & Co., Chicago. 

A complete set of this history has been given by the Centennial Com- 
mission to each of the pubUc libraries of the state. 

Preliminary Volume. Illinois in 2525, by Solon J. Buck. Springfield, 
1917. 362 pages. 

Volume I. Province and Territory. 1 673-1818'hy Clarence W. Alvord. 

Volumell. The Frontier Stale, 1818-1848, by Theodore Calvin Pease. 
Springfield, 1918. 475 pages. 

Volume III. The Era of the Civil War, 1848-1870, by Arthur Charles 
Cole. Springfield, 1919. 499 pages. 

Volume IV. The Industrial State, 1870-1893, by Charles Manfred 
Thompson. 

Volume V. The ModernCommonwealth. 1893-19 18,hy Ernest Ludlow 
Bogart and John Mabry Mathews. Springfield, 1918. 544 pages. 

OTHER STATE PUBLICATIONS 

These publications may be obtained by application to the Secretary of 
State or to the departments issuing them. 

Annual Coal Reports. These reports give detailed statistics of coal 
production, mines, and miners for the year. 

Reports of State Superintendent of Public Instruction. An annual 
statistical report, and a comprehensive biennial report. Bulletins and 
circulars of value to school officials and to teachers. 

Reports of the Game and Fish Commission. An interesting summary of 
Illinois resources in game and fish with suggestions for their conservation. 
Annual reports were first published in 1913. 

Reports of the Rivers and Lakes Commission. 

Water Resources of Illinois, by A. H. Horton. Springfield, 1914. 
400 pages. 

The Illinois River and Its Bottom Lands, by John W. Alvord and 
Charles E. Burdick. Springfield, 1915. 141 pages. 
By Department of PubHc Works and Buildings, State Parks and 
Memorials, compiled by C. M. Service. Springfield, 1920. 50 pages. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 
OF CHICAGO 

For sale by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 

No. 1. The Geography of Chicago and Its Environs, by RoUin D. 
Salisbury and William C. Alden. Chicago, 1899. 64 pages. 

No. 2. The Plant Societies of Chicago and Vicinity, by Henry C. 
Cowles. 



368 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

No. 4. The Weather and Climate of Chicago, by Henry J. Cox and John 
H. Armington. Chicago, 1914. 371 pages. 

No. 6. Starved Rock State Park and Its Environs, by Carl O. Sauer. 
Gilbert H. Cady, and Henry Cowles. Chicago, 1918. 148 pages. 

EXCLTiSION BULLETINS 

No. 1. Excursion through the Rivers and Harbors of Chicago, by R. E. 
Blount and C. S. Jewell. 

No. 2. Excursion on the Rock River of Illinois between Rockford and 
Dixon, by R. E. Blount. 

No. 3. Stony Island, by Zonia Baber. 

.A.GRICULTUR.VL EXPERniENT ST.\TION, UNIVERSITY OF 
ILLINOIS, URBANA, ILLINOIS 

The Agricultural Experiment Station of the L'niversity of Illinois 
publishes many bulletins, circulars, and soil reports. Bulletins report the 
results of the investigations carried on by the Experiment Station. Circulars 
are essays on various phases of agriculture of interest to Illinois farmers. 
County Soil Reports contain detailed information regarding the soil types on 
every farm in the county, their extent, location, and fertility invoice; also 
a colored map of the different types down to areas of ten-acre units, and 
recommendations for permanent systems of management. 

These publications are sent free on request. A list of those available 
may be obtained and selections made. An interested person may have his 
name placed on the regular mailing list and receive new publications as 
issued. The current list of available publications includes seventy-nine 
bulletins, eighty-seven circulars, and eighteen county soil reports. These 
are classified under Soils and Crops; Soil Reports; .A.nimal Husbandry; 
Dairy; Horticulture; Entomologs'; and .\gricultural Extension Division. 

The following selections, made from the lists on Soils and Crops and 
Soil Reports contain much valuable material within the scope of this volume. 

BULLETINS 

Bulletin 76. Alfalfa on Illinois Soils, by Cyril G. Hopkins. L^rbana: 
University of Ilhnois, 1902. Pages 311-48. 

Bulletin 123. Fertility in Illinois Soils, by Cyril G. Hopkins and J. H. 
Pettit. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1908. Pages 187-294. 

Bulletin 157. Peaty Swamp Lands; Sand and "Alkali" Soils, by 
Cvril G. Hopkins, J. E. Readliimer, and O. S. Fisher. Urbana: University 
of Illinois, 1912. Pages 95-131. 

Bulletin 181. Soil Moisture and Tillage for Corn, by J. S. Mosier 
and A. F. Gustafson. Urbana: L'niversity of Illinois, 1915. Pages 
565-81. 

Bulletin 193. Summary of Illinois Soil Investigations, by Cyril G. 
Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, and F. C. Bauer. Urbana: University of Illinois, 
1916. Pages 439-84. 

Bulletin 207. Washing of Soils and Methods of Prevention, by J. G. 
Mosier and A. F. Gustafson. L'rbana: Universitv of Illinois, 1918. Pages 
513-50. 

Bulletin 208. Climate of Illinois, by J. G. Mosier. Urbana: Univer- 
sity of Illinois, 1918. 125 pages. 

Bulletin 219. Illinois Crop Yields from Soil Experiment Fields. 



APPENDIX 369 



CIRCULARS 

Circular 109. Improvemrnt of Upland Timber Soils of Illinois (with 
special reference to northern Illinois), by Cyril G. Hopkins and J. E. Read- 
himer. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1907. 8 pages. 

Circular 123. The Status of Soil Fertility Investigations, by Cyril G. 
Hopkins and J. H.Pettit. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1908. 294 pages. 

Circular 145. The Story of a King and Queen {Corn and Clover). 

Circular 167. The Illinois System of Permanent Fertility, by Cyril G. 
Hopkins. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1913. 20 pages. 

Circular 193. Why Illinois Produces Only Half a Crop, by Cyril G. 
Hopkins. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1917. 16 pages. 

SOIL REPORTS 

1. Clay County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Hosier, J. H. Pettit, and 
J. E. Readhimer. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1911. 32 pages. 

2. Moultrie County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, J. H. Pettit, 
and J. E. Readhimer. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1911. 38 pages. 

3. Hardin County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, J. H. Pettit, 
and J. E. Readhimer. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1912. 33 pages. 

4. Sangamon County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, J. H. Pettit, 
and J. E. Readhimer. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1912. 14 pages. 

5. la Salle County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, J. H. Pettit, 
and J. E. Readhimer. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1913. 45 pages. 

6. Knox County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, J. H. Pettit, and 
J. E. Readhimer. Urbana: University of lUinois, 1913. 43 pages. 

7. McDonough County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, J. H. Pettit, 
and O. S. Fisher. Urbana: Ui^iversity of Illinois, 1913. 46 pages. 

8. Bond County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, J. H. Pettit, and 
O. S. Fisher. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1913. 58 pages. 

9. Lake County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, E. Van Alstine, 
and F. W. Garrett. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1915. 52 pages. 

10. McLean County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, E. Van 
Alstine, and F. W. Garrett. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1915. 52 
pages. 

11. Pike County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, E. Van Alstine, 
and F. W. Garrett. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1915. 48 pages. 

12. Winnebago County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, E. Van 
Alstine, and F. W. Garrett. Urbana: University of IlHnois, 1916. 76 
pages. 

13. Kankakee County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, E. Van 
Alstine, and F. W. Garrett. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1916. 72 
pages. 

14. Tazewell County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, E. Van 
Alstine, and F. W. Garrett. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1916. 68 
pages. 

15. Edgar County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, E. Van Alstine, 
and F. W. Garrett. Urbana: University of Ilhnois, 1917. 56 pages. ' 

16. Dupage County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, E. Van Alstine, 
and F. W. Garrett. Urbana: University of lUinois, 1917. 56 pages. 

17. Kane County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, E. Van Alstine, 
and F. W. Garrett. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1917. 60 pages. 

18. Champaign County, by Cyril G. Hopkins, J. G. Mosier, E. Van 
Alstine, and F. W. Garrett. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1918. 61 
pages. 



370 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLINOIS 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE FIKLD MUSEUM OF 
NATURAL, HISTORY, CHICAGO 

The Birds of Illinois and Wisconsin, l)y Charles B. Cory. 
The Mammals of Illinois and Wisconsin, bv Charles B. Corv. Chicago, 
1912. Pages 438-87. 

ST,\TE HISTORIES 

The Settlement of Illinois, 1779- 1830. by Arthur C. Boggess. Chicago: 
Chicago Historical Society, 19().S. 267 pages. 

Early History of Illinois. 1673-1763. bv Sidney Breese. Chicago: 
E. B. Myers & Co., 1884. 422 pages. 

A Complete History of Illinois from 1673 to 1873. by Alexander David- 
son and Bernard Stuve. Springfield: Illinois Journal Co., 1874. 944 pages. 

History of Illinois, 1818-1847, by Thomas Ford. Chicago: S. C. 
Griggs & Co., 1854. 447 pages. 

Illinois, the Story of the Prairie State, by Grace Humphrey. Indian- 
apolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1917. 267 pages. 

Illinois in 1837 and 1838, a collection of articles written in 18.37 
and 1838, now out of print. 

The Making of Illinois, bv Irvin F. Mather. Chicago: A. Flanagan, 
1900. 244 pages. 

The Story of Illinois and Its People, bv William L. Nida. Chicago: 
O. P. Barnes, 1910. 250 pages. 

Historic Illinois, the Romance of the Earlier Days, bv Randall Parrish; 
3d ed. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1905. 479 pages. 

The Pioneer History of Illinois, 1673-1818, by John Reynolds. 
Chicago: Fergus Printing Co., 1887. 459 pages. 

A Student's History of Illinois. 1906. by George W. Smith. Blooming- 
ton, 111., 545 pages; rev. ed. Chicago: Hall & McCreary, 1916. 267 
pages. 

Brief Hislorv of Illinois, by Elbert Waller. Galeslnirg, 111.: The 
Mail Printing Co.', 1909. 93 pages. 



INDEX 



INDEX 



References are to pages 



Abingdon, 287, 353 

Adams County, 4, 5, 111, 217, 300, 348 

Adeline, 48, 356 

Agricultural implements, 221-22, 287, 

299 
Agriculture, 42, 52, 66, 67, 97, 99, 100, 

101, 109, 116, 129, 133, 134, 135, 137. 

140, 142, 148, 149, 150, 152, 154, 155, 

164, 165-85, 186, 193, 222, 262, 310; 
agricultural land, 99, 100; broom 
corn, 179, 308; corn, 167-70, 185; 
facts of, 165-66, 183; farm products, 

165, 184; hay and forage, 174-76; 
influence of surface on development 
of, 242; oats, 170-73, 185; potatoes 
and other vegetables, 177-79; rank 
in, 66; sugar crops, 176-77; wheat, 
173-74, 185 

Airplane, 229 

Alabama, 169 

Alaska, 62 

Albion, 140, 309, 351 

Aledo, 300, 356 

Alexander County, 23, 60, 63, 306, 348 

Alfalfa, 154, 160 

Algonkin, 133, 134 

Alluvial fan, 284 

Alton, 59, 138, 223, 224, 301, 302, 303, 
355 

Amboy, 297, 354 

American Bottoms, 59, 117 

Animals, 100, 115-28, 129, 136, 137. 166 
186-97; animal life in pioneer days 
116-19; animal life of today, 119-20 
conditions for animal life, 115; domes- 
tic, 100, 116, 129, 186, 196; draft, 188 
effect of coming of white man on 
115-16, 136; fishes, 125-27; insects 
127-28; mammals, 120-21; mollusks 
115, 127, 128; native, 115-28, 137 
reptiles and batrachians, 115, 119, 125 

Anna, 81,305,359 

Antioch, 278, 354 

Apple River, 58, 353 

Apples, 118, 179-81; production of, 181; 
trees, 118, 181 

Arbor-vitae, 102 

Areola, 308, 350 

Arkansas, 93 

Arlington Heights. 278, 349 

Armour Institute of Technology, 266 

Artesian wells, 21 

Art Institute, 266, 2 70 

Ash. 102, 109 

Ashton, 78, 354 

Asphalt, 199, 215, 309 

Assumption, 206, 349 

Atlantic Ocean, 66, 77, 258, 262 

Aurora, 52, 53, 223, 224, 226, 261, 271, 
280, 353 



Austin, 275 

Averyville, 282, 284,357 

Aviation Mechanics School, 275 

Barley, 169, 175 

Barrington, 278, 349 

Barrows, H. H , 252, 296 

Bartonville, 282, 284, 357 

Basswoods or lindens, 103 

Batavia, 52, 280, 35i 

Bath, 286, 356 

Batrachians, 115, 125 

Bats, 121 

Bear, 115, 117, 119, 121, 136; black, 115, 
121 

Beardstown, 4, 8, 10, 50, S3, 126, 231, 
286, 349 

Beaucoup Creek, 56 

Beaver, 115, 117, 136 

Beckwith, Hiram, 130 

Bedford, 126 

Beech. 102, 104 

Bees, 119, 186 

Belleville. 55, 223, 225, 246, 302, 303. 
304, 306, 358 

Bellwood, 87, 349 

Belvidere. 6, 46, 297, 348 

Bement, 289, 357 

Benld, 301, 303, 355 

Benton, 6, 56. 304, 351 

Berwvn, 277, 349 

Big Bay Creek, 60, 61, 62, 64 

Big Bureau Creek, 146 

Big Muddy River, 56, 64, 126, 202 

Big Muddy River Basin, 56, 58, 61, 62. 
293, 304-5; area, 56; Beaucoup 
Creek, 56; Big Muddy River, 56; 
cities, 56; coal, 56; Little Muddy 
River, 56 

Birbeck, Morris, 140, 309 

Bird Haven. 107-9, 124. 309 

Birds, 115, 116, 120, 122-25; density of 
bird population, 124-25; duck family, 
120, 122; hawk family, 122; list of 
land birds, 122; list of water birds, 
122; snipe family, 122; sparrow 
family. 122; warbler family, 122 

Blackburn College, 291 

Black Hawk's War, 144, 330 

Bloomington, 5, 52, 90, 161, 223, 225, 
226, 289, 355 

Bloomington Experiment Field, 161, 
162; value of crops per acre in 
thirteen years. Table II, 162; value 
of increase per acre in thirteen years. 
Table III, 163 

Bloomington moraine, 27, 32, 48, 56, 
60, 284 

"Blowouts," 113 

Blue Island, 277, 349 



373 



374 



INDEX 



Bond County, 140, 206, 303, 348 

Bonpas Creek, 60 

Boone Countv, 297, 348 

Bosky Dell, 56 

Bourbonnais, 281, 353 

Bradley, 281. 353 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute, 73, 286 

Braidwood, 288, 360 

Brandon's Road, 238 

Brants, 118, 120 

Breese, 303, 349 

Brick, 23, 210, 211 

Bridgeport, 60, 209, 309, 354 

Brighton, 90, 355 

Brookport, 307, 356 

Broom corn, 179, 308 

Brown County, 4, 52, 287, 348 

Browning, 126, 358 

Brownsville, 249 

Buck, Professor, 143, 249 

Buckeye, 103 

Buckwheat, 169 

Buffalo, 115. 116, 121, 229 

Building materials. 16. 23, 36. 93, 142, 

199,212,265; forests, 93, 142; stones, 

16, 23, 199, 212 
Bureau Countv, 145. 240, 282, 287, 345, 

348 
Bureau Creek, 235 
Bur oak, 101 
Bushnell, 69. 287, 354 
Butternut, 102, 109 

Cache River, 60, 61. 62, 63, 64, lUl 

Cache Valley, 60, 95 

Cahokia, 59, 137, 230, 250 

Cahokia Creek. 301. 302 

Cahokia Mound, 331 

Cahokias, 130, 131 

Cairo, 5, 37, 38, 59, 61, 73. 75, 78, 223, 

225, 306, 308. 348 
Calcium. 152, 153, 154 
Calhoun County, 19, 21, 23, 29, 49. 58, 

64. 89. 127. 232, 241, 286, 299, 348 
California. 199, 255 
Calumet River, 44, 229, 256, 258 
Cambrian rocks, 17, 19 
Campbells Island, 331 
Camp Grant, 295 
Camp Lincoln, 315 
Canal boat, 228, 232 
Canals, 214, 233-37, 258 
Canoes, 228, 230, 246, 256 
Canton, 222, 223, 225, 287, 351 
Carbon, 152 

Carbondale, 56, 78, 305, 336, 352 
Carlinville, 244, 291, 355 
Carlyle, 303, 349 
Carmi, 60, 310. 359 
Carrier Mills, 305, 358 
Carroll County, 29, 48, 58, 64, 294. 348 
Carrollton. 89. 291. 351 
Carterville, 6, 56, 305, 360 
Carthage, 287, 300, 352 
Casey, 309, 349 



Cass County, 4, 52, 206, 286, 291, 349 

Catalpa, 104 

Cattle. 113, 117, 139, 140, 146, 169, 170, 
175, 187, 190-91, 192; beef, 175, 191, 
192; dairy, 175, 187, 190, 191 

Cave-in-Rock, 63, 352 

Caves, 58, 63, 64 

Cedar, 109 

Cement, 23, 155, 199, 211-12, 215, 222, 
282; Portland, 23, 212, 215 

Cenozoic Era, 18, 24. 25 

Centralia, 5, 55, 79, 222, 223, 225, 304, 
355 

Cereals, 100, 166, 175, 191, 218, 219, 242. 
252, 262 

Cerro Gordo moraine, 32 

Champaign. 4. 59, 223. 225, 303, 304, 
307, 308, 349 

Champaign County, 4. 55, 59, 112, 246, 
303, 307, 308, 336, 349 

Champaign moraine, 32, 60 

Chanute Aviation Field, 246, 307 

Charles Mound, 37, 65 

Charleston, 60, 86. 87, 308, 336, 349 

Chatsworth ridge, 32 

Chenoa, 289, 355 

Cherry, 109 

Chester, 82, 304, 35 7 

Chicago, 22, 28, 35. 43, 44, 45, 46, 68. 69, 
73, 109, 124, 144, 145, 148, 169, 177, 
178, 190, 191, 193, 194, 213, 217, 218, 
219, 220, 222, 223, 224, 235, 236, 239, 
244, 250, 254-72. 274, 278, 279, 280, 
290, 302. 303. 304. 306, 308, 310, 329, 
334, 336, 337, 349; area, 43; edu- 
cational center, 265-66; influence of 
railways. 260-62; influence of water- 
ways, 257-59; lake commerce of, 259; 
location, 255-56; Normal School. 
336,337; the outlook, 271-72; today, 
266-68; tributary regions, 262 

Chicago Drainage Canal, 21, 35, 44, 217, 
234, 235, 236, 256, 279 

Chicago-East St. Louis Road, 244 

Chicago Heights, 46, 223, 224, 261, 271, 
277, 280, 349 

Chicago Outlet. 35. 44, 45, 46, 53, 230, 
255 

"Chicago Plain." 35. 44. 255 

Chicago portage, 45, 136 

Chicago River, 44. 45. 46. 135. 136, 229, 
230, 233, 235, 236, 248. 256, 258, 269, 
279; north branch of, 44. 46, 256, 269; 
south branch of, 44, 45, 233, 235, 256, 
269, 279 

Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal. Sec 
Chicago Drainage Canal 

Chicago-Waukegan Road, 244 

Chillicothe, 49, 50, 53, 126. 252. 282, 284, 
357 

Christian Countv, 206, 291, 303, 349 

Cicero, 224, 277, 349 

Cities, 248-53, 254-77; cities of the 
Illinois basin, 278-92; cities of the 
Lake basin, 254-77; determining 



INDEX 



375 



factors, 248-49; location and Krowtli, 
248-53; other cities of Illinois, 293- 
313; table of population, 311-13 
Clark County, 32, 207, 208, 309, 349 
Clark, George Rogers, 230, 307, 328 
Clay, 16, 24, 36, 152, 199, 209, 210-11, 
282; loam, 152; products, 199, 210- 

Clay' County, 309, 349 

Climate, 6, 35,66-91, 116, 129, 166, 167, 
168, 171, 173, 175, 178, 197; an ideal, 
90-91; average temperature for the 
coldest month, 72; average tempera- 
ture for the warmest month, 72; 
changeableness of Illinois, 68-70; 
climatological divisions, 76, 77; 
continental, 66; cyclonic storms, 66; 
definition of normal temperature, 71; 
frost dates. Table II, 79; influence of 
relief of Illinois on, 66; influence of 
relief of United States on, 66; largest 
average precipitation, 72; precipita- 
tion of 1915, 83; precipitation. Table 
III, 80; prevailing westerly winds, 
35, 66; rainfall of a single year, 81, 
82-85; range, 79; sleet, hail, and ice 
storms, 87-90; smallest average 
precipitation, 69, 72; snowfall, 81; 
temperature and rainfall for corn, 
167, 168; temperatures, Table I, 78; 
tornadoes, 85-87; unchangeableness 
of Illinois, 70 

Clinton, 4, 6, 289, 303, 350 

Clinton County, 349 

Clothing, 100, 117, 133, 136, 148, 221, 
265 

Clover, 154, 160, 171, 174, 176 

Coal, 6, 16, 23, 56, 60, 149, 198, 199, 
200-7, 213, 214, 215, 217, 218, 226, 
227, 238, 252, 261, 262, 282, 287, 288, 
289, 290, 291, 292, 302, 303. 304, 305, 
308, 315; amount of, in Illinois, 23. 
199, 205, 206, 207; annual coal 
reports of the state; Department of 
Mines and Minerals, 202; kinds of 
mines, 203; methods of mining, 203; 
rank of in United States, 23 

Coal City, 288, 352 

Coffee tree, 193 

Coke, 17, 199,210, 222, 227 

Coles County, 59, 112, 179,308,336,349 

Collinsville, 214, 302 

Colorado, 178, 255 

Columbia, 303 

Commerce, 136, 138, 219, 238, 265, 273; 
of Illinois, 116, 149, 238 

Conifers, 101 

Cook County, 28, 35, 43, 87, 114, 126, 
211, 254, 255, 274, 276, 278, 279, 303, 
318,322, 345, 349 

Cooley, Charles H., 249 

Corn, 82, 84, 85, 89, 112, 117, 118. 119, 
133, 137, 139, 161, 163, 166, 167-70, 
172, 173, 175, 178, 189, 190, 191, 192, 



220, 308; belt, 161. 189, 192, 220; 

importance of, 169-70; leading corn 

states. 170; meal, 169; sod corn, 112 
Cotton, 80 
Counties, 11, 12, 14-15, 141; area, 

population, and county seats. Table I, 

14, 15, 141; civil townships, 11 
Covington, 249 
Crab tree, 103 
Cranes, 118 
Crawford County, 59, 140, 207, 208, 209, 

309, 350 
Crayfish, 115 
Cretaceous period, 24 
Crooked Creek, 52, 55, 112 
Cropsev ridge, 32 
Cumberland County, 32, 59, 179, 309, 

350 
Cumberland River, 75 
Cypress, 97, 101, 104; bald, 101 

Dairying, 113, 176, 186, 190, 191 

Dakota Indians, 133 

Danville, 4, 52, 59, 214, 223, 225, 226, 
244, 306, 308. 359 

Decatur, 45, 52, 223, 224, 226, 289, 306, 
355 

Deer, 115, 116, 117, 119, 121, 136; 
northern white-tailed, 121; \'irginia, 
121 

DeKalb, 297, 336, 350 

DeKalb County, 47, 78, 280, 297, 336, 
350 

DePaul University, 266 

Depue, 214, 251, 282, 348 

Des Plaines, 278, 349 

Des Plaines Basin, 46, 52, 53, 255, 278, 
279 

Des Plaines River, 43, 44, 45, 48, 49, 53, 
87, 135, 136, 229, 233, 235, 238, 276, 
278, 279, 281 

Devonian rocks, 22-23 

Dewitt County, 6, 289, 350 

Dikes, 17, 24 

Dixie Highway, 244 

Dixon, 47, 212, 297, 354 

Dogwood, 104 

Douglas County, 59, 179, 308, 350 

Douglas Monument Park, 270, 329 

Downers Grove, 279, 351 

Drainage, 42-61, 168, 254; Big Muddy 
River Basin, 56; drainage basins, 42, 
254; Illinois River Basin, 48-55; Kas- 
kaskia River Basin, 55-56; Lake 
Michigan Basin, 42-46; minor basins 
of the Mississippi, 57-59; Ohio River 
Basin, 60-61; Rock River Basin, 
46-48; Wabash River Basin, 59-60 

Dresden Heights, 238 

Driftless Area, 29, 48, 58, 65, 213 

Drift mines, 203, 204 

Dupage County, 279, 350 

Duquoin, 56, 304, 357 

Dwight, 288 



376 



INDEX 



East Alton, 302, 353 

East Bureau Creek. 145 

Eastern Illinois State Normal School, 
308, 336 

East Moline. 58, 299, 357 

East Peoria, 282, 359 

East St. Louis, 58, 59, 64, 89, 90, 214, 
221, 223, 224, 227, 244, 250, 286, 290, 
300, 301, 302, 303, 331, 358 

Edgar County, 138, 308, 351 

Education, 265, 268, 333-44; com- 
munity high schools, 335; educa- 
tional statistics, 342-43; higher 
institutions of learning, 337-41; 
importance of, 333-34; normal 
schools, 335-36; private schools, 337; 
school districts, 334-35; special 
schools. 337 

Edwards County. 140, 309, 351 

Edwards River, 58 

Edwardsville, 139. 301, 355 

Effingham, 60, 309,351 

Effingham County, 112, 309, 351 

Eldorado, 60, 305, 358 

Elgin, 52, 81, 87, 223, 225, 261, 271, 280. 
353 

Elizabethtown, 61, 232, 306, 352 

Elk, 115, 117, 121; American. 121 

Elm. 102, 107; cork. 102; red, 102; 
white, 102; winged 102 

Elmhurst, 279, 351 

El Paso, 288, 360 

Embarras River, 36, 59. 60 

Enabling Act, 1, 2^ 3, 141 

Englewood, 275 

Equalitv, 78. 305. 351 

Erie Canal. 138, 144 

Erosion, 25, 37, 63; stream erosion, 25, 
37, 63 

Eskers, 48; Garden Plain esker, 48; 
Hazelhurst esker, 48; Leaf River or 
Adeline esker, 48 

Eureka, 288, 360 

Evanston, 87, 223, 225, 270, 274-75. 349 

Evergreens, 101; dwarf juniper, 101; 
juniper. 101 

Factories, 218, 226, 227, 262, 281, 286. 

292 
Fairburv, 288, 354 
Fairfield, 60, 83, 309, 359 
Fairfield Agricultural Experiment Field, 

309 
Farm Creek, 284, 285 
Farm crops, 7, 16, 36, 54, 81, 82, 89, 99, 

101, 166, 186, 187, 195, 197, 240, 260, 

288; rank in value of, 7, 36; 1910 

value of, 16; 1917 value of, 16 
Farmington, 287 
Farm lands, 36, 52, 82, 101, 119, 138, 

161. 176, 188, 218, 219, 315 
Farms, 63, 154, 178, 186, 197, 218, 240, 

242, 254, 306; truck, 178, 179, 306 
Faults, 19,21, 24 
Favette County, 6, 112, 248, 303, 351 



Federal aid roads, 244 

Field Museum of Natural History, 270 

Finch and Baker, 170, 178 

First principal meridian, 138 

First settler, 140 

Fish, 54, 115, 116, 125-27, 133; classes 
of, 125; pounds of commercial fish 
caught on Illinois River in 1913-14, 
126 

Fissure, 16, 24 

Hatboat, 228, 230, 232, 246 

Flood plains. 35, 54, 55, 60, 61, 63, 64, 
97, 113, 248, 250 

Floods, 281 

Flora, 309, 349 

Florence, 126 

Florida, 169, 178, 255 

Flower, George, 140. 309 

Fluorspar, 16, 19, 23, 199, 214-15, 305, 
306 

Folds, 18, 19, 24, 207; La Salle Anti- 
clinal, 18, 20, 24, 207; Synclinal, 19 

Food crops, 91, 100, 148, 152, 153, 178, 
265 

Forage, 166, 170, 174-76 

Forbes, Professor S. A., 124 

Ford County, 289, 307, 351 

Forest Park, 277, 349 

Forests, 92, 93-109, 110, 111, 112. 113, 
115. 119, 120, 124, 129, 140, 141, 144, 
145, 147, 149, 169, 218, 228, 262; 
ilestruction of, 101; hardwood, 92, 
101; importance to pioneer, 93, 99- 
101; list of native trees, 104-7; native 
trees, 101-9; present forest area, 101; 
sawmills, 95; scientific forest policy, 
99 

Fort Chartres, 59, 248 

Fort Chartres Park, 59, 329 

Fort Creve Coeur, 330 

Fort Dearborn, 248 

Fort Massac, 248 

Fort Massac State Park, 307, 328-29 

Fort St. Louis, 248, 328 

Fort Sheridan, 272, 274 

Fourth Principal Meridian, 138 

Fox, 117, 119, 136 

Fox Lake, 278 

Fox River, 21, 50. 52, 53, 239, 278. 280, 
297 

Franklin County, 6, 205, 249, 304. 351 

Freeport. 46. 78, 223. 225,294, 358 

French Settlements, 137, 138 

Fruits, 80, 139, 169, 179-82, 193, 219; 
growing, 80, 179-82; orchard, 179, 
181, 193; small, 181-82 

Fulton, 58, 294 

Fulton County, 206, 287, 351 

Galena, 8, 213, 230, 231, 250, 293-94, 

358 
Galena River, 58, 293 
Galesburg, 223, 225, 226, 287, 300, 353 
Gallatin County, 26, 60, 61, 63, 78, 137, 

142, 305, 307, 351 



INDEX 



377 



Galva, 287, 300, 352 

Galveston hurricane, 70, 84 

Game and Fish Conservation Commis- 
sion, 119 

Garfield Park, 270 

Geneva, 52, 87, 280, 337, 353 

Geology, 16-24; Cambrian rocks, 19; 
Cretaceous and Tertiary time, 24; 
Devonian rocks, 22-23; divisions of 
geologic time, 17-18; folds and faults, 
18; Glacial period, 24; Illinois State 
Geological Survey, 16, 23; kinds of 
rocks, 17; La Salle anticline, 18, 20, 
24; Mississippian rocks, 23, 24; 
Ordovician rocks, 20; Pennsylvania 
rocks, 23-24; Permian period, 24; 
Silurian rocks, 2 1-22 ; value of Illinois 
rocks, 16 

Georgetown, 4, 308, 359 

Gibson City, 289, 351 

Gillespie, 301, 303 

Glacial drift, 24, 27, 29, 36, 48, 50, 53, 
54, 145, 198, 209, 212 

Glacial lakes, 33-35, 44, 256 

Glacial period. 24, 25-36, 55; cause of, 
26; driftless area, 25; duration, 27; 
early ice invasions, 30; effect on 
present relief, 25; eskers, 29; evi- 
dences of glaciation, 27-28; glacial 
lakes, 33-34; lUinoisan glaciation, 
27, 30-31, 35, 54, 55; lowan glacia- 
tion, 27, 31, 32, 48; kames, 29, 55; 
land, swamp, and bottom lands, 
33-36; loess, 31; North American 
ice sheet, 26, 27. 29; outwash plains, 
29; preglacial Illinois, 25; results of 
glaciation, 36; unglaciated areas, 29; 
valley trains, 29; Wisconsin glacia- 
tion. 27, 29, 31, 32-33, 48, 54, 55 

Glass, 213, 215, 282, 288 

Glencoe, 274, 3-19 

Glen EUyn, 279, 351 

Goats, 186 

Godfrey, 90 

Golconda, 23, 61, 212, 214, 305, 357 

Golden, 217, 348 

Gopher, 118 

Grafton, 49, 286, 352 

Grand Calumet River, 45 

Government, 314-32; administrative 
code, 324, 327; appellate court, 320; 
circuit court, 320; state constitu- 
tions, 327; state government and 
geographical divisions, 317-24; state 
institutions, 324-26; state parks, 
327-31; supreme court, 320; the 
capital city, 314-16 

Grand Detour, 18 

Grand Prairie, 112, 145, 239 

Granite City, 59, 222, 223, 224, 225, 302, 
355 

Grass, 110, 111, 112, 113, 171, 175; 
bunch-grass, 113; prairie, 110, HI, 
112, 113; seeds, 171 

Grasslands. See Prairie land 



Gravel, 16, 24, 29, 36, 152, 199, 213, 215 

Grays Lake, 278 

Grayville, 60, 310 

Great Bend, 47, 49, 53, 234, 281, 285 

Great Central Plain, 6, 37, 256, 257, 260, 

262 
Great Lakes, 137, 138, 145, 218, 219, 

228, 229, 257, 258, 261 
Great Lakes (city), 273 
Great Lakes Naval Training Station, 

272, 273-74 
Greene County, 52, 89, 210, 291, 351 
Green River, 47, 48, 114, 235 
Greenup, 309, 350 
Greenville, 303, 348 
Griggsville, 83, 357 
Grist mill, 145 
Grouse, 119 
Grundy County, 28, 48, 49, 238, 281, 

288, 345, 352 
Gulf of Mexico, 66, 77, 262 
Gum, 102, 103; black, 103; sweet, 102; 

tupelo, 103 

Hail, 87-89; "soft hail," 87; "winter 

hail," 87 
Haines, Elijah M., 129 
Hamilton, 58, 217, 300, 352 
Hamilton County, 60, 352 
Hancock County, 5, 58, 232, 241, 249, 

287, 300, 352 
Hardin, 232, 286, 348 
Hardin County, 17, 19, 23, 24, 61, 62, 

63, 214, 232, 241,306, 352 
Harrisburg, 60, 305, 358 
Harrison, General William Henry, 131 
Harrison purchase, 138 
Harvard, 297, 355 
Harvey, 277, 349 
Havana, 50, 52, 53, 286, 356 
Haw tree, 103 
Hay, 89, 112, 113, 166, 170, 174-76, 191, 

242; timothy, 89, 112, 174, 175, 176 
Hedding College, 287 
Henderson County, 58, 114, 251, 300, 

352 
Henderson River, 58 
Hennepin, 47, 49, 50, 234, 251, 281, 282, 

357 
Hennepin Canal, 234-35 
Hennepin, Father, 200 
Henry, 126, 127,251, 282, 356 
Henrv County, 300, 352 
Herrin, 6, 56, 305, 360 
Hickory, 102, 109 
Highland, 302, 355 
Highland Park, 274, 354 
Highwood, 274, 354 
Hillsboro, 55, 214, 303, 356 
Hinsdale. 279, 351 
Hogs, 117, 139, 140, 169, 170, 186, 192; 

breeds of, 192 
Hoopestown, 308, 359 
Hopkins, Dr. Cyril G., 163 
Hornbeam, 102, 104 



378 



INDEX 



Horses, 117, 133, 139, 171, 186, 187, 188, 
189, 190, 192; breeds of, 188; wild, 
117 

Hospital Corps Traininj,' School, 2 74 

Humboldt Park, 270,349 

Hunter pioneer, 135, 136, 139 

Hunting, 133, 13'7, 140 

Hyde Lake, 45 

Hyde Park, 275 

Hydrofluoric acid, 215 

Hydrogen, 152 

mini, 1, 130, 131, 143 

Illinois, boundaries, 1-6; capital cities, 
56,248,314-16; commerce, 116, 149, 
238; Constitutional Convention, 327; 
latitude and longitude, 4, 5, 7; length 
and width, 4, 5; manufactures, 36, 
116, 217-27; minerals, 7, 16, 23, 116, 
149,198-216; people, 115, 116, 129-47; 
population, 7, 8, 13, 36, 345-62; state 
institutions, see State; surface, 37-65, 
115, 129, 166, 197, 217, 239, 254, 286, 
288; wealth, 36, 218 

Illinoisan glaciation, 30-31, 35, 54, 55, 
56, 60, 155, 157; divisions of, 31; 
drift sheet, 30; Illinoisan drift, 31; 
movement of, 30; terminal moraines, 
31,32 

Illinois and Michigan Canal, iS, 45, 145, 
147, 229, 233-34, 235, 236, 256, 279, 
281,282 

Illinois and Mississippi Canal. See 
Hennepin Canal 

Illinois College, 291 

Illinois in i8i8, 131, 133, 137, 138. 139, 
141, 249 

Illinois River, 18, 19, 20, 21, 25, 29, 31, 
32, 35, 36. 38, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 58, 
64, 85,95, 112, 120, 125, 126, 128, 135, 
136, 138, 144, 145, 206, 207, 213, 217, 
229, 230. 231, 234, 238, 239, 248, 250, 
251, 252. 278, 281, 282, 284, 285, 286, 
287, 288, 299, 301, 307, 327 

Illinois River basin, 43, 45, 47, 49, 52-55, 
278,287,291,293,300; area, 52; Des 
Plaines basin, 53; Iroquois basin, 52; 
Kankakee basin, 52; lake district, 53; 
location, 52, 278 

Illinois River system, 48-52, 236 

Illinois State Normal University, 124, 
289, 336 

Illinois Steel Company, 279 

Illinois Territory, 1-2, 230, 314 

Illinois Valley, 38, 49, 50, 53, 101, 136, 
144, 145, 230, 233, 255, 281, 282, 284; 
flood plain of, 54; influence on trans- 
portation, 53; tributary valleys, 54; 
width, 53 

Illinois Waterway, 238, 332 

Illinois VVesleyan University, 289 

Illinois W'omen's College, 291 

Indiana, 1, 4, 30, 32, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 
52,55,59,85,86,89,93, 112. 114, 136, 
138, 140, 142, 169, 202, 211, 219, 244, 



255. 257, 261, 262, 271, 275, 278, 279, 
280, 307, 308, 309; East Chicago, 275; 
Gary, 45, 46. 219, 261, 271, 275-76; 
Hammond, 45, 46, 271, 275; Indiana 
Harbor, 257; Indianapolis, 257; 
Kouts, 85; Laporte, 46; Michigan 
City, 46, 271, 275; North Vernon, 86; 
source of Kankakee River, 52; South 
Bend, 49, 280; Terre Haute, 59, 244, 
308; Valparaiso. 46; Whiting, 275 

Indians, 1, 110, 116, 129-34, 135, 136, 
138, 139, 143, 147; density of popula- 
tion, 129-33; garments of men, 133; 
garments of women, 133; life of, 133; 
manufacturing, 133-34; summer 
houses, 134; trade blanket, 133, 136; 
trade cloth, 133, 136; trade kettle, 
134, 136; winter lodges, 134 

Insects, 115, 127-28; economic impor- 
tance, 127; injurious, 127-28; para- 
sitic. 127-28; predaceous, 127-28 

Iowa, 29, 30, 169, 170,172, 190, 191, 192, 

217, 239, 244, 251, 294, 299, 300; 
Burlington, 251. 300; CUnton, 244, 
294; Davenport, 299; Fort Madison, 
30,300; Keokuk, 190, 217, 300 

lowan glaciation. 27, 31, 32, 48; lowan 

drift, 31; moraines of, 32, 48 
Iron, 152, 153. 199. 210, 212, 213, 214, 

218, 219, 221, 222, 227, 258, 261 
Iroquois County, 39, 112, 114, 280, 352 
Iroquois River, 52 

Jackson County, 23, 26, 31, 55, 58, 61, 

63, 78, 101, 112, 202, 305, 336, 352 
Jackson Park, 270 
Jacksonville, 223, 225, 291, 337, 356 
Jasper County, 59, 179, 309, 353 
Jefferson County, 6, 112, 304, 352 
Jersey County, 19, 23, 52, 58, 64, 206, 

291, 352 
Jerseyville, 291, 349. 352 
Jo Daviess County, 21, 29, 37, 48, 58, 64, 

65, 113, 213, 214, 293, 352 
Johnson County, 6, 60, 62, 64, 154, 305, 

353 
Johnston City, 6, 56, 305, 360 
Joliet, 11, 22, 23, 35, 49, 82, 85, 87, 202, 

210, 223, 224, 227, 238, 244, 261, 271, 
2 79-80, 360 

Joliet and Marquette, 35, 46, 129, 135, 

229 
Jonesboro, 305, 359 
Joppa, 306, 356 

Kampsville, 286, 348 
Kane County, 32, 81, 87, 280, 353 
Kankakee, 49, 223, 225, 280, 281, 353 
Kankakee basin, 46, 52, 53, 278, 280-81 
Kankakee County, 28, 114, 153, 164, 

211, 280, 281, 353 

Kankakee River, 48, 49, 52, 53, 136, 

229, 230, 280, 281 
Kansas, 169, 173, 179, 262 



INDEX 



379 



Kaskaskia basin, 29, 55-56, 58, 293, 302 , 
303-4; area, 55; cities in, 55, 303-4; 
length of, 55; Shelby villa moraine, 
55-56; source, 55; width of, 55 

Kaskaskia Island, 4, 304 

Kaskaskia, New, 304, 357 

Kaskaskia, Old, 4, 59, 137, 139, 230, 249, 
250, 314 

Kaskaskia River, 4, 31, 55, 56, 64, 112, 
126, 131, 142, 248, 301, 302,304 

Kaskaskias, 130, 132 

Kaskaskia Valley. 101 

Keeley Institute, 288 

Keithsburg, 300, 356 

Kendall County, 21, 28, 52, 69, 280, 353 

Kenilworth, 274, 350 

Kentucky, 140, 141, 169, 202, 307; 
Paducah, 307 

Keokuk dam, 58, 217, 300 

Kewanee, 222, 223, 225, 287, 352 

Kickapoos, 130, 131, 143 

Kishwaukee Creek, 46, 47, 48, 295, 296, 
297 

Knox College, 287 

Knox County, 211, 287, 353 

Lacon, 252, 282, 356 

La Grange, 279, 350 

Lake Bluff, 274, 354 

Lake Calumet, 45 

Lake Chicago, 33-35, 44, 45, 255 

Lake County, 43, 52, 53, 114, 126, 249, 

254,273, 274, 278, 324, 354 
Lake Forest, 274, 354 
Lake Forest University, 274 
Lake Michigan, ii, 43, 44, 45, 53. 73, 87, 

136, 137, 146, 230. 235, 236, 238, 248, 

249, 254, 257, 276 
Lake Michigan basin, 42-46, 52, 254-77, 

278, 292; area of, 42-44, 254; cities 

of, 254-77 
Lake Peoria, 284 

Lakes to Gulf Deep Waterway, 236 
Lake Zurich, 278, 354 
Land surveys, 8-10 
Larchmound, 309 
Lark, 124 
La Salle, 5, 18, 50, 52, 138, 207, 212, 214, 

223, 225, 232, 233, 238, 244, 250, 282, 

318, 327, 354 
La Salle anticline, 18, 20, 24, 207 
La Salle County, 6, 20, 21, 49, 85, 200, 

207, 211, 212, 217, 238, 281, 282, 307, 

327, 345,354 
La Salle (explorer), 34, 130, 136, 230, 

248, 327 
Lawrence County, 59, 207, 208, 209, 309, 

354 
Lawrenceville, 59, 209, 309, 354 
Lead, 16, 21, 23, 199, 213-14, 216, 262, 

293 
Leaf River, 48, 356 
Lebanon, 303 
Lee County, 6, 18, 21, 79, 114, 212, 297, 

354 



Legumes, 154, 160 

Lemont, 279, 350 

LeRoy, 289 

Levee, 38, 54 

Lewis Institute, 266 

Lewistown, 287, 351 

Lexington, 289 

Libertyville, 278, 354 

Limestone, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 58, 63, 64, 
109, 153, 154, 157, 160, 161, 163, 173, 
199, 212, 215, 296; Galena, 21; 
Lower Magnesian. 20, 212; Niagara, 
21, 22; Platteville. 21 

Lincoln, 4, 52, 87, 223. 225. 289. 337, 354 

Lincoln, Abraham, 290, 330 

Lincoln Highway, 109, 244 

Lincoln Monument, 290, 291, 329 

Lincoln Park, 270 

Linden. 134 

Litchfield. 303, 356 

Little Calumet River. 45, 46, 277 

Little Muddv River, 56 

Little Wabash River, 36, 60 

Liverpool, 126 

Live stock, 137, 159, 169, 191, 197, 218, 
220, 242, 261, 262 

Livingston County, 211, 288, 354 

Loams, 152, 154, 155, 157, 161, 167. 168, 
173; black clay, 15 7; brown silt, 157, 
161; clay, 152; fine, sandy, 152; 
gravelly, 152; gray silt, 155; peaty, 
152; sandy, 152; stony, 152; yellow- 
gray silt, 157; yellow silt, 154, 157 

Lockport, 22, 44, 87, 217, 235, 236, 238, 
279, 360 

Locust trees. 111 

Loess, 31 

Logan County, 4, 31, 87, 289, 354 

Lombard College, 287 

Louisville, 60, 309, 349 

Lowden, Governor, 327 

Loyola University, 266 

Lumber, 145, 219, 240, 252, 258, 261, 265 

McDonough County, 69, 204, 205, 211, 
287, 336. 354 

McHenry County. 78, 355 

Mackinaw River, 52 

McLean County, 6, 7, 153. 289, 336, 355 

Macomb, 210, 287, 336, 355 

Macon County, 4, 6. 289. 355 

Macoupin County, 90, 210, 291, 301, 
303, 355 

Macoupin Creek. 52 

Madison, 59, 302, 355 

Madison County, 58, 59, 90, 132, 14Q, 
213, 301, 302, 303, 331, 345, 355 

Magnesium, 152, 153 

Maine, 177 

Makanda, 56 

Manufacturing. 95, 217-27, 251, 262, 
263, 288, 290, 294, 301, 302, 315; 
capital, 217, 218; favorable condi- 
tions, 217-20; fuel and power, 217, 
218; important industries, 220-22; 



380 



INDEX 



labor, 217, 218, 222; location of 
industries, 222-27; raw materials, 

217. 218, 249; transportation, 217, 

218, 222 

Maple, 102. 109. 177; sugar, 177 

Marengo, 297, 355 

Marion, 6, 56, 305, 360 

Marion County, 6, 79, 112, 163,304,355 

Marissa, 303, 358 

Markets, 166, 240, 253 

Marseilles, 32, 49, 50, 217, 281, 354 

Marseilles moraine, il 

Marshall, 309. 349 

Marshall County, 127, 240, 356 

Marston, Major. 133 

Mascoutah, 303. 358 

Mason City, 289, 356 

Mason County, 31, 35, 52. 1 13. 286, 289, 
356 

Massac County, 24. 60, 61. 63, 182. 230. 
306. 328. 356 

Mattoon. 60. 87, 223. ll':'. 21b. 308, 349 

Maywood. 87, 278, 350 

Meat-packing, 220, 222. 226, 270 

Melrose Park. 87, 278. 350 

Menard County, 4, 291. 330. 356 

Mendota. 6, 85, 282, 286, 354 

Meppen, 126, 127 

Mercer County, 23, 58, 114, 13S, 300, 
356 

Meredosia, 113, 286, 356 

Meridian Road, 5 

Mesozoic Era, 18, 24 

Metchigamis, 130. 131 

Metropolis, 61, 230, 248. 306-7, 328, 356 

Miamis, 130 

Mice, 115, 121 

Michigan, 32, 136, 138, 177, 178, 193, 
239, 271; Benton Harbor, 271; 
Grand Haven, 271; Grand River, 32; 
St. Joseph, 271 

Military Tract, 138. 141 

Millikin University, 289 

Millstadt, 303 

Mineral water. 199, 215 

Mink, 119, 136 

Minnesota. 29, 173, 229, 255, 257; 
Duluth, 229, 257 

Minonk, 6, 288, 360 

Minooka ridge. 32 

Mississippi, 169 

Mississippian rocks, 23, 24 

Mississippi flood plain, 59, 60. 61. 331 

Mississippi River, 4. 5, 8, 19, 23, 25, 29, 
30,31,36,37.38.46,47,48,49,55,58, 
63, 64, 65, 85, 93, 95, 101, 112, 114, 
120, 126, 128, 134, 135, 137, 138, 142, 
178, 202, 213. 217. 229, 230, 231. 232, 
234, 238, 248, 249. 250, 251, 252, 281, 
286, 287, 293, 294. 299, 300, 301, 302, 
304, 306; changes in course of, 4, 25, 
30 

Mississippi River basin, 42, 57-60, 85, 
119, 256, 258, 293; minor basins, 
57-60 



Mississippi Valley. 23. 59, 66, 101, 113, 

126, 136, 169, 218, 219 
Missouri, 4, 61, 64, 85. 93. 138, 177, 192, 

193, 202, 213, 215, 230, 231, 232, 244, 

255, 257, 262, 286, 300, 302, 303, 304; 

Hannibal, 300; Louisiana, 300; St. 

Louis, 85, 177, 202, 230, 231, 232, 244, 

255, 257, 286, 302, 303, 304; St. 

Mary's, 4 
Missouri basin, 169 
Moline, 47, 58, 222, 223, 224, 226, 299, 

331, 358 
Mollusk,115, 127,128; fresh-water, 115, 

128; fresh-water mussels or "clams," 

128; snails, 128 
Momence. 49 280. 353 
Momence Agricultural E.xpcriment 

Field, 164, 280 
Monk's Mound. See Cahokia Mound 
Monmouth. 69. 211, 300, 359 
Monroe County, 58, 303, 356 
Montana. 193 

Montgomerv County, 210. 303, 356 
Monticello, 4, 289, 357 
Morgan County, 113, 291, 356 
Morgan Park, 277 
Morris, 50, 281, 352 
Morrison, 299, 359 
Mosier, J. G , 168 

Moultrie County, 179, 206, 303, 356 
Mound Citv, 6, 61. 306, 357 
Mounds, 65', 306, 357 
Mount Carmel, 309, 359 
Mount Carroll. 294. 348 
Mount Forest Island. 46 
Mount Olive, 303, 355 
Mount Pulaski. 289. 354 
Mount Sterling. 4, 287, 348 
Mount Vernon, 6, 56, 304, 352 
Mulberrv, 102. 108; white, 108 
Mules, 186, 187, 188, 189, 204 
Murphysboro, 56, 305, 352 
Muskrat, 115, 119, 136 

Naperville, 279, 351 

Naples, 286, 358 

Nashville, 304. 359 

National Old Trails Road, 244 

Natural gas, 24, 199. 207-10. 215 

Nauvoo, 232, 241. 249, 300, 352 

Nebraska, 169, 173 

Neoga, 309, 350 

New Athens, 303, 358 

Newberry Library, 270 

New Orleans, 202, 255 

New Salem, 330. 357 

New Salem Park, 330 

Newton, 59, 309 

New York, 173, 177, 220, 255, 257, 258; 

Buffalo, 257 
Nitrogen, 152, 153, 154, 155, 157, 158, 

160 
Nokomis, 303, 356 
Normal, 6, 124, 289, 336, 337, 355 
North Chicago, 273, 354 



INDEX 



381 



North Dakota, 173 

Northern Illinois State Normal School, 

297, 336 
Northwestern University, 265, 270, 274, 

339 
Nuts, 169 

Oak Park, 223, 225, 2 70, 277, 278, 2 79, 350 

Oaks, 102, 109 

Oats, 84, 89, 112, 166, 169, 170-73, 175 

Oblong, 209, 309, 350 

Odd Fellows Orphans' Home, 289 

Odin, 304, 355 

Odin Experiment Field, 163, 304 

O'Fallon, 303, 358 

Ogle County, 6, 21, 29, 48, 102, 109, 297, 
330, 356 

Oglesby, 212,282. 288, 354 

Ohio, 31, 59, 93, 112, 173, 193, 199, 202 

Ohio River, 4, 23, 24, 25, 37, 38, 39, 48, 
59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 75, 95, 101, 126, 
128, 214, 229, 230, 231, 232, 238, 248, 
252, 293, 305, 306, 307, 328, 329 

Ohio River basin, 60-61, 103, 293, 329; 
area. 60; tributaries, 60-61 

Okaw River. See Kaskaskia 

Oklahoma, 179, 262 

Olney, 60, 107, 309, 357 

Opossum, 116, 118, 121 

Oquawka, 251, 300, 352 

Orchards, HI. 118. 119, 140 

Ordinance of 1787, 1 

Ordovician rocks, 20, 21 

Oregon, 47, 297, 357 

Ottawa, 5,21, 29, 50, 200, 213, 244, 282, 
327, 329, 354 

Otter, 115, 117, 121, 136 

Outwash plains, 29 

Oxygen, 152 

Ozark Plateau, 38, 305 

Ozark Ridge, 23, 24, 26, 29, 37, 38, 39, 
56, 58, 60, 61-64, 81, 97, 102, 188, 230, 
305-7; altitude, 61; area, 61, 62; 
effect of topography, climate and soil 
of this region on products, 63; erosion, 
63; limestone, 63; location, 61; pro- 
ducts, 63 

Pacific Ocean, 60, 262 

Palatine, 278. 350 

Paleozoic Era, 17, 18, 25 

Palmyra, 249, 355 

Pana, 303, 349 

Panther, 117 

Paris 308, 351 

Park Ridge, 276, 350 

Pawpaw, 104 

Paxton, 307, 351 

Pearl, 286, 357 

Pearls, 128 

Peat, 152, 154, 157; peaty loams, 152, 

154 
Pecatonica River, 46, 294, 295 
Pekin, 50, 52,53, 113, 126,222,223,225, 

226,251, 281,286, 359 
Pelicans, 118 



Pennsylvania, 173, 199, 202, 203, 208, 
211, 220, 262 

Pennsylvanian rocks, 23-24, 25 

People, 115, 116, 129-47; coming of the 
white man, 129, 135-47; life of the 
Indians, 115, 129-34, 135, 137; white 
man, 116. 129, 135-47 

Peoria, 49, 50, 53, 73, 75, 126, 144, 145, 
221, 222, 223, 224, 227, 230, 231, 232, 
244. 250, 251, 281, 282, 284, 286, 290, 
300, 318,330,357 

Peoria County, 32, 56, 206, 240, 284, 357 

Peoria Heights, 282, 284, 357 

Peorias, 130, 131, 132 

Permanent settler. 135, 136, 139 

Permian period, 24 

Perry, 241, 357 

Perry County. 112, 304, 357 

Perryville, 249 

Persimmon, 104 

Peru, 5, 50, 214, 233, 250. 282, 354 

Petersburg, 4, 289, 291, 330 

Petroleum, 16, 18, 23. 24, 199, 207-10, 
215,222,226,227,302,309; produc- 
tion of. Table VII, 209 

Phosphorus, 152, 153, 154, 155, 157, 158, 
160, 162 

Piankashaws, 130, 143 

Piatt County, 4, 179, 289, 357 

Pigeon, 115; passenger, 115 

Pike County, 29, 31, 49, 58, 64, 83, 86, 
210, 241, 301,357 

Pincknevville, 56, 304, 357 

Pine, 101; jack, 101; shortleaf, 101; 
white, 101 

Pine Creek, 109 

Pioneers, 93, 99-101, 135, 140-47; 
nativity of, 143 

Pittsfield, 301, 357 

Pleasant Hill, 86, 357 

Plum, 103 

Plum River, 58 

Polecat, 118 

Ponds, 111, 118 

Pontiac, 52, 288, 354 

Pope County, 17, 19, 23, 24, 39, 60, 62, 
63, 212, 305, 357 

Pope Creek, 58 

Poorland Farm, 163 

Poplar, 102, 111; Cottonwood, 102, HI; 
largetooth aspen, 102; swamp cotton- 
wood, 102; trembling aspen, 102; 
tulip, 102 

Population, 7. 8, 13, 36, 140-47, 149, 
191, 310, 315, 345-62; counties of 
1818, 140; density of, in 1818. 141; 
density of 1790-1920, 146; of 1818, 
140-43 

Potassium, 152, 153, 154, 155, 157, 158, 
160. 164; salts, 153 

Potato, 112, 171, 177-78, 179, 193; 
Irish, 112, 177-78; sweet, 178 

Pottawatomies, 130, 131, 143 

Pottery, 23, 36, 133, 134, 210, 211, 291, 
300; Indian, 133, 134 



382 



INDEX 



Poultry, 115, 118, 119, 120, 186. 193-95; 
chickens, 193; ducks, 115, 118, 120, 
193, 195; geese, 118, 120, 193, 195; 
guinea fowls, 193; peafowls, 193; 
pheasants, 193; pigeons, 193; tur- 
keys, 115, 119, 120, 193 

Power, 217, 226-27, 235, 238, 249, 279, 

281, 299, 300; animal, 238; hydro- 
electric, 235, 279; steam, 238; water, 
217, 281, 299, 300; wind, 217 

Praiiie chicken, 115, 119, 120 

Prairie du Pont Creek, 59 

Prairie du Rocher, 59, 137, i29, 357 

Prairie land, 37, 48, 92, 93, 95, 99, 110- 
13, 114, 115, 116. 119, 124, 129, 140, 
141, 144, 145, 149, 153, 154, 157, 161, 
163, 221, 228, 239, 240, 268; breaking 
up prairie land, 112, 116; difficulty of 
settlement, 92; meaning of, 110; 
theories concerning origin of, 110; 
upland, 113, 114 

Prairie State, 65,93, 101, 109 

Pre-Iowan glaciation, 29, 31 

Princeton, 287, 348 

Pulaski County, 6, 24, 60, 63, 182, 306, 
357 

Putnam County, 49, 240. 345, 357 

Pyrite, 199, 213 

Quail, 119, 120 

Quincy, 4, 58, HI, 223, 225, 253, 300, 
326,348 

Rabbit, 118, 119, 121 

Raccoon, 116, 118, 136 

Railroads, 35, 36, 42, 46, 53, 59, 64, 109, 
146, 147, 202, 206, 212, 214, 217, 218, 
219, 226, 227, 228, 231, 232, 238-42, 
247, 250, 251, 252, 253. 256, 258, 260, 
262, 268, 269, 270, 271, 273, 279, 280, 
286, 287, 288, 289, 291, 294, 300, 301, 
302, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308; building, 
36; Chicago and Alton, 35; Chicago 
and Eastern Illinois, 206; Chicago 
and Joliet electric, 35; Chicago. Burl- 
ington and Quincy, 109, 206; effect 
of Ozark Ridge on, 64; electric inter- 
urban, 217, 241-42, 247, 256, 270, 279, 

282, 308; elevated, 269, 279; Illinois 
Central, 206. 308; influence of surface 
on development of, 42, 64; mileage, 
13, 36; Santa Fe, 35; service to 
suburbs of Chicago. 46; St. Louis, 
Iron Mountain, and Southern, 59; 
The Big Four, 206, 308 

Randolph County. 4, 55. 58. 59, 82, 137, 
210, 248, 303, 304, 329. 345. 357 

Rantoul, 246, 307, 349 

Rats, 117, 121 

Raw materials, 217, 218, 220, 221, 222, 
227,249. 253, 262, 263 

Red bud. 104 

Reptiles, 115, 119, 125; blue racer, 125 
bull snake, 125; garter snake, 125 
grass snake, 125; moccasins, 125 
rattlesnake, 125; turtles, 125 



Richland County, 39, 59, 107, 124, 357 

Ridgway, Mr. Robert, 107, 108, 109, 
124, 309 

Riley, 78, 348 

Riprap, 212 

River Forest, 278, 279, 350 

River gaps. 59 

Riverside, 270, 277, 279, 350 

River terrace, 281 

Roads, 16, 36, 37,42, 64, 112. 212, 213, 
228, 229, 243, 244, 247, 296, 332; 
influence of surface on development 
of, 37, 42, 64; natural, 112; road- 
making materials, 16, 36, 212, 213 

Robinson, 209, 309, 350 

Rochelle, 6, 297, 357 

Rock Falls, 47, 299,359 

Rockford, 5, 46, 47, 223, 224, 294-95, 

297, 360 

Rock Island, 8, 23, 30, 46, 47, 58, 133 
202, 222. 223, 225, 235, 299, 358 

Rock Island County, 23, 47, 58, 138 
299. 357 

Rock phosphate. 155. 163 

Rock River, 18, 20, 46-48, 58, 295, 296, 

298, 299; length, 46; mouth, 46; 
source, 46 

Rock River basin, 31, 46-48, 101, 102, 
293,294-99; area of, 46; cities of, 47; 
effect of glaciation upon, 47-48; 
tributaries, 46; width of, 46 

Rocks, 16, 17, 24, 27, 28, 48, 152, 198, 
207, 212, 215, 296; bed, 16, 27, 28, 
48, 207; gorges, 48; igneous, 17; 
impervious, 207; mantle, 16, 27, 28, 
296; metamorphic, 17; outcrops, 21, 
152,212; sedimentary. 1 7 ; siliceous 215 

Rockton. 46 

Rogers Park. 275 

Roodhouse. 291. 352 

Rosiclare. 214. 232, 305, 306, SSI 

Rubble, 212 

Rushville, 287, 358 

Rye, 112, 169, 175 

Sacs and Foxes, 130. 131, 132, 133, 143 

Sag. The. 45 

St. Charles, 52, 280.337,353 

St. Clair County, 55, 58, 59, 137. 173, 

202, 206. 246, 301, 302, 303, 318, 358 
St. Joseph River, 136 
Salem, 6, 304, 356 
Saline County, 17, 26. 61, 305, 358 
Saline River, 36. 60, 61, 63, 64, 142, 305 
Saline River basin, 60, 62, 305 
Salt, 305 
Sand, 16,24,29,35,36,44,45, 113, 157. 

199,213,215; sand deposits, 35, 113; 

sand dunes, 44, 45 
Sandoval, 214, 356 
Sandstone, 19, 21, 23, 24, 29. 50. 213; 

Potsdam, 19, 21; St. Peter, 29, 213 
Sand vegetation, 113-14; Amboy area, 

114; Havana area, 113; Kankakee 

area, 114; Oquaka area, 113 



INDEX 



383 



Sandwich, 280, 350 

Sangamon County, 144, 157, 290, 358 

Sangamon River, 49, 52, 119, 289, 330 

Sassafras, 102 

Savanna, 294, 348 

Sawmills, 95, 145 

Schuyler County, 4, 52, 287, 358 

Scott Aviation Field, 246, 302 

Scott County, 291, 358 

Second principal meridian, 138 

Seneca, 281 

Sewer pipe, 23, 210, 211, 291 

Shabbona Park, 329, 350 

Shaft mines, 203, 204 

Shales, 23, 24,212,215 

Shawnees, 130 

Shawneetown, 16, 137, 139, 214, 230. 
251, 305, 306 

Sheep, 117, 140, 186, 192-93; breeds 
of, 193 

Shelby County, 6, 55, 179, 303, 358 

Shelbyville, 55, 56, 303, 358 

Shelbyville moraine, 27, 55, 56, 60 

Shoal Creek, 55, 142 

Shurtleff College, 301 

Silurian rocks, 21-22 

Silver, 198, 199, 213-14 

Sink holes, 58, 63, 64 

Skillet Fork, 36, 60 

Skokie Marsh, 114 

Sleet, 87, 89; "sleet storms," 87, 89 

Slope mines, 203, 204 

Soil, 6, 16, 36, 52, 115, 129, 148-64, 166, 
168, 171, 173, 175, 178, 197, 212; 
agricultural experiment fields, 158-61; 
and its conservation, 148-64; areas, 
152, 155; fertiUty in Illinois, 149, 150, 
155-58; glacial soil, 6, 36; greatest 
mineral resource, 16; humus, 173; 
importance of, 148; importance of 
products of, 148; loess, 31; map, 152; 
population and, 148-49; required 
plant food, 152-55; sand ridge, 153, 
154, 157, 173; subsurface, 151; 
surface, 151, 157; surveys, 149-52, 
160; types, 150, 152, 155, 157 

South Chicago, 45, 210, 275 

South Dakota, 173 

Southern Illinois State Normal Uni- 
versity, 305, 336 

Sparrow, 124 

Sparta, 304, 357 

Split Rock, 18, 207 

Spoon River, 52 

Spring Bay, 252, 360 

Springfield, 4, 11, 52, 69, 73, 89, 90, 144, 
214, 223, 224, 239, 244, 248, 250, 289, 
290-91, 306, 314, 315, 318, 329, 330, 

Springvalley, 6, 50, 282. 348 

Squirrel, 117, 119, 121; fox, 117; gray, 

117 
Stark County, 287, 358 
Starved Rock, 50, 130, 131, 238, 248, 

327-28 



State Aid Roads, 244 

State buildings, 314-15; Capitol, 314, 
318; Centennial Memorial Building, 
315; Governor's Mansion, 315; State 
Fair Grounds, 315; Supreme Court 
Building, 314 

State College of Agriculture, 148, 150, 
152, 155, 159, 161; agriculture experi- 
ment fields, 158-61; grain system of 
farming, 159, 161; live-stock system 
of farming, 159, 161; Urbana experi- 
ment field. 148, 150, 152 

State Historical Society. 330 

State Institutions, 324-26 

State Laboratory of Natural History, 
101 

.State legislature, 314, 317, 318, 327, 330, 
Hi 

State Natural History Museum, 107, 
198; specimens of native trees, 107 

Staunton, 301, 303, 355 

Steamboat, 228, 230, 231, 232, 246, 250, 
251 

Steel, 210 

Stephenson County, 18, 21, 29, 48, 58, 
64, 78, 207, 294, 358 

Sterling, 47, 48, 299, 359 

Stratford, 109 

Streator, 5, 52, 213, 223, 225, 282, 288, 
354 

Sugar, 176-77, 258; crops, 176-77 

Sugar River, 295 

Sullivan, 303 

Sulphur, 152, 153, 213 

Sulphuric acid, 199, 213 

Sumacs, 104 

Summer resorts, 53 

Summit, 44, 45, 255, 350 

Sumner, 309, 354 

Surface, 37-65, 115, 129, 166, 197, 217, 
239, 254, 286, 288; general surface 
features, 37-42; other rugged areas, 
64; Ozark Ridge, 61-64 

Swamplands, 113-14, 120, 153, 155, 164; 
peaty, 153, 155; vegetation of, 113-14 

Swans, 118 

Sycamore, 103, 109, 111, 297 

Sycamore (town), 78, 350 

Tamarack, 102 

Tamaroas, 130, 131 

Taylorville, 291, 349 

Tazewell County, 35, 113. 153,240,289, 

359 
Tennessee River, 75 
Tertiary, 24 
Te.xas, 93, 178, 241 
Thebes, 306, 348 

Third principal meridian, 5, 8, 138 
Thorn tree, 103 

Tile, 23, 36, 210, 211; draintile, 36, 211 
Timothy, 89 
Tobacco, 222 
Toledo, 309, 350 
Tonti, 327 



384 



INDEX 



Tornadoes, 85-87, 89; Mattoon, 87; 
St. Louis, 85 

Toulon, 287, 358 

Tower Hill, 55, 358 

Townships, 138, 143 

Trading posts, 136 

Transportation, 53, 146, 214, 219, 222, 
228-47, 249, 250, 251, 252, 257, 260, 
261, 268, 285, 288, 292, 302, 315; air, 
244-46; canals, 214, 233-37; develop- 
ment of, 228-29; early, 229-30; 
electric railroads, 241-42; Illinois 
waterway, 238; lake commerce, 238; 
public highways, 242-44; river, 214, 
230-32; steam railroads, 214, 238-41 

Tripoli, 199. 214-15 

Tunnel Hill, 64 

Turtles, 115, 125, 126; river turtles, 126 

Tuscola, 59, 308, 350 

Union County, 23, 24, 60, 61, 62, 81, 

101, 182, 305, 359 
United States Arsenal, 299 
United States Census of 1910, 168, 187, 

189, 197 
United States Census Reports, 147, 181, 

222, 310, 345 
United States Naval Radio School, 274 
United States Steel Corporation, 275 
University of Chicago, 265, 270, 339 
University of Illinois, 308, 336-37 
Upper Alton, 301 
Urbana, 4, 59, 148, 150, 152, 159, 303, 

308, 336, 349; e.xperiment fiekl, 150. 

152 
Utica, 18, 20, 207, 212, 238, 282, 327 

Valleys, 25, 37, 38, 42, 47, 53, 54, 55, 56, 
60, 62, 63, 64, 101, 234; mature, 25, 
56; preglacial, 47, 234; prevention of 
valley systems, 64; postglacial, 48; 
stream, 42, 53, 55, 60, 62; trenches, 
37; tributary valleys of the Illinois, 54 

Valley trains, 29, 213 

Valparaiso moraine, 27, 32, ii. 43, 44, 
46, 48, 52, 53, 256 

Vandalia, 6, 55, 248, 303, 314, 351 

Vegetables, 133, 139, 154, 178-79 

\egetation, native, 92-114, 115, 116, 
139; forests, 92, 93-99; list of trees 
native to Illinois, 104-7; native trees, 
101-9; prairies, 111-13; sand and 
swamp vegetation, 113-14; vegeta- 
tion areas, 92; white pine forest, 109 

Venice, 59, 302, 355 

Venison, 133 

Vermilion County, 4, 138, 211. 213, 308, 
359 

Vermilion River, 52, 59, 138, 282, 288, 307 

Viburnums, 104 

Vienna, 6. 305, 353 

Vincennes Tract, 138 

Virden, 291, 355 

Virginia, 291, 349 



Wabash County, 89, 309, 359 

Wabash River, 4, 25, 31, 36, 52. 59, 60, 

75, 95, 101, 102, 112. 126, 128, 142, 

229, 230, 293, 305, 309, 310 
Wabash River Basin, 55, 59-60, 103, 

136, 293, 303, 307-10; area, 59; 

source, 59; topography, 60; trib- 
utaries. 59 
Wahoo, 104 

Walnut, 102, 109; black, 102 
War of 1812, 138 
Warren County, 69, 211, 300, 359 
Warsaw, 58, 300, 352 
Washington, 173, 289, 359 
Washington County. 112, 304, 359 
Washington Park, 2 70 
Water gaps, 58 
Waterloo, 55, 303 
Water-shed, 55 
Watertown, 299 
Watseka, 280 
Waukegan, 219, 223, 224, 229, 261, 271, 

273, 279, 354 
Wavne County, 83, 309, 359 
Wealth, 36, 218; rank in, 36 
Weapons, 116, 136; bow and arrow, 136; 

gun and ammunition, 136 
Weas, 130 
Weather bureau, 68, 72-76, 77, 84, 85, 

87, 88, 89; climatological data, 76, 77; 

co-operative stations, 74, 75; stations, 

72-76; weather records, 76 
West Blufls, 285 
West Chicago, 2 79, 351 
Western Illinois State Normal School, 

287, 336 
Western Military Academy, 302 
West Hammond, 277, 350 
Westville, 308, 359 
West Virginia, 199, 202 
Wheat, 84, 89, 112, 113, 163, 166, 169, 

170, 173-74, 175, 176, 177, 193, 258 
Wheaton, 279, 351 
Wheaton College, 2 79 
White County, 4, 60, 89, 206, 310, 359 
Whitehall, 210, 291, 352 
White man, 135-47; Indian and white 

man, 135; population of 1818, 141-44; 

settlement of central and northern 

Illinois, 144-47; the explorers, 135- 

37; the fur trade, 135, 137-38; the 

pioneer, 135, 140-41 
White pine forest, 109, 330 
White Pine Forest Association, 109 
Whiteside County, 48, 58, 294, 299, 359 
Wild cat, 117, 137 
Wild flowers, 109 
Wild game, 115, 120, 136, 141 
Will County, 11, 28, 32, 43, 87, 238, 254. 

279, 288, 360 
William's Hill, 39, 62 
Williamson County, 6, 26, 61, 304, 305, 

360 
Wilmette, 87, 274, 350 
Wilmington, 280, 352 



IXDEX 



385 



Winchester. 291, 358 

Winnebago County, 6, 294. 295, 360 

Winnebagoes, 130, 132, 133, 143 

Winnetka,44,46, 274, 350 

Wisconsin, 1,8, 18, 19,21, 25, 29, 30. 46, 

47, 48, 49, 50, 55. 65. 73, 93, 177, 178, 
190, 191, 213, 221, 239, 244, 271, 278, 
331; Beloit, 5,47; Fort Shelby, 331; 
Green Bay, 25; Janesville, 47; Mil- 
waukee, 271; source of Des Plaines 
River, 49; source of Fox River, 46, 50 

Wisconsin glaciation, 27. 29, 31, 32-33, 

48, 54, 55, 56, 60, 157, 168; Blooming- 
ton moraine, 32, 48; Cerro Gordo 
moraine, 32; Champaign moraine. 32; 
Chatsworth ridge, 32; Cropsey ridge, 
32; early Wisconsin glaciation, 32, 
54, 56, 60, 157; glacial lakes, 33; 
ground moraines, 33; late Wisconsin 
glaciation, 32, 54, 60; Marseilles 
moraine, 32; Minooka ridge, 32; 



moraines. 32. 54; Shelby ville moraine, 
32; Valparaiso moraine, 32, 48; Wis- 
consin drift, 31, 32 

Witchhazel, 104 

Witt, 303 

Wolf, 115, 116. 117, 119 

Wolf Lake, 45, 101 

Woodford County. 6, 240, 252, 288, 360 

Wood River, 302 

Wood.stock, 297, 355 

Wool, 193 

Wyoming, 287, 358 

Wyoming (state), 193 

Yorkville, 69. 280 

Young Men's Christian Association, 266 

Zinc, 16, 21, 23, 199, 213-14, 215, 218, 

222, 227, 262, 282,294, 302 
Zion City, 249, 272,354 



GB 


Ridgley 




4 


126 








. 16 


The geogra 


phy 


of 


R4 3 


I llinois 







GB 
126 
. 16 
R43 



43584 



Ridgley 



43584 



The geography of 
I llinois 



SAUK VALLEY COLLEGE LIBRARY 
Dixon, IL 61021 



SAUK VALLEY CC LIBRARY 



3 1516 00017 5149 



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